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U.S. Navy Style GuideNavy editors and writers should follow the most recent edition of the Associated Press Stylebook exceptas noted in this U.S. Navy Style Guide."A" school - Use double quotes throughout a story. If included in a quote, use single quotes: 'A' school.abbreviations, acronyms - Upper case initialisms and acronyms. Spell out on first reference with theabbreviation in parenthesis. Some acronyms, such as NATO, can be used on first reference. Check the APStylebook. The individual augmentees (IAs) met May 5. All Sailors reporting to IA duty are invited to attend.Other examples: BUMED - Bureau of Medicine and SurgeryCIWS - close-in weapons systemCNO - Chief of Naval OperationsOPTEMPO - Operations Tempo or Tempo of OperationsOCONUS - Outside Continental United StatesRHIB - rigid hull inflatable boatSECNAV - Secretary of the Navyaboard vs. onboard – Use aboard when referencing events taking place on a ship or aircraft. Useonboard when discussing shore based events. The crew is aboard the ship.The memorial ceremony was held onboard Naval Station Norfolk.Also, a Sailor is stationed "on," "at," "is serving with" or "is assigned to" a ship. A Sailor does notserve "in" a ship.A ship is "based at" or "homeported at" a specific place. A plane is "stationed at" or is "aboard"a ship; is "deployed with" or is "operating from" a ship. Squadrons are "stationed at" airstations. Air wings are "deployed with" ships.active duty (noun), active-duty (adjective) - Lower case on all references. As a noun, two words: Navy personnel serve on active duty.As an adjective, hyphenate: All active-duty personnel must participate.Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 1

U.S. Navy Style Guideair wing - Use as two words.aircraft - acceptable characterization of naval aviation platforms. Do not refer to military aircraft as"airplanes" or "planes."aircraft designations - Always used as a letter(s) followed by a hyphen and number: SH-60B Sea Hawk orF/A-18E/F Super Hornet.aircraft squadrons - Spell out full name of squadron on first reference. On second reference, useabbreviation and hyphenate. Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 97 deployed aboard USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70). During theirdeployment, VFA-97 maintained a perfect safety record.aircrew, aircrew member - Per Webster's one or two words.all hands, all-hands - Two words as noun: He called all hands to the meeting. Hyphenate asadjective/compound modifier: They attended the all-hands call.Anchors Aweigh - not Anchors Awayanti-aircraft, anti-submarine - HyphenateArabian Gulf - use instead of Persian Gulf per Commander, Naval Forces Central Command U.S. 5thFleetarmed forces - Capitalize only as a proper name (Armed Forces Day), not as a noun (the armed forces)or adjective (an armed-forces member). It is lower cased unless part of a title or when preceded by U.S.,as in U.S. Armed Forces.attribution - Identify the source of reported information; especially objective and opinioned-basedstatements. Include context in which comment was made if it is not apparent. Use "said" in quotes. Do not use "says."See "quotation marks."battalion - Use numerals in unit names, spell out on first reference and abbreviate and hyphenate onsecond reference: Naval Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB) 4; NMCB-4 (not NMCB FOUR)Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 2

U.S. Navy Style Guidebattle group - Do not use "battle group." Rather, use "carrier strike group" or "expeditionary strikegroup."boat - Use to describe a submarine. Do not use to describe a ship.boot camp - Use as two words.burial at sea - Do not hyphenate.call signs - Do not refer to individuals by call signs. Use full name and rank.carrier strike group - Capitalize when used with the name of a ship. Precede name of strike group with"the." “The Harry S. Truman Carrier Strike Group arrived in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of operations.”chaplain - Chaplains are identified as 'Cmdr. John W. Smith, a Navy chaplain,' in the first reference andas 'chaplain' or by last name thereafter.chief (select) - Use the service member’s current rank: “Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Franklin Pierce willbe promoted to chief petty officer next month.” Do not use “select”Chief of Naval Operations - Lowercase when referenced after an individual's name or when used alone.chief petty officer - Applies to Navy or Coast Guard personnel in pay grade E-7. Lowercase whenreferenced after an individual's name or when used alone.Chiefs Mess - do not include apostrophecities/datelines - For cities that stand alone, use the list of datelines found in the AP Stylebook. Becauseof their strong Navy ties and frequent reference in stories, , Norfolk, San Diego and Pearl Harbor canstand alone, without states.civilian titles - Use full name and title or job description on first reference. Capitalize the title or jobdescription when it precedes an individual’s name and do not use a comma to separate it from thename. Lower case titles when they follow the name or when not accompanied by one. Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) Franklin R. Parker holds an allhands call.Davey Jones, Naval Station Norfolk historian, logs in artifacts.Use last names only on second and all following references. This applies to both men andwomen.Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 3

U.S. Navy Style Guide Secretary of the Navy Ray MabusBob Johnson, undersecretary of the Navy for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, meets withPhil Dert, a construction worker.close proximity - Do not use; it's redundant. All proximity is close.coalition - Do not capitalize. U.S. and coalition forces took part in the event.Coast Guardsman - Capitalize in all references to U.S. Coast Guard. Sailors and Coast Guardsmen are instrumental in patrolling the Caribbean for drug smugglers.The local coast guardsmen work with Sailors to protect harbors.Commander in Chief - Used only for the President. Always capitalize. Do not hyphenate.commanding officer - Do not capitalize except when directly proceeding the title and name. Commanding Officer Capt. Tom Jones welcomed the distinguished visitors to the base.The commanding officer of the cruiser, Capt. Mary Smith, announced the ship would make aport visit to Key West, Fla.CONUS - "Continental United States." CONUS refers to the 48 contiguous states. It is not synonymouswith United States. Do not use unless in a quote.crew member - Use as two words. Do not use "crewman" or "crewmen." See service members.currently – Avoid use. This term is redundant by nature. The ship is underway. Not – The ship iscurrently underway.datelines/cities - For cities that stand alone, use the list of datelines found in AP Style. Because of theirstrong Navy ties, Norfolk, San Diego, and Pearl Harbor can stand alone, without states.dates – Follow the guidelines in the AP StylebookD-Day - D-Day was June 6, 1944, the day the Allies invaded Europe during World War II.decommissioned ships/submarines - Include reference that ship or submarine is no longer active. “The decommissioned aircraft carrier, USS Constellation (CV 64), will serve as a museum.”Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 4

U.S. Navy Style Guidedepartments - Do not capitalize USS Carl Vinson engineering department.The engineering department.dependent - Do not use when referring to family of military personnel. Use terms such as "familymembers," "wife," "husband," "spouse," "parent," "child," etc. "Dependent" is perceived as derogatory.Do not identify dependents by name in photo captions.detachment - Abbreviate as "Det." in all references. Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Light (HSL) 43, Det. 5 also participated in the exercise.DEVRON – submarine development squadrondoctor - Navy doctors are identified as “Cmdr. John W. Smith, a Navy doctor” in the first reference andby last name thereafter. . See "military titles."DOD/DoD – Department of Defense DOD or Pentagon is acceptable on second referencedry dock (noun), dry-dock (verb) - Do not use as one word. (See dictionary)E-1 through E-3 Sailors - The term refers to enlisted Navy members in pay grades E-1 to E-3. TheseSailors are identified as seaman recruit (SR), seaman apprentice (SA) or seaman (SN) . Capitalize whendirectly preceding a name. The community variations of this naming convention are airman,constructionman, fireman, hospitalman, or seaman.effect, affect - Effect is to cause, affect is to produce an effect upon. (Websters)ensure, insure - "Ensure" is a guarantee, while "insure" means to put insurance on something.exercises - Use full title on first reference. Omit the word “exercise” on second reference: ExerciseKernal Potlatch '16, Operation Imminent Thunder. On second reference use Kernal Potlatch or ImminentThunder. If exercise is abbreviated, follow the rules under the entry "abbreviations and acronyms."Example: RIMPAC ‘18fast-attack - Hyphenate when used as an adjective. The fast-attack submarine deployed in November.fleets - Use numerals and capitalize when referring to specific fleets (U.S. 6th Fleet, U.S. 2nd Fleet, U.S.7th Fleet). Do not capitalize in common usage: We sent a message to the fleet.Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 5

U.S. Navy Style Guidefleetwide - Use as one word.flight deck - Use as two words.fo'c'sle - noun. A superstructure at or immediately aft of the bow of a vessel, used as a shelter forstores, machinery, etc., or as quarters for Sailors. It can also be written as “forecastle.”foreign cities - On first reference, the name of foreign cities are followed by the spelled-out name of thenation in which the city is located (e.g., Worms, Germany) unless listed in AP Style under datelines.frontline/front line - Use as a noun; or use as an adjective. Troops on the frontline need supplies.Front line troops are the most in need.general quarters - Lower case when spelled out: The crew stayed at general quarters for 18 hours. Donot use “GQ.”global war on terrorism - Do not capitalize.gray - Not "grey," except greyhound.guided-missile - Hyphenate when used as an adjective. The guided-missile cruiser is homeported in San Diego.The guided missile is loaded into a launch tube.half-mast, half-staff - On ships and at naval stations ashore, flags are flown at "half-mast." Elsewhereashore, flags are flown at "half-staff."hangar, hanger - A "hangar" is a building, and a "hanger" is used for clothing.HCC - helicopter control centerHCS - helicopter combat support squadronhelo - short, acceptable slang form of the word "helicopter"homeport - One word in all uses: The Navy's newest homeport will be Detroit.The ship is homeported in San Diego.Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 6

U.S. Navy Style GuideHS - helicopter anti-submarine squadronHSL - helicopter anti-submarine squadron lighthull numbers - See entry for "ship names."Humvee - a trademarked abbreviation used for High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle(HMMWV).in country - Service members arrive in country. Once there, they have an in-country presence.in port - Use as two words.knot - A "knot" is one nautical mile (6,076.10 feet) per hour. It's redundant to say "knots per hour."Always use figures. Winds were at 7 to 9 knots; a 10-knot wind.liaison - Use "liaison" as a noun. Do not use the verb form "liaise," as it is not usually used appropriatelyor well.lifestyle - Use as one word.Littoral combat ship - Do not capitalize. The littoral combat ship USS Freedom (LCS 1) Marines - This is a proper noun. Capitalize when referring to U.S. forces (the U.S. Marines, the MarineCorps). Do not use the abbreviation USMC.maritime security operations - lowercase when spelled out, uppercase acronym (MSO).maritime strategy - lowercaseMark - Do not use "MK" when referring to the word "Mark" in weapons or equipment. (He worked on aMark 50 torpedo.)master chief petty officer - Refers to Navy or Coast Guard personnel in pay grade E-9.Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy - Lowercase when referenced after an individual's name or whenused alone. MCPON is the accepted abbreviation on 2nd reference.Version 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 7

U.S. Navy Style Guidemen - Do not use "men" if referring to a group of persons made up of men and women, or a group ofindividuals whose genders are unknown. Use Sailors or Marines if the group is military.MIA - Missing in Action. MIA is acceptable on first reference.midshipman - On first reference: Midshipman 1st Class John P. Jones (or 2nd Class, 3rd Class, 4th Class,if known). On subsequent reference(s): Jones. Note: military abbreviation is MIDN 1/C (or 2/C, 3/C, 4/C, respectively); 1/C are in their senioryear of school (USNA or NROTC), 2/C are juniors, 3/C are sophomores, 4/C are freshmen."Midshipman" is singular; "midshipmen" is plural; term applies to both male and female.military rank – The first reference should include rank and first and last name. All subsequent referencesshould be last name only. Always refer to Sailors by rank and not pay grade (e.g., Yeoman 2nd Class or PO2, not E-5 - Capt.or captain, not 0-6). Follow the guidelines in the AP Stylebook.military titles/job titles - For enlisted personnel, spell out the Sailor’s rate when directly preceding aname or petty officer(s)/ airman, constructionman, fireman, hospitalman, or seaman whengeneralizing.military units - Use numerals for unit designations. See "aircraft," "fleets" and "ships."millimeter - Abbreviate as "mm" with no space: 35mm film, 105mm Howitzer, 9mm service pistolmine hunting - Use as two words.minehunter - Use as one word.missiles - Capitalize the proper name, but not the word missile: Titan II missile.naval - lowercasenaval activities - Spell out on first reference and capitalize only when part of a proper name: Naval Station Rota, SpainOn second reference, abbreviate as follows: naval station - NAVSTAnaval air station - NASnaval weapons station - NWSVersion 16-2Dec. 30, 2016Page 8

U.S. Navy Style Guide naval amphibious base - NABnaval air facility - NAFconstruction battalion center - CBCNavy Reserve - Capitalize when referrin