National 4 Engineering ScienceCourse Support NotesThis document may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit isderived from reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged. Additional copies ofthese Course Support Notes can be downloaded from SQA’s website: refer to the note of changes at the end of this document for details of changes from previous version(where applicable).July 2013, version 1.1 Scottish Qualifications Authority 2013

ContentsCourse Support NotesIntroduction1General guidance on the Course2Approaches to learning and teaching6Approaches to assessment14Equality and inclusion15Appendix 1: Reference documents16Appendix 2: Comparison of National 4 and National 517Administrative information22Unit Support Notes — Engineering Contexts and Challenges (National 4)Introduction23General guidance on the Unit24Approaches to learning, teaching, and assessment25Equality and inclusion32Appendix 1: Reference documents33Administrative information34Unit Support Notes — Electronics and Control (National 4)Introduction35General guidance on the Unit36Approaches to learning, teaching, and assessment38Equality and inclusion45Appendix 1: Reference documents46Administrative information47Unit Support Notes — Mechanisms and Structures (National 4)Introduction48General guidance on the Unit49

Approaches to learning, teaching, and assessment50Equality and inclusion56Appendix 1: Reference documents57Administrative information58

IntroductionThese support notes are not mandatory. They provide advice and guidance onapproaches to delivering and assessing the National 4 Engineering ScienceCourse. They are intended for teachers and lecturers who are delivering theCourse and its Units. They should be read in conjunction with the CourseSpecification, the Added Value Unit Specification, and the Unit Specifications forthe Units in the Course.Course Support Notes for National 4 Engineering Science Course1

General guidance on the CourseAimsAs stated in the Course Specification, the aims of the Course are to enablelearners to: apply knowledge and understanding of basic engineering facts and ideas understand the relationships between engineering, mathematics and science apply skills in analysis, design, construction and evaluation to a range ofstraightforward engineering problems communicate engineering concepts clearly and concisely using appropriateterminology develop an understanding of the role and impact of engineering in changingand influencing our environment and societyThis Course will also give learners the opportunity to develop thinking skills andskills in numeracy, employability, enterprise and citizenship.Progression into this CourseEntry to this Course is at the discretion of the centre. However, learners wouldnormally be expected to have attained some relevant skills and knowledgethrough prior experience.Skills and knowledge developed through any of the following, while notmandatory, are likely to be helpful as a basis for further learning in this Course.Other SQA qualifications National 3 Design and Technology Course, particularly the Constructing andTesting Unit Numeracy (National 3)Experiences and outcomesNational Courses have been designed to draw on and build on the curriculumexperiences and outcomes as appropriate. Qualifications developed for thesenior phase of secondary education are benchmarked against SCQF levels.SCQF level 4 and the curriculum level 4 are broadly equivalent in terms of levelof demand although qualifications at SCQF level 4 will be more specific to allowfor more specialist study of subjects.Learners who have completed Curriculum for Excellence experiences andoutcomes will find these an appropriate basis for doing the Course.In this Course, any of the following may be relevant: I can debate the possible future impact of new and emerging technologies oneconomic prosperity and the environment. (TCH 4-01c) I can examine a range of materials, processes or designs in my localcommunity to consider their environmental, social and economic impact,discussing the possible lifetime cost to the environment in Scotland andbeyond. (TCH 4-02a)Course Support Notes for National 4 Engineering Science Course2

Having gained knowledge of how formulae may be used in the context ofenergy transfer and mechanical systems, I can apply them to solve problems,for example in engineering. (TCH 4-12a) I can use my knowledge and skills of science and mathematics and can applythe basic principles of control technology in solving practical problems. (TCH4-12b) I can apply the skills of critical thinking when evaluating the quality andeffectiveness of my own or others’ products or systems. (TCH4-14b) I can explore the properties and functionality of materials, tools, software orcontrol technology to establish their suitability for a task at home or in theworld of work. (TCH 4-14c) By contributing to investigations into the properties of a range of electroniccomponents, I can select and use them as input devices in practicalelectronic circuits. (SCN4-09b) Using my knowledge of electronic components and switching devices, I canhelp engineer an electronic system to provide a practical solution to a real-lifesituation. (SCN 4-09c)Other experienceLearners may also have relevant skills and knowledge gained through othereducation systems or from their own interests and informal learning.Course Support Notes for National 4 Engineering Science Course3

Skills, knowledge and understanding coveredin this CourseThis section provides further advice and guidance about skills, knowledge andunderstanding that could be included in the Course.Note: teachers and lecturers should refer to the Added Value Unit Specificationfor mandatory information about the skills, knowledge and understanding to becovered in this Course.analysing, with guidance, straightforwardengineering problemsdesigning, developing, simulating, building andtesting, with guidance, solutions to straightforwardengineering problems in a range of contextsinvestigating, with guidance, some existing andemerging technologiescommunicating basic engineering facts and ideasclearly and concisely using appropriate terminologyawareness of the many branches of engineering:electrical, mechanical, civil and chemicalbasic knowledge of the wide role and impact ofengineering on society and the environmentbasic knowledge of the workings of a range ofsimple engineered objectsknowledge of key facts and ideas related toelectronic and microcontroller-based controlsystems, and their applicationknowledge of key facts and ideas related tomechanical, structural and pneumatic systems, andtheir applicationbasic knowledge of the relevance of energy,efficiency and sustainability to straightforwardengineering problems and solutionsapplying engineering knowledge and skills in arange of straightforward contextsCourse Support Notes for National 4 Engineering Science CourseAdded ValueUnitMechanismsand StructuresMandatory skills and knowledgeEngineeringContexts andChallengesElectronicsand ControlThe mandatory skills and knowledge will be developed throughout the Course.The table below shows where there are significant opportunities to develop thesein the individual Units. 4

