Transcription

THE EASTERN - GREEKORTHODOX BIBLE :NEW TESTAMENTPresented toPresented byDate – Occasion

THE EASTERN - GREEKORTHODOX BIBLENEWTESTAMENT

THE EASTERN / GREEKORTHODOX BIBLEBASED ON THE SEPTUAGINTAND THE PATRIARCHAL TEXTNEW TESTAMENTALSO KNOWN ASTHE CHRISTIAN GREEKSCRIPTURESWith extensive introductory and supplemental material

The EOB New Testament is presented in memory ofArchbishop Vsevolod of Scopelos (†2007)Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USAEcumenical Patriarchate of ConstantinopleAnd in honor ofHis Beatitude Metropolitan JonahPrimate of the Orthodox Church in America

ABBREVIATIONS AND CODES[]Indicates words added for clarity and accuracy but which may notbe in the Greek text. For public reading, these words can beincluded or skipped{}Indicates words added for theological clarity and accuracy. Forpublic reading, these words should be skipped Indicates words that may have been added in the Byzantine textualtradition for the purpose of clarification, harmonization or liturgicaluse and which are present in the PT, but which may not have beenpart of the original manuscriptsANF/PNFAnte-Nicene Fathers / Post-Nicene FathersBACBeing as Communion, John ZizioulasCCCCatechism of the Catholic ChurchCTModern “eclectic” texts or reconstructed "critical texts" (UnitedBible Societies Text (UBS) or the Nestle-Aland Text (NA))CTCCalled to Communion, Joseph RatzingerEBCEucharist, Bishop, Church, John ZizioulasEOBEastern / Greek Orthodox BibleHBBHis Broken Body, Laurent CleenewerckHEEcclesiastical History (Eusebius) (Paul Maier’s edition)KJVKing James Version (sometimes called Authorized Version)LXXGreek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagintwhich is the basis for the main English text of the EOB/OT

TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTORY SECTIONABBREVIATIONS AND CODES . 9TABLE OF CONTENTS. 11THE GREEK ALPHABET . 13MANUSCRIPT CODES . 14ABOUT THE EOB NEW TESTAMENT . 15THE GOSPELSINTRODUCTION TO THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS AND ACTS . 35(ACCORDING TO) MATTHEW (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ) . 41(ACCORDING TO) MARK (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ) . 107(ACCORDING TO) LUKE (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ) . 149INTRODUCTION TO THE GOSPEL OF JOHN . 219(ACCORDING TO) JOHN (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ) . 229ACTS, EPISTLES AND REVELATIONACTS OF THE APOSTLES (ΠΡΑΞΕΙΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΠΟΣΤΟΛΩΝ) . 281INTRODUCTION TO THE PAULINE EPISTLES . 341ROMANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ) . 3491 CORINTHIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Α). 3742 CORINTHIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Β) . 396GALATIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΓΑΛΑΤΑΣ) . 410EPHESIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΕΦΕΣΙΟΥΣ) . 418PHILIPPIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΗΣΙΟΥΣ) . 426COLOSSIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΛOΣΣΑΕΙΣ). 4321 THESSALONIANS (ΠΡΟΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΙΣ Α) . 438

INTRODUCTIONTHE GREEK ALPHABETLetter NameLower CaseUpper CaseTransliterationAlpha aBeta bGamma gDelta dEpsilon eZeta zÊta e (ê or ē)Thêta thIota iKappa kLambda lMu mNu nXi ksOmicron oPi pRho rSigma sTau tUpsilon u (sometimes v or y)Phi phChi chPsi psOmega ô or ō

