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REPUBLIC OF RWANDAMINISTRY OF EDUCATIONB.P. 622 KIGALITECHNICAL and VOCATIONAL EDUCATION andTRAINING (TVET) POLICY in RWANDAApril 20080

Table of ContentsPreambule1.Introduction1.1Definition and context1. 2Background1.2.1 National context1.2.2 Regional and international context2.Overall Guidelines2.1Vision 20202.2.Economic Development an Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) (2008 2012)2.3National Investment Strategy from 20022.4Rwanda Government’s seven Year Programme2.5Education Sector Policy (ESP), 2003 and Education Sector Strategic Plan(ESSP) 2006 – 2010, 20062.6National Employment Policy, 20062.7International Development Objectives2.7.1Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)2.7.2 International recommendations and experiences concerning Technical andVocational Education and Training3Statement of the Problem facing the sector4Constraints and strengths of the sector (SWOT .4Threats5Vision and mission of the sector6Objectives of TVET Policy6.1Overall Objectives6.2Specific Objectives7Summary of Sector Strategies8Target groups9Horizontal and vertical mobility10Funding options11Partnership development12Cross-cutting issues13Institutional Framework for Policy Implementation14Related policies, legal and budget 101011111212131414141516Annexe 1: TVET Structure and vertical and horizontal mobilityAnnexe 2: TVET Grades and vertical and horizontal mobility with continuing Vocational TrainingAnnexe 3: MTEF Budget 2008-20121

PreambuleEducation is essential for economic and social development of a country. Having awell-trained, motivated and adaptable workforce is key. The fact that the Rwandanworkforce, of around 4.6 million people, is characterized by low skill levels is a majorbarrier to economic and social development. Two-thirds of the population completessome primary education, but only 3.5% and 0.4% complete secondary or highereducation respectively. According to the Fast Track Initiative Assessment, datedSeptember 2006, unemployment among Rwandans with only some primaryeducation is as high as 61% compared to the Sub-Saharan average of 29%.Rwanda suffers from serious deficiencies in terms of trained human capital and this ismore so for the technical professions. The impact of the 1994 genocide, whichresulted in the massive loss of an educated and skilled workforce, further compoundsthe problem. This poses a great threat to Rwanda in reaching its Vision 2020 targets.The Education Sector Policy was developed in 2003. Since then several sub-sectorpolicies have/are being developed and TVET is one of them. TVET comprises of allfields of initial and continuing Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Itcovers all kinds and levels of trades offered/to be offered in Rwanda.1.Introduction1.1Definitions and conceptsTVET is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and skills for the world of work.In the past various terms have been used to describe elements of the field that arenow conceived as comprising TVET. The Second International Congress onTechnical and Vocational Education held in Seoul in 1999 decided that the best, mostcomprehensive term to use is Technical and Vocational Education and Training(TVET).This is any education, training and learning activity leading to the acquisition ofknowledge, understanding and skills which are relevant for employment or selfemployment. TVET serves here as an overarching term to describe all kinds offormal, non-formal and informal training and learning provided by or in all differentinstitutions, providers and learning locations.(i) Vocational trainingVocational training is a system which aims at providing recipients with the necessaryknowledge and skills to exercise a profession in order to be integrated in the labourmarket. Vocational training includes initial Vocational Training and continuingVocational Training.(ii) Technical EducationTechnical Education is a structured system aimed at providing recipients with thenecessary knowledge and skills to continue their studies at tertiary education level or2

to exercise a profession in order to be integrated into the labour market. TechnicalEducation, on the other hand puts more emphasis on theoretical education.(iii) Continuing TVETContinuing TVET refers to training activities in which people take part in order toobtain knowledge and/or learn new skills for a current or a future job, to increaseearnings, to improve carrier opportunities in a current or another field.1.2Background1.2.1. National contextAccording to the 2002 census, the Rwandan population numbered 8,128,553. By2020 it is expected to reach 14,300,000. The population is young - 67% are under 25years old. 85.3% of the population live in rural areas of which 95% are employed insubsistence farming.The Human Development Index (2005), based on factors like life expectancy, literacylevel, school enrolment, health service access and purchasing power, puts Rwandain 159th position among 177 countries.According to the July 2006 final report on self evaluation for the Poverty ReductionStrategy Paper (PRSP) I, about 170,000 young people start working life each yearwithout any sufficient qualifications and therefore have only a limited chance tointegrate successfully into the economic cycle.The current TVET is not responding this issue where secondary schools withtechnical courses accommodate only 32,792 students. In addition post primaryvocational training schools (VTS) have the capacity to accommodate only 7,366trainees.TVET in Rwanda has been delivered by different providers at various qualificationlevels. Technical education is offered at upper secondary school level; both by publicschools under the Ministry in charge of education and by private schools and thosebelonging to faith-based organizations. According to 2007 statistics, all 55 public andprivate schools offering industrial Technical courses have an enrolment of 11 815students of which girls account for 22.5% in 16 disciplines. Professional and technicaleducation is offered in 146 schools. 100 schools providing accountancy and/or officemanagement teach 13424 students. 25 Agricultural and/or veterinary Schools teach2 835 students. The total TVET enrolment is skewed by large numbers in the fields ofaccountancy and secretarial/administration, and as many as 68% of all femalestudents are enrolled in these two business options.Initial Vocational Training is offered to primary school leavers. Currently there are 54Initial Vocational Training Schools (VTS), 32 of them being private. Enrolment in all20 optional/trades in VTS is around 7,366 of which females account for 45%.3

