CITEIT RIGHTGuide to HarvardReferencing StyleFourth Edition20161

Contents11. AN INTRODUCTIONESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF REFERENCINGPLAGIARISMHARVARD (NAME-DATE) REFERENCING STYLEREFERENCING STYLES BY DISCIPLINE OR SUBJECT1122222.12.22.3HOW TO CITERULES FOR IN-TEXT CITINGCITING AUTHORS IN-TEXTW HEN AND HOW TO QUOTE445733.13.2REFERENCE LIST & BIBLIOGRAPHYRULES FOR REFERENCING:REFERENCING ELECTRONIC OF SAMPLE REFERENCESARTICLESJournal ArticleMagazine – PrintMagazine – ElectronicNewspaper – PrintNewspaper – ElectronicBOOKSSacred BooksBook with One AuthorBook with More than One AuthorBook – Chapter or ContributionBook – CompiledBook – EditedE-book: PDF Version of a Printed BookE-book: Available Online OnlyE-book: Chapter or Contribution (Online Only)E-book: Accessed via an E-readerAudiobookBook ReviewBook with No Title – Working TitleBook with No Author e.g. Reference Works121212131414141515151616171718181919202021212

Email or MemoPersonal InterviewLetter – including Historical ArchivesSMS Text MessageInstant Messaging (IM)COURSE MATERIALCourse Material – PrintCourse Material – ElectronicLecture NotesPublic FolderDATAPublished Dataset – PrintPublished Dataset – ElectronicUnpublished DataELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONBlog (Weblog)Social Media & Networking Sites (including Facebook)TwitterDiscussion Board / ForumMailing ListWeb Document with an AuthorWeb Document with No Author and No DateWebpage of an Organisation or CompanyWikiIMAGESImage – Published in PrintImage – ElectronicMap – PrintMap – ElectronicArtwork – PhysicalArtwork – ElectronicLAW AND OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONSActJudgementEU DirectiveStatutory InstrumentOfficial Guidance NoteMEDIAPress 28282929303030313132323333333434353535 / Television – Interview or ContributionRadio / Television – ProgrammeRadio / Television – AdvertisementSpeech Delivered LiveSpeech Accessed after the EventFilm on Disk / Storage Device / StreamingMicrofilm / Microfiche / CD ROMPodcastOnline VideoMUSICAL W ORKSRecordings – Commercial AudioSheet MusicPAPERSCase StudyConference Paper – PublishedConference Paper – UnpublishedConference PosterPre-PrintWorking PaperSlideshare PresentationREPORTSPublished ReportUnpublished ReportAnnual ReportTECHNICAL / COMMERCIAL / anslated 444545454646464655. SOFTWAREENDNOTE DESKTOPENDNOTE ONLINEBIBTEXMENDELEYZOTERO4747474747484

1Referencing: An IntroductionReferencing acknowledges the books, articles, websites, and anyother material used in the writing of a paper, essay or thesis.1.1 Essential Elements of Referencing Citing: referring to sources you quote within your document.This brief citation refers the reader to the exact place in yourreference list or bibliography where you will provide theextended details of the source. Reference list: the detailed list of sources that have beencited within the text. Every reference must have enoughinformation for the reader to find the source again. Bibliography: a list of all references consulted in preparingthe document, whether cited or not.This is an example of in-text citing (citations are in bold fordemonstration only):The early 21st century has seen the development of a globalepidemic of obesity, as emphasised by a growing body of articles,popular books, and most recently the movie Supersize Me(Spurlock 2004). To prevent obesity, habits need to be changedand dietary education as part of the school curriculum is key(MacDonald 1997, p.78). It is clear that to decrease obesity levelsin populations, significant sociological changes will need to takeplace.This is how the entries would look in your reference list:Macdonald, G. (1997) ‘Innovation diffusion and health education inschools’, in Sidell, M., Jones, L., Katz, J. and Peberdy, A.,eds., Debates and dilemmas in promoting health, London:Open University, 55-83.Spurlock, M. (2004) Supersize me: a film of epic proportions [film],Beverly Hills: Roadside Attractions.1