INTRODUCTIONABOUT THE EOB NEW TESTAMENTPURPOSEThe EOB New Testament was prepared for personal study and liturgicaluse in English-speaking Orthodox Christian communities. Its format andfont are designed to make both activities accessible and rewarding. Everyattempt has been made to offer an accurate and scholarly translation of theGreek text, free of the theological bias that has affected most othertranslations of the New Testament, including the NIV (2 Thess. 2:15) andNAB (Matt. 5:32).Another intention of this translation is to foster interest in learning theGreek language (biblical, patristic and modern), which is why manyfootnotes make reference to the underlying Greek vocabulary.The purpose of this edition is also to make the reader aware of possibletextual variants by footnoting all significant instances where thePatriarchal Text (PT) may not agree with the Textus Receptus (TR), theMajority Text (MT) or the Critical Text (CT). In several instances, thefootnotes will provide references to specific manuscripts.Until the publication of the EOB, the King James and New King Jamesversions have been the preferred translations, partly because they are basedon the Textus Receptus (TR) which is a Byzantine-type text that is closeto the normative ecclesiastical text of the Greek-speaking OrthodoxChurches.The Textus Receptus (Latin: “received text”) is the namesubsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of theNew Testament which constituted the translation base for Luther’soriginal German Bible. The TR was also used for the translation ofthe New Testament into English by William Tyndale, for the KingJames Version, and for most other Reformation-era NewTestament translations throughout Western and Central Europe.

INTRODUCTIONcertain issues of translation and terminology (discussed below) also calledfor revisions within an Orthodox context.The EOB (Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible or Holy Bible of the[Eastern/Greek] Orthodox Churches) addresses these limitations, bothin the Old and New Testaments. A limited copyright (see inner front page)is held by the publisher but the text is non-commercial, held within theOrthodox community and managed as a collaborative project, both forrevisions and for liturgical use. Moreover, Orthodox Christians are invitedto submit their suggestions so that the published text may be regularlyupdated and improved.EOB FOOTNOTESUnlike the Orthodox Study Bible (OSB), the EOB footnotes focus ontextual and translation issues, and refrain from providing extensivetheological or doctrinal interpretations. Hence, the goal of the main text isto provide the reader with a clear sense of what the Scriptures say withpossible nuances, not how they should be interpreted.There are two reasons for this philosophy. The first one is that footnotecommentaries are often perceived as “authoritative” by the reader – almoston the level of Scripture or official commentary. Hence, the reader’s attentionis directed to particular explanation, at the risk of not letting the inspiredtext speak for itself. The second reason is that a few of the explanatoryfootnotes of the OSB may be debated among Orthodox theologians, as in thecase of Acts 1:20 and Revelation 17:1 among others. Please refer to theintroductions and appendices for appropriate explanations.PRIMARY GREEK TEXT(S)The translation of the New Testament included in the EOB is based on theofficial Greek text published by the Ecumenical Patriarchate ofConstantinople in 1904 (Patriarchal Text or PT). During the Turkishoccupation of the Greek lands, various editions of the NT had beenpublished with significant variants. In 1902, in order to ensureecclesiastical harmony, the Ecumenical Patriarchate appointed a committeewhose task was to publish a common and official text. This committeestudied about 20 major Byzantine manuscripts from which they adoptedone as starting point, yet taking into consideration significant variantsfrom other manuscripts. This text, which is very close to the so-calledMajority Text (MT), was published for the first time in 1904. It has sincethen been adopted by all Greek-speaking Orthodox Churches(Constantinople, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Greece, Cyprus, and Crete). Itspurpose is not to offer an always speculative reconstruction of the original

