Educator Guideto the Regents Examinationin United States History and Government(Framework)First AdministrationJune 2021

Regents of The UniversityBETTY A. ROSA, Chancellor, B.A., M.S. in Ed., M.S. in Ed., M.Ed., Ed.D. .T. ANDREW BROWN, Vice Chancellor, B.A., J.D. .ROGER TILLES, B.A., J.D. .LESTER W. YOUNG, JR., B.S., M.S., Ed.D. .CHRISTINE D. CEA, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. .WADE S. NORWOOD, B.A. .KATHLEEN M. CASHIN, B.S., M.S., Ed.D. .JAMES E. COTTRELL, B.S., M.D. .JOSEPHINE VICTORIA FINN, B.A., J.D. .JUDITH CHIN, M.S. in Ed. .BEVERLY L. OUDERKIRK, B.S. in Ed., M.S. in Ed. .CATHERINE COLLINS, R.N., N.P., B.S., M.S. in Ed., Ed.D. .JUDITH JOHNSON, B.A., M.A., C.A.S. .NAN EILEEN MEAD, B.A. .ELIZABETH S. HAKANSON, A.S., M.S., C.A.S. .LUIS O. REYES, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. .SUSAN W. MITTLER, B.S., M.S. .BronxRochesterGreat NeckBeechhurstStaten IslandRochesterBrooklynNew YorkMonticelloLittle NeckMorristownBuffaloNew HempsteadManhattanSyracuseNew YorkIthacaInterim Commissioner of Education and President of The UniversityELIZABETH R. BERLINExecutive Deputy CommissionerELIZABETH R. BERLINDeputy Commissioner, Office of Instructional ServicesKIMBERLY WILKINSAssistant Commissioner, Office of State AssessmentSTEVEN E. KATZDirector, Office of State AssessmentZACHARY WARNERThe State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteranstatus, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs,services and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print oraudio tape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Department’s Office forDiversity and Access, Room 530, Education Building, Albany, NY 12234.United States History and Government (Framework) Educator Guide2

Table of ContentsForeword . 4New York State K-12 Social Studies Framework . 5Social Studies Practices Grades 9-12 . 5Curriculum and Instruction Decisions. 8Introduction to the Regents Examination in United States History and Government (Framework) . 9Policy-Level Performance Level Definitions . 10Performance-Level Descriptors . 11Test Design and Weighting of Parts . 21Question Formats . 22 Part I—Stimulus-Based Multiple-Choice Questions . 22 Part II—Stimulus-Based Short-Essay Questions . 28 Part III—Civic Literacy Document-Based Essay . 33Resources . 34Addendum: Prototypes for Part I, Part II, and Part III . 35Rubrics for Part II Prototypes . 67Rubrics for Part III Prototypes . 75United States History and Government (Framework) Educator Guide3

ForewordThe New York State Board of Regents adopted the New York State K-12 Social Studies Framework inApril 2014. The Framework is intended to enrich pedagogy and student learning. As a result of theadoption of the NYS K-12 Framework, the New York State Education Department (NYSED) is committedto a revision of the current state assessment program for United States History and Government to measureGrade 11 content and skills.The adoption of the NYS K-12 Social Studies Framework signaled the need for educators to shiftinstruction to prepare students for the rigor of the content and skills presented in the Framework. TheOffice of State Assessment worked with members of the Social Studies Content Advisory Panel and otherNYS Social Studies educators to develop the Regents Examination in United States History andGovernment. This team worked together to develop claims, evidence, performance-level descriptions(PLDs), and new question types for the new assessment. They also created the task models being used todevelop the Part I Multiple-Choice Questions, the Part II Short Essay Questions, and the Part III CivicLiteracy Essay.United States History and Government (Framework) Educator Guide4