Progression from this CourseThis Course or its components may provide progression to: National 5 Engineering Science CourseNational Certificate Group Awards in a range of engineering disciplinesSkills for Work Courses in Energy and in Engineering Skillsother technological subjects at National 4and ultimately, for some, to: employment, apprenticeships and/or training in engineering and related fields Higher and Advanced Higher Engineering Science a range of engineering-related Higher National Certificates (HNCs) andHigher National Diplomas (HNDs) Degrees in Engineering and related disciplines careers in engineeringHierarchiesHierarchy is the term used to describe Courses and Units which form astructured sequence involving two or more SCQF levels.It is important that any content in a Course and/or Unit at one particular SCQFlevel is not repeated (unless required for consolidation) if a learner progresses tothe next level of the hierarchy. The skills and knowledge should be able to beapplied to new content and contexts to enrich the learning experience. This is forcentres to manage.The Course is designed in hierarchy with the corresponding Courses at SCQFlevels 5 and 6 (National 5 and Higher). The Engineering Science Courses at allthree levels have the same structure of three Units with corresponding titles.Each of the three Units — Engineering Contexts and Challenges, Electronics andControl, and Mechanisms and Structures — is in hierarchy with thecorresponding Unit at SCQF levels 5 and 6.The design of the Units means that teachers may be able to design learningactivities that are appropriate for a class with learners working at different levels.Appendix 2 contains a table showing the relationship between the mandatoryknowledge and understanding at National 4 and National 5. This may be usefulfor: designing and planning learning activities for mixed groups includingNational 4 and National 5 learners ensuring seamless progression between levels identifying important prior learning for learners at National 5Teachers should also refer to the Outcomes and Assessment Standards for eachlevel when planning delivery.Further advice on mixed level delivery is given in the next section of thesesupport notes, with additional detailed guidance in the Unit Support Notes.Course Support Notes for National 4 Engineering Science Course5

Approaches to learning andteachingEngineering Science, like all new and revised National Courses, has beendeveloped to reflect Curriculum for Excellence values, purposes and principles.The approach to learning and teaching developed by individual centres shouldreflect these principles.An appropriate balance of teaching methodologies should be used in the deliveryof the Course. Whole-class, direct teaching opportunities should be balanced byactivity-based learning on practical tasks. An investigatory approach isencouraged, with learners actively involved in developing their skills, knowledgeand understanding by investigating a range of real-life and relevant engineeringsystems, problems and solutions.The use of a variety of other active learning approaches is encouraged, includingpeer teaching, individual and group presentations, role-playing and game-basedlearning with pupil-generated questions.Learning should be supported by appropriate practical activities, so that skills aredeveloped simultaneously with knowledge and understanding.Practical activities and investigations lend themselves to group work, and thisshould be encouraged. Co-operative and collaborative learning approachessupport and encourage learners to achieve their full potential. Unlike individuallearning, learners engaged in these strategies capitalise on one another’sresources and skills — asking one another for information, evaluating oneanother’s ideas and monitoring the group’s work. While ‘working in a group’ is notspecifically identified as one of the skills for life, learning and work for thisCourse, and therefore not assessed, it is a fundamental aspect of working in theengineering industry and so should be encouraged and developed by teachers.Group work approaches can be used within Units and across Courses where it ishelpful to simulate real life situations, share tasks and promote team workingskills. However, there must be clear evidence for each learner to show that thelearner has met the required assessment standards for the Unit or Course.Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is another strategy which will support a learner’sprogress through this Course. This method may be best utilised at the end of anOutcome or a topic where additional challenge is required to ensure learners aresecure in their knowledge and understanding and to develop the ability to applyknowledge and skills in less familiar contexts. The teacher sets a problem whichrequires learners to apply their knowledge to solve a problem. For example,learners could be asked to design a machine to transport tyres in a factory. Thelearners must apply their knowledge of friction, belt/chain drives and motion todevise, then present, a solution. This could be an individual or group task.Learning through PBL develops a learner’s problem solving, decision making,investigative skills, creative thinking, team working and evaluative skills.Throughout the teaching of this Course, the stimulation of learners’ interest andcuriosity should be a prime objective. Where possible, locally relevant contextsshould be studied, with visits where this is practical.Course Support Notes for National 4 Engineering Science Course6

Guest speakers from industry and further and higher education can be used tobring the world of engineering into the classroom. Where this is not possible,online resources, such as STEM-Central, and online news articles, may bevaluable alternatives. Computer-based simulations also encourage learning aslearners can manipulate and investigate systems without requiring expensiveequipment.Assessment activities, used to support learning, may usefully be blended withlearning activities throughout the Course.For example: sharing learning intentions/success criteriausing assessment information to set learning targets and next stepsadapting teaching and learning activities based on assessment informationboosting learners’ confidence by providing supportive feedbackSelf- and peer-assessment techniques should be encouraged whereverappropriate.Learning about Scotland and Scottish culture will enrich the learners' learningexperience and help them to develop the skills for learning, life and work they willneed to prepare them for taking their place in a diverse, inc