1.2.2. Regional and International contextThrough all the economic and social development debates, it has been emphasised thatpeoples and their working and lifelong learning skills are a central factor in development.In international context, development of vocational skills and promotion of lifelonglearning are recognised as core national strategy in many advanced countriesincluding Japan and United States. In addition, small and emerging nations such asFinland, Taiwan and Singapore strengthen their comparative advantage and gainedthe competitive position in international market through adapting ‘select and focus’strategy. Both the UN, and the African organisations makes clear that sustainedpoverty reduction will be realized through the efficient development and utilization ofproductive capacity of human resource, thus human resource development should bethe centre of political and economic reforms.Several debates on reintegration of education, skills and work in Africa have beenconducted to prioritize human resource development along TVET which should begiven much more attention in both socio and economic development. Many Africanstates developed TVET policies and strategies and undertake great efforts to improvequality and relevance of TVET. Recent creations of TVET leading and matchinginstitutions with the labour market display the recognition of this acuteness problem.Progress in the elaboration of national qualifications framework (NFQ) in recent yearsis proof of the successful joint efforts of governments and private sector to ensurehigh responsiveness of TVET to the individual, enterprise and economy needs.2.Overall Guidelines2.1 Vision 2020The Government of Rwanda is committed to investing in the development of humanresources in order to meet the major objective of Vision 2020 which is to create aknowledge-based and technology-led economy. Comprehensive human resourcesdevelopment is considered to be one of the necessary pillars to reach the status of amiddle income country (US 220 GDP/capita in 2003 to US 900 GDP/capita) by2020.1Rwanda’s economy is characterized by a serious lack of qualified people in theworkforce, particularly in the technical sectors. The goal of education and TVET istherefore to fight ignorance and illiteracy so as to produce competent humanresources for economic and social development. To address the critical shortage ofqualified technical and vocational manpower in the labour market, there is a need tolink TVET policy with employment and other sectors’ development policies.Rwanda is a landlocked country and has a shortage of natural resources. Humanresources are the only development factor it can offer in the region. The same holdsin terms of benefiting from the advantages of globalization. Therefore, Rwanda hasno other option but to develop its technically oriented human resources.1Rwanda Vision 2020,p.64

2.2Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) (2008– 2012)The EDPRS sets new priorities embodied in 3 Flagship Programmes.l Growth for jobs and exportsl Vision 2020 Umurengel GovernanceThis strategy advocates consolidating decentralisation and recognizes the key role ofthe private sector in accelerating economic growth to reduce poverty. It emphasizesskills development as essential precondition for sustainable economic growth.Consequently it demands a strong push for TVET strengthening and proposes tocreate important elements for an outcome-based demand-driven TVET system.Besides the establishment of a Skills Enhancement Fund the suggested institutionbuilding in the form of TVET Board, National Employment Agency and RwandaWorkforce Development Authority will close the existing capacity gap concerning thematching of TVET with labour market needs.The assigned increase of public spending with the education sector as the mainbeneficiary (20,9% of the total budget) and the significant reallocation of resourceswithin the education sector boosting TVET more than the other education streamsand to spend in 2012 2.3% of total public investment for TVET signifies a greatchallenge for TVET.Its responsibility for accelerating skills development and ensure high employability ofgraduates has an absolutely new dimension. TVET policy has to guaranty that allTVET measures achieve the maximum economic impact through providing all sectorswith appropriately qualified workforce in the needed number in accordance to thedifferent qualification levels. The demanded increase of the absorption rate of TVETgraduates from around 25% in 2006 to 75% in 2012.2.3.National Investment Strategy from 2002The National Investment Strategy aims at increasing the Gross Domestic Investmentat the rate of 8% in order to ensure the needed economic growth which enables thesociety to reduce poverty. All the indicated priority investment programs are linked tohuman resource development. Human resource development itself is declared as apriority investment program which shall double the expenditure between 2002 and2010. Within the human resource development program is it foreseen to increase thespending on technical and vocational education and training. In order to satisfy thehigh expectations of increasing productivity, quality and professionalism of all activepeople, the TVET Policy must ensure full responsiveness of all TVET activities to thelabour market needs.2.4.Rwanda Government’s seven Year ProgrammeTVET is among targeted areas of improvement in the seven year Governmentprogramme. It is envisaged that by 2010 the number of public technical schools shallhave increased from 7 to 12 (one each in the previous 12 provinces), and the numberof public and private vocational training centres shall have increased from 47 to 1065

(one each in the previous 106 districts). This is in addition to strengthening theexisting ones.2.5. Education Sector Policy (ESP), 2003 and Education Sector Strategic Plan(ESSP) 2006 – 2010, 2006As human resources are the only major resource that Rwanda can rely on, the ESPgoal is to transform the Rwandan population into human capital for nationaldevelopment through acquisition of development skills.2Technical and VocationalTraining has been included among the top priorities in the ESP. Furthermore, theTVET policy direction is clearly defined: involve vocational standards and nationalneeds and reach a sufficient number of graduates who are well-trained and thereforeable to meet the development needs of Rwanda. A key policy objective, in themedium term, is to maximize quality and access to vocational training by havingaround 100 training schools well distributed in all districts. At Technical School level,the aim is to have twelve Technical Schools in Rwanda.32.6.National Employment Policy, 2006The main purpose of this Policy is to enable people to choose fully productiveemployment in accordance with the dignity and respect of fundamental human rights.One of the five general objectives of this Policy is to improve work productivity bydelivering a better synergy between education and employment. 5 This is reflected inthe TVET Policy.2.7.International Development Objectives2. 7.1 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)The Government’s commitment to the MDGs of reducing poverty by half, reachingbasic Education For All, promoting ge