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N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MMARKSCHEMENovember 2013GEOGRAPHYHigher Level and Standard LevelPaper 229 pages

–2–N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MThis markscheme is confidential and for the exclusive use ofexaminers in this examination session.It is the property of the International Baccalaureate and must notbe reproduced or distributed to any other person without theauthorization of the IB Assessment Centre.

–3–N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MPaper 1 and 2 markbandsThese markbands are to be used for papers 1 and 2 at both standard level and higher level.AO1LevelKnowledge/descriptor understandingAO2AO3AO4Application/analysis Synthesis/evaluation SkillsNo evaluationNone appropriatePaper 2Marks0–100ANo relevantknowledge; noexamples or casestudiesNo evidence ofapplication; thequestion has beencompletelymisinterpreted oromittedBLittle knowledge and/orunderstanding, which islargely superficial or ofmarginal relevance; noor irrelevant examplesand case studiesVery littleNo evaluationapplication; importantaspects of thequestion are ignoredVery low level; littleattempt atorganization ofmaterial; no relevantterminology1–2CSome relevantknowledge andunderstanding, but withsome omissions;examples and casestudies are included,but limited in detailLittle attempt atapplication; answerpartially addressesquestionNo evaluationFew or no maps ordiagrams, littleevidence of skills ororganization ofmaterial; poorterminology3–4DRelevant knowledgeand understanding, butwith some omissions;examples and casestudies are included,occasionallygeneralizedSome attempt atapplication;competent answeralthough not fullydeveloped, and tendsto be descriptiveNo evaluation orunsubstantiatedevaluationBasic maps ordiagrams, butevidence of someskills; someindication ofstructure andorganization ofmaterial; acceptableterminology5–6EGenerally accurateknowledge andunderstanding, but withsome minor omissions;examples and casestudies are well on;developed answerthat covers mostaspects of thequestionBeginning to showsome attempt atevaluation of theissue, which may beunbalancedAcceptable mapsand diagrams;appropriate structureand organization ofmaterial; generallyappropriateterminology7–8FAccurate, specific,well-detailedknowledge andunderstanding;examples and casestudies are well chosenand developedDetailed application; Good and wellbalanced attempt atwell-developedanswer that covers evaluationmost or all aspects ofthe questionAppropriate andsound maps anddiagrams; wellstructured andorganized responses;terminology sound9–10

–4–N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MOptional Theme A — Freshwater – issues and conflicts1.(a)Define the term stream discharge.[2]The volume/amount of water [1 mark], passing a given point in a given time[1 mark]. Or also accept formula of velocity cross-sectional area.(b)(i)State the direction towards which the river is flowing at B.[1]South East.(ii)State three changes to the river channel that result from this managementstrategy.[3]The new channel is straighter [1 mark], shorter [1 mark], and has a steepergradient [1 mark].Accept changes to processes, such as more erosion [1 mark].(iii) Explain one benefit and one problem for people that might result from thismanagement strategy.Benefits: better for navigation due to shortening of the channel, flood waterremoved more quickly.Problems: flood moves faster downstream, flood is larger downstream,lag time downstream is reduced, navigation upstream is harder, erosive powerof the river is increased.Award [1 mark] for each correct statement and a further [1 mark] for a validexplanation.[2 2]

–5–(c)N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MExamine the benefits and problems of different river management strategies(other than that shown in the diagram).Candidates should refer to at least two different strategies. (No credit should begiven for strategies that look at channel straightening.)The following approaches may be relevant: multi-purpose schemes (dams) that have flood control dimensions hard engineering approaches including levees, diversion channels, spreadinggrounds, walls, flood relief channels other approaches to stream management including river restoration schemes(restoring natural surfaces, channel shape, habitats); water quality legislation andactions (for example, nitrate control); wetland restoration.Also accept drainage basin schemes that impact on river processes or water quality,for example, afforestation; river hazard management schemes, for example, land-usezoning that leaves unoccupied areas for river to occupy during flood.The use of only one river management strategy which includes benefits and problemsis unlikely to progress beyond the D/E border.To achieve band E there must be an attempt at evaluation of two strategies. At bandF expect a well balanced evaluation.Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.[10]

