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National 4 Chemistry Course SupportNotesThis document may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit isderived from reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged. Additional copies ofthese Course Support Notes can be downloaded from SQA’s website: www.sqa.org.uk.Please refer to the note of changes at the end of this document for details of changes from previous version(where applicable).

ContentsCourse Support NotesIntroduction1General guidance on the Course2Approaches to learning and teaching4Approaches to assessment30Equality and inclusion37Appendix 1: Reference documents38Appendix 2: Resource pack39Administrative information49Unit Support Notes — Chemical Changes and Structure (National 4)50Introduction51General guidance on the Unit52Approaches to learning and teaching53Equality and inclusion55Appendix 1: Reference documents56Administrative information57Unit Support Notes — Nature’s Chemistry (National 4)58Introduction59General guidance on the Unit60Approaches to learning and teaching61Appendix 1: Reference documents64Administrative information65Unit Support Notes — Chemistry in Society (National 4)66Introduction67General guidance on the Unit68Approaches to learning and teaching69

Equality and inclusion71Appendix 1: Reference documents72Administrative information73

IntroductionThese support notes are not mandatory. They provide advice on approaches todelivering and assessing the National 4 Chemistry Course. They are intended forteachers and lecturers who are delivering the Course and its Units. They shouldbe read in conjunction with the Course Specification, the Added Value UnitSpecification and the Unit Specifications for the Standard Units in the Course.Course Support Notes for National 4 Chemistry Course1

General guidance on the CourseAimsAs stated in the