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NEBOSH IGC COURSESPECIMEN QUESTION &ANSWERS

CONTENTSElement 1 - FOUNDATIONS IN HEALTH AND SAFETY . 18LEARNING OUTCOMES . 181.1- THE SCOPE AND NATURE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY . 18MEANING OF THE TERMS HEALTH, SAFETY, WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION .181.2 - THE MORAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REASONS FOR MAINTAINING AND PROMOTING GOODSTANDARDS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE WORKPLACE . 18REASONS FOR MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY .18CONSEQUENCES (COSTS) OF NOT ACHIEVING A GOOD STANDARD OF HEALTH AND SAFETY .19COST OF ACCIDENTS .19ILL-HEALTH ABSENCE COST.20ORGANISATIONAL COSTS RELATED TO INADEQUATE STANDARDS OF WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY .21BENEFITS TO AN ORGANISATION IN IMPLEMENTING A SUCCESSFUL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENTSYSTEM .21MAINTAINING AND PROMOTING HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS .22COST OF ACCIDENTS .23CONSEQUENCES TO A WORKER INJURED IN A WORKS ACCIDENT .23COSTS INCURRED FOLLOWING AN ACCIDENT .24TRAINING – LATER STAGE OF EMPLOYMENT .24TRAINING – LEVELS OF SUPERVISION REQUIRED .25TRAINING PROGRAMME - FACTORS .25TRAINING – MEASURING ITS EFFECTIVENESS.26TRAINING RECORDS .261.3 - THE ROLE OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AND INTERNATIONAL BODIES IN FORMULATING AFRAMEWORK FOR THE REGULATION OF HEALTH AND SAFETY . 26HEALTH AND SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS .26RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS AND WORKERS .27Page 1 of 231

POWERS OF INSPECTORS AND ENFORCEMENT NOTICES .28INFORMATION SOURCES .28HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 1 - POLICY . 30LEARNING OUTCOMES . 302.1 - THE KEY ELEMENTS OF A HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. 30MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .30MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – KEY ELEMENTS – HSG 65 .31MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – KEY ELEMENTS – OHSAS 18001 .32HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS – GENERAL COMPONENTS .322.2 - THE PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF SETTING POLICY FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY . 33HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY .33SIGNING OF THE POLICY STATEMENT.33IMPORTANCE OF DEFINING ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY .332.3 - THE KEY FEATURES AND APPROPRIATE CONTENT OF AN EFFECTIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY. 34HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY COMMUNICATION .34STATEMENT OF INTENT – CONTENT .34HEALTH AND SAFETY TARGET SETTING .35HEALTH AND SAFETY TARGETS – REASONS TO ESTABLISH .36SAFETY TARGETS RELATED TO THE „STATEMENT OF INTENT‟ .36ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY RE DIRECTORS, SUPERVISORS, WORKERS ANDPERSONS WITH PRIMARY HEALTH AND SAFETY FUNCTIONS .37ISSUES ON WHICH EMPLOYERS CONSULT WORKERS .38COMMUNICATION – BARRIERS .38EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSULTATION .39HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY – POLICY REVISION CIRCUMSTANCES .39INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES THAT MAY INFLUENCE A POLICY REVIEW .40Page 2 of 231

HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY – ARRANGEMENTS .41TECHNIQUES USED TO IMPROVE HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS – INSPECTIONS, EXTERNAL AUDITS ANDANALYSIS OF ACCIDENT STATISTICS .41HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 2 - ORGANISING . 43LEARNING OUTCOMES . 433.1 - ORGANISATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS,DIRECTORS, MANAGERS, WORKERS AND OTHER RELEVANT PARTIES . 43ORGANISATION SECTION – RESPONSIBILITY HOLDERS .43MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT .44CONTRACTOR EVALUATION CRITERIA .44SHARED WORKPLACE – ENSURING HEALTH AND SAFETY .45ACHIEVING EMPLOYEE CO-OPERATION AND CO-ORDINATION IN A SHARED WORKPLACE .45DUTIES OF DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS .463.2 - CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE MANAGEMENT OFHEALTH AND SAFETY IN AN ORGANISATION . 46SAFETY CULTURE – REASONS FOR ITS DECLINE .46SAFETY CULTURE – SPHERES OF INFLUENCE .47SAFETY CULTURE – WHAT IS IT? .47PROMOTING A POSITIVE CULTURE – CONTROL, CO-OPERATION, COMPETENCE, COMMUNICATION .48SAFETY CULTURE - IMPROVEMENT .49SAFETY CULTURE – DETERIORATION .49REASONS FOR NOT FOLLOWING PROCEDURES .503.3 - HUMAN FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE BEHAVIOUR AT WORK . 51PERSONAL FACTORS - ATTITUDE, MOTIVATION, SELF-INTEREST, PERCEPTION .51PERCEPTION OF RISK .52MOTIVATION .52HUMAN ERROR – REDUCTION AND MOTIVATION .53CHECKING COMPETENCE .54Page 3 of 231

COMMUNICATION METHODS - IMPORTANCE .55BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION .553.4 - HOW HEALTH AND SAFETY BEHAVIOUR AT WORK CAN BE IMPROVED . 55INFORMATION AND CONSULTATION .55ERRORS AND VIOLATIONS, HUMAN ERROR .56INDUCTION TRAINING – A MEANS OF REDUCING WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS .57HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE - AGENDA .58INEFFECTIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE .58WAYS IN HELPING A SAFETY COMMITTEE BE EFFECTIVE .58ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF HAVING A SAFETY COMMITTEE .593.5 - EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND THE ARRANGEMENTS FOR CONTACTING EMERGENCY SERVICES. 59EMERGENCY EVACUATIONS AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .59EMERGENCIES REQUIRING EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .603.6 - REQUIREMENTS FOR, AND EFFECTIVE PROVISION OF, FIRST-AID IN THE WORKPLACE . 60FIRST AID PROVISION – EMERGENCY PROVISION .60FIRST AID RISK ASSESSMENT – FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED.61HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 3 – PLANNING . 62LEARNING OUTCOMES . 624.1 - IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING . 62UNDERESTIMATION THE SERIOUSNESS OF A HAZARD .624.2 - PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF RISK ASSESSMENT . 62HAZARD AND RISK .62SO FAR AS IS REASONABLY PRACTICABLE .63FORMS OF IDENTIFYING WORKPLACE HAZARDS .63RISK ASSESSMENT – SUITABLE AND SUFFICIENT .64NEAR MISS AND DANGEROUS OCCURRENCE AND