–6–2.(a)N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MIdentify and describe process A and process B shown in the diagram.[2 2]A – Suspension [1 mark] – finer load carried along in the channel above the bed[1 mark].B – Saltation [1 mark] – coarser material bounces along the river bed [1 mark].(b)Draw a labelled diagram to show the main input, outputs, transfers and storesof the hydrological cycle for an un-vegetated drainage basin. [6]Input: precipitation [1 mark].Outputs: evaporation / run-off / river discharge [1 mark].Transfers: must have at least four for two marks (or two for one mark):infiltration, throughflow, overland flow, groundwater flow / base-flow [2 marks].Stores: must have at least four for two marks (or two for one mark): atmosphere,soil, groundwater/water table, lakes, river water, surface store/surface depression,snow, water tanks/water butts [2 marks].Either a systems diagram or a pictorial image of a drainage basin is acceptable.Award up to a maximum of [3 marks] if there is no diagram.(c)“Of all the impacts of agriculture on water quality, salinization is the mostdamaging.” Discuss this statement.Responses should show an understanding of salinization and its effects. Salinizationis widespread in arid and semi-arid environments where groundwater extraction incoastal areas leads to saline incursion; salt water drawn upwards by capillary actionresults in salt enrichment of the soil/surface. Irrigation is another cause as, over time,levels of salt build up through repeated watering – leaching of the salts by floodingcan lower water quality in rivers. Local geology can also play an important role insome contexts.Salinization damages livelihoods for farmers by limitingagriculture/reducing yields.As the counter-argument, responses could also examine the impacts ofagro-chemicals, sedimentation due to increased run-off, the effects of animal wastes,groundwater pollution and eutrophication of rivers, streams, lakes and/or wetlandswhere relevant. (Not all of these are required.)Good answers may question who or what is damaged (land, incomes, ecosystems,local businesses), and should recognize it is a more serious concern in some parts ofthe world than in others.Responses that are mainly descriptive and/or look only at salinization should notprogress above band D.At bands E and F responses should discuss the relative importance of at least oneother agricultural impact on water quality. At band F there should be a well balancedevaluation.Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.[10]

–7–N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MOptional Theme B — Oceans and their coastal margins3.(a)Using map evidence, describe two depositional landforms found on thiscoastline.[2 2]Award [1 mark] for identifying each landform and [1 mark] fordevelopment/description provided map evidence is used (may use: names, scale,grid reference, compass bearing, etc). For example, award [2 marks] for “the mapshows a spit approximately 8 km long”.The map includes: spit (barrier island / bar ) beach dunes marsh mudflats.(b)Explain how one geopolitical conflict has developed in relation to a namedoceanic resource.Likely resources could include oil, gas and/or fish. However, other resources areequally valid, for example, manganese, gold, diamonds, gravel. Award [1 mark] forthe resource that is shown to be a cause for conflict.For example, for oil, some may use the Falklands/Las Malvinas, Rockall orNorth Sea as their chosen conflict/conflict area, or Australia/East Timor. In eachcase, the countries involved in any dispute should be identified [1 mark] for theresource that is shown to be a cause for conflict. The remaining [4 marks] should beawarded for the explanation of how and/or why the conflict developed, or wassubsequently managed/developed.[6]