1.2 PlagiarismPassing off another scholar’s work as your own is plagiarism and isconsidered a major disciplinary offence. Read more about plagiarismin Chapter 6 and Appendix 3 of the UL Student is used at the University of Limerick to check forinstances of plagiarism in students’ work. Check with your departmentwith any questions about the use of Turnitin.1.3 Harvard (Name-Date) Referencing StyleMany departments in the University of Limerick recommend a stylebased on the Harvard (Name-Date) referencing style. This guide givesyou a version of Harvard based on ISO 690:2010 and BS 5605:1990approved by UL, hereafter called Harvard UL. However, you shouldcheck which style or variation your department recommends (seesection 1.4). Whatever referencing style you choose to follow youmust ensure: Consistent application of the rules of whatever variation youare following Acknowledgement of all sources Sufficient bibliographic detail to enable your reader to locatethe item to which you are referring.1.4 Referencing Styles by Discipline or SubjectIn addition to the Harvard UL style, there are several other styles usedin the University of Limerick as other styles are more appropriate tospecific disciplines or subjects such as: History – The Irish Historical Society (IHS). See the Rules forContributors on Law – OSCOLA Ireland based on the OSCOLA (OxfordStandard for Citation of Legal Authorities) standard. See for more information.2

Culture and communication – MLA Style (Modern LanguageAssociation) Psychology – APA Style (American PsychologicalAssociation)There are thousands of other referencing styles including: ASME Citation Style (American Society of MechanicalEngineers) Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Citation Style IEEE (Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers) Vancouver Citation StyleIf submitting a paper to a publisher, you should check with them to seeif there is a particular style that they would like you to use.The Glucksman Library’s Referencing & EndNote LibGuide providesmore information on the different referencing styles and EndNotebibliographic management software at This guide is also availableelectronically in HTML and PDF at can direct referencing queries or comments to the InformationDesk, your Faculty Librarian or via Ask Us – Tell Us on the librarywebsite:

2How to CiteYou must cite the sources you use in your work within the text of yourpaper. This brief citation refers the reader to the exact place in yourreference list or bibliography where you will provide the extendeddetails of the source.2.1 Rules for In-Text CitingAuthor(s) name: Use surname only.Use both authors’ surnames linked by ‘and’ for 2 authors. Use firstauthor’s surname and et al. for 3 or more authors. If citing multiplesources at same time, list in chronological order and alphabeticallythereafter for sources sharing the same year. (See examples insection 2.2).Year: Give full four digits for year.Pages/Point: Abbreviate to p. for single page and pp. for page range.Give full numbers for page range.You will see all of the following variations when page numbers arecited. All are valid. Quote from a single page: (Critser 2003, p.31) Quote from multiple pages: (Critser 2003, pp.31-32) Quote generally: (Critser 2003) Structure your sentence to include the in-text citation: Critsersaid in 2003 (p.31) No page numbers: Count your paragraphs and refer ifpossible to the paragraph number and/or section heading:(Critser 2003, para. 11) or (Critser 2003, Introduction, para. 2)You should cite album tracks or times, video frames or times, or otherspecific points on a larger piece of work in the same way: (Ryan 2012,track 23). Time should be in the 24-hour clock in the format hh:mm:ss.Use the time to an appropriate granularity i.e. the seconds value maynot be needed or available: (McCarthy 2011, 01:22).4

In some disciplines page numbers are required, for example, only forlong works and not for articles. The Harvard UL style recommendsgiving page numbers if you are quoting directly. However, if you areparaphrasing it is not essential to give page numbers.2.2 Citing Authors In-TextAuthor2.2.1One author2.2.2Two authors2.2.3Three or moreauthors2.2.4No authorCiting withintextReference List(Buckroyd1996)Buckroyd, J. (1996) Eating your heart out:understanding and overcoming eatingdisorders, 2nd ed., London:Vermilion.(Beardsworthand Keil 1997)Beardsworth, I. and Keil, T. (1997)Sociology on the menu: an invitationto the study of food and society,London: Routledge.(Cohen et al.2000)Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K.(2000) Research methods ineducation, London: s medical dictionary (1992), 37thed., London: A & C Black.Cite the title as the author2.2.5Author with atitle Dr., Professor,Sir, Lord.(Archer 1991)Archer, J. (1991) As the crow flies,London: Hodder and Stoughton.Do not include author titles in a reference5