K–12 Social Studies FrameworkSocial Studies is intended to promote civic competence through the integrated study of the social sciencesand humanities. Within the school program, Social Studies provides coordinated, systematic study thatdraws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy,political science, psychology, religion, belief systems, and sociology, as well as upon appropriate contentfrom the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of Social Studies is to helpyoung people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens ofa culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world (adapted from the National Council forthe Social Studies [NCSS] definition of Social Studies).The Social Studies Framework allows for: Students to develop an understanding of concepts and key ideas through inquiry, analysis of primaryand secondary source documents, and application of disciplinary skills and practicesStudents to be assessed on their understanding of key ideas and conceptual understandings as well asSocial Studies practicesDistricts and teachers to continue to have decision-making power about how to teach and illustratekey ideas and conceptual understandings to promote student understandingThe NYS K–12 Social Studies Framework (2014) can be found -k-12-social-studies-framework.Social Studies Practices Grades 9-12A. Gathering, Interpreting, and Using Evidence1. Define and frame questions about events and the world in which we live, form hypotheses aspotential answers to these questions, use evidence to answer these questions, and consider andanalyze counter hypotheses.2. Identify, describe, and evaluate evidence about events from diverse sources (including writtendocuments, works of art, photographs, charts and graphs, artifacts, oral traditions, and otherprimary and secondary sources).3. Analyze evidence in terms of content, authorship, point of view, bias, purpose, format, andaudience.4. Describe, analyze, and evaluate arguments of others.5. Make inferences and draw conclusions from evidence.6. Deconstruct and construct plausible and persuasive arguments using evidence.7. Create meaningful and persuasive understandings of the past by fusing disparate and relevantevidence from primary and secondary sources and drawing connections to the present.United States History and Government (Framework) Educator Guide5

B. Chronological Reasoning and Causation1. Articulate how events are related chronologically to one another in time and explain the waysin which earlier ideas and events may influence subsequent ideas and events.2. Identify causes and effects using examples from different time periods and courses of studyacross several grade levels.3. Identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationship between multiple causes and effects.4. Distinguish between long-term and immediate causes and multiple effects (time, continuity,and change).5. Recognize, analyze, and evaluate dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods oftime and investigate factors that caused those changes over time.6. Recognize that choice of specific periodization favors or advantages one narrative, region, orgroup over another narrative, region, or group.7. Relate patterns of continuity and change to larger historical processes and themes.8. Describe, analyze, evaluate, and construct models of historical periodization that historians useto categorize events.C. Comparison and Contextualization1. Identify similarities and differences between geographic regions across historical time periodsand relate differences in geography to different historical events and outcomes.2. Identify, compare, and evaluate multiple perspectives on a given historical experience.3. Identify and compare similarities and differences between historical developments over timeand in different geographical and cultural contexts.4. Describe, compare, and evaluate multiple historical developments (within societies; across andbetween societies; in various chronological and geographical contexts).5. Recognize the relationship between geography, economics, and history as a context for eventsand movements and as a matrix of time and place.6. Connect historical developments to specific circumstances of time and place and to broaderregional, national, or global processes and draw connections to the present (where appropriate).D. Geographic Reasoning1. Ask geographic questions about where places are located, why their locations are important,and how their locations are related to the locations of other places and people.2. Identify, describe, and evaluate the relationships between people, places, regions, andenvironments by using geographic tools to place them in a spatial context.3. Identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationship between the environment and human activities,how the physical environment is modified by human activities, and how human activities arealso influenced by Earth’s physical features and processes.4. Recognize and interpret (at different scales) the relationships between patterns and processes.5. Recognize and analyze how place and region influence the social, cultural, and economiccharacteristics of civilizations.6. Characterize and analyze changing connections between places and regions.United States History and Government (Framework) Educator Guide6

E. Economics and Economics Systems1. Use marginal benefits and marginal costs to construct an argument for or against an approachor solution to an economic issue.2. Analyze the ways in which incentives influence what is produced and distributed in a marketsystem.3. Evaluate the extent to which competition between sellers and between buyers exists in specificmarkets.4. Describe concepts of property rights and rule of law as they apply to a market economy.5. Use economic indicators to analyze the current and future state of the economy.6. Analyze government economic policies and the effects on the national and global economy.F. Civic Participation1. Demonstrate respect for the rights of others in discussions and classroom debates; respectfullydisagree with other viewpoints and provide evidence for a counterargument.2. Participate in activities that focus on a classroom, school, community, state, or national issue orproblem.3. Explain differing philosophies of social and political participation and the role of the individualleading to group-driven philosophies.4. Identify, describe, and contrast the roles of the individual in opportunities for social andpolitical participation in different societies.5. Participate in persuading, debating, negotiating, and compromising in the resolution ofconflicts and differences.6. Identify situations in which social actions are required and determine an appropriate course ofaction.7. Work to influence those in positions of power to strive for extensions of freedom, socialjustice, and human rights.8. Fulfill social and political responsibilities associated with citizenship in a democratic societyand interdependent global community by developing awareness of and/or engaging in thepolitical process.United States History and Governmen