–8–(c)N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M“The fishing industry can never be sustainable.” Discuss this statement.Overfishing occurs widely within the industry. Overfishing occurs when catchesexceed the maximum sustainable yield for any year or other period of time. It occursbecause fishing technology has become too mechanized/large-scale, such as with theuse of factory ships and on-board technology such as sonar (used routinely tolocate fish). The growing demand for fish as incomes rise in emerging economiesmeans pressures are only increasing for higher yields.However, remedies designed to conserve fish stocks and make fishing moresustainable include: increasing mesh size and discouraging the catch/marketing of juvenile fish reducing the fishing yields by restricting time spent at sea, or length of fishingseason, or the size and number of boats imposing fishing permits, quotas (for example, EU’s Common Fisheries Policy)and import tariffs satellite and logbook surveillance and penalties for illegal landings.Candidates are not expected to include all of these, the relevance of which dependson the example chosen.At band D, responses are likely to be descriptive of the problems of sustainablefishing.At bands E/F candidates need to consider how fishing can become more sustainable,and at band F there should be a clear conclusion.Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.[10]

4.(a)–9–N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MDefine the term exclusive economic zone.[2]The exclusive economic zone is the area in which a sovereign state has rights[1 mark]. Award the second [1 mark] for either of the following concepts(words need not be exact): “over the economic resources of the sea, seabed and subsoil” “extending up to 200 nautical miles from the coast”.(b)Briefly describe what is meant by continental shelf.[2]The continental shelf is the gently sloping extension of most continental areas[1 mark] beneath the shallow ocean waters. Award an additional [1 mark] for anydevelopment of this idea such as “the width of the shelf is highly variable(from 0–1500 km)” or “the water depth over the shelf never exceeds about 200 m”.Note that full credit should also be given if a candidate describes the alternativemeaning of continental shelf, as used in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea,which states that it is the stretch of the seabed (regardless of depth) [1 mark] adjacentto the shores of a particular country to which it belongs [1 mark].(c)Explain the environmental and economic value of mangrove swamps.Environmental values include coastal stabilization/protection, the conservation ofbiodiversity, a breeding ground for species, a refuge for many species, mitigationof storms (including tropical storms). They also act as natural filters, absorbingnutrients from farming and sewage disposal.Mangroves have much economic value, such as providing large quantities of food,fuel, building materials and medicine. “Value” can be for local people (protection,fuel) or other groups/people, for example, TNCs, tourist industry.Award [1 mark] for each value/benefit that is explained, and further marks fordeveloped explanation, or applied use of examples, up to the maximum of [3 marks]for environmental and [3 marks] for economic value. For example, award [2 marks]for a statement such as: “One ha of mangrove in the Philippines can yield 400 kg offish and 75 kg of shrimp”.[3 3]

– 10 –(d)N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MDiscuss the conflicts that occur from attempts to manage coastal hazards.Coastal hazards include: tsunamis, storm surges, coastal retreat, coastal erosion andcliff failure.Conflicts may occur between different land-uses, for example, tourism providers andenvironmental protection agencies (EPAs) (for example over the construction ofcoastal defences that spoil the aesthetics); land-use disputes/land zoning/managedretreat policies can conflict with plans of developers; local residents may object todevelopment if they perceive that it will adversely affect property values;the allocation of funding (different organizations/users may be competing for limitedfunding). There may be conflict between environmentalists and EPAs as some hardengineering structures might interfere with sediment movement. Conflicts in LEDCsmight focus on the need to maintain mangroves as coastal protection versusaquaculture development (prawn fisheries) or tourist developments.Answers that introduce hazards not confined to the coastline (for example,earthquakes) should be credited on their merits but may be self-limiting.To achieve band D responses will describe some conflicts relating to a coastal hazard.At band E there will be at least two conflicts and at least two hazards using relevantdetails.At band F expect a well balanced discussion and evaluation.Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.[10]

– 11 –N13/3/GEOGR/BP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/MOptional Theme C — Extreme environments5.(a)Referring to the table, describe four characteristics of the climate of Timbuktu.[4]Award [1 mark] for each of four characteristics: temperatures are hot or warm all year maximum mean monthly temperature (34 C) is in May and June lowest average monthly temperatures are in December and January (22–23 C) annual rainfall is low/around 200 mm in total seasonality of rainfall – mostly