Author2.2.6First of twoworks by anauthor in oneyear2.2.7Second of twoworks by anauthor in oneyear2.2.8Contribution(article orchapter) in anedited bookCiting withintextReference List(Hawking1984a)Hawking, S.W. (1984a) 'The cosmologicalconstant is probably zero', PhysicsLetters B, 134(6), 403-404, 370-4.(Hawking1984b)Hawking, S.W. (1984b) 'The quantumstate of the universe', NuclearPhysics B, 239(1), 13(84)90093-2.(MacDonald1997)Macdonald, G. (1997) ‘Innovationdiffusion and health education inschools’, in Sidell, M., Jones, L., Katz,J. and Peberdy, A., eds., Debatesand dilemmas in promoting health,London: Open University, 55-83.Cite the author of the article or chapter in the text and give full details on thearticle, the book and its editors in your reference list2.2.9Source quotedin anothersourceSmith 1990(cited inBuckroyd1996) or(Smith, citedin Buckroyd1996)Buckroyd, J. (1996) Eating your heart out:understanding and overcoming eatingdisorders, 2nd ed., London:Vermilion.You should always try to find the primary source however, if you read anarticle which refers to a different article, only cite the article you have read2.2.10Organisationalor institutionalauthor(HealthPromotionUnit 1997)Health Promotion Unit (1997) A nationalsurvey of involvement in sport andphysical activity, Dublin: HealthPromotion Unit.6

Author2.2.11Subordinate ordivision of aparent body2.2.12Author is agovernmentdepartmentCiting withintextReference List(OECD,Manpowerand SocialAffairsCommittee1986)OECD, Manpower and Social AffairsCommittee (1986) Measures to assistworkers displaced by structuralchange, Paris: OECD.(Ireland,Department ofHealth andChildren2005)Ireland, Department of Health andChildren (2005) Statement of strategy2005-2007, Dublin: Department ofHealth and Children, sed 15 Jul 2016].Give the parent body first where the author is an organisation which is asubordinate or division of a parent body2.2.13Referring totwo differentsources at thesame time(HealthPromotionUnit 1997;Critser 2003)Critser, G. (2003) Fat land, London: AllanLane.Health Promotion Unit (1997) A nationalsurvey of involvement in sport andphysical activity, Dublin: HealthPromotion Unit.List sources in chronological order first and alphabetically thereafter forcitations sharing the same year2.3 When and How to QuoteYou must quote or paraphrase correctly to avoid plagiarism. To quote is to directly use another’s words and to acknowledgethe source:The rise in obesity grew from a “boundary-free culture ofAmerican food consumption” (Critser 2003, p.31), 7

To paraphrase is to express the author’s work in your own wordsand to acknowledge the source:Increasing obesity levels in the United States grew from afood consumption culture that was boundary-free (Critser2003), To summarise is to describe broadly the findings of a studywithout directly quoting from it:In a popular study, Critser (2003) argues that our culture isnow without boundaries To plagiarise is to present another’s work as your own and notacknowledge the source:In the United States the rise in obesity grew from a boundaryfree culture of American food consumption. Common knowledge refers to a statement so well known thatthere is no need to reference it:As Albert Einstein said, “Science is 1% inspiration and 99%perspiration” Rule for short quotations:Put short quotations (around twenty words or less) in invertedcommas within the text:Society has developed a “boundary-free culture” (Critser2003, p.31), which has affected our food consumption.Rule for long quotations:Long quotations should be indented in a separate paragraph, in asmaller font. Cite the author and date in the same font and in bracketsat the right margin of the page, under the quotation:Nowhere did this new boundary-free culture of American foodconsumption thrive better than in the traditional American family,which by the ’80s was undergoing rapid change.(Critser 2003, p.31)This is how the entry for Critser would look in your reference list:Critser, G. (2003) Fat land, London: Allan Lane.8