INTRODUCTIONsignificant variants between PT/MT/TR and CT have been studied andfootnoted to provide variant readings.The Byzantine text-type (also called Majority, Traditional,Ecclesiastical, Constantinopolitan, or Syrian) is one of severaltext-types used in textual criticism to describe the textualcharacter of certain Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is theform found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts.The New Testament text of the Greek Orthodox Churches, thePatriarchal edition of 1904 (PT), is based on this text-type. Thistextual tradition also underlies the Textus Receptus Greek text.A synthetic Greek New Testament text based on these majorityreadings – hence the name “Majority Text” – has been producedby Zane C. Hodges and Arthur L. Farstad, although this text doesnot correspond to any one particular manuscript.There are only six manuscripts earlier than the 9th century whichconform to the Byzantine text-type; of which the 5th centuryCodex Alexandrinus, (the oldest), is Byzantine only in the Gospelswith the rest of the New Testament being Alexandrian. Bycomparison, the Alexandrian text-type is witnessed by ninesurviving uncials earlier than the ninth century (including theCodex Alexandrinus outside the Gospels); and is also usuallyconsidered to be demonstrated in three earlier papyri. Moderncritical editions of the New Testament tend to conform most oftento Alexandrian witnesses – especially Codex Sinaiticus and CodexVaticanus (see below). The earliest of the Church Fathers who isconsidered to be a consistent witness to a Byzantine text-type inNT quotations is St. John Chrysostom.Orthodox Christians should be aware that the foundational Greek textused by most modern translations such as the New International Versionand (New) Revised Standard Version is the Critical Text (CT). Bycontrast, the foundational text for the King James and New King Jamesversions is the Textus Receptus (TR). Moreover, many use the dynamicequivalency translation approach as opposed to formal-equivalency. Dueto doctrinal bias and other aberrations, these translations are generallyprohibited for ecclesiastical use by Orthodox hierarchs.

INTRODUCTIONnoticed by the monks, but in spite of the growing concern of his hosts, theGerman visitor was still able to consult ancient texts of great value. Whenhe returned to the Monastery several years later to present as a gift hisrecently published edition of the Septuagint, his monastic guests expressedinterest and appreciation. Tischendorf writes:On the afternoon of this day, I was taking a walk with the steward of theconvent in the neighborhood, and as we returned, towards sunset, hebegged me to take some refreshment with him in his cell. Scarcely had heentered the room, when, resuming our former subject of conversation, hesaid: “And I, too, have read a Septuagint,” i.e. a copy of the Greektranslation made by the Seventy. And so saying, he took down from thecorner of the room a bulky kind of volume, wrapped up in a red cloth, andlaid it before me. I unrolled the cover, and discovered, to my great surprise,not only those very fragments which, fifteen years before, I had taken out ofthe basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testamentcomplete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas and a part of the Pastorof Hermas.aTsar Alexander II, who had commissioned Tischendorf’s expedition, sentthe monastery 9,000 rubles to compensate the monastery for the ‘loss’ ofthe manuscript. It should be noted that Tischendorf had promised that thecodex would be returned to the monastery, but this never happened.Instead, this ancient treasure was long kept by the Russian NationalLibrary and in 1933, the Soviet Union sold it to the British Library for 100,000.Hence, Codex Sinaiticus is not only one of the oldest manuscripts availabletoday (330-350), it is also Orthodox in origin and was not itself ‘discoveredin a trash can’ as many mistakenly believe. On the other hand, the codex isheavily corrected and may not be as reliable as modern textual critics oftenclaim.Codex Vaticanus (Vatican Library, Gregory-Aland no. B or 03) is also oneof the oldest extant manuscripts of the Bible. Its origins are not known, butit has been suggested that Codex Vaticanus was among the fifty biblescommissioned by Emperor St. Constantine I to Eusebius of Caesarea. TheEOB/OT and Brenton’s LXX are primarily based on this manuscript(except for 1-4 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasseh which are absent).Codex Alexandrinus (British Library, Gregory-Aland no. A or 02) is a 5thcentury manuscript containing the majority of the Septuagint and the NewTestament. It is also considered as one of the earliest and most completemanuscripts of the Bible. It is named after the See of Alexandria where itaQuoted in A History of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament by Marvin Richardson Vincent, p. 16

INTRODUCTIONDuring the process of verifying, correcting and retranslating the WEB textfor the EOB/NT edition, the Patriarchal Text of 1904 and the UBS/NACritical Text were systematically consulted. In addition, recent scholarlystudies have been taken into consideration, notably Jesus as God: The NewTestament Use of Theos in Reference to Jesus (Murray J. Harris); Truth inTranslation—Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament(Jason BeDuhn) and New Testament Text and Translation Commentary(Philip Comfort).Indeed, the revision and retranslation work has been so extensive as tomake the EOB/NT an entirely new translation prepared to ensureaccuracy and harmony with Orthodox theology and terminology.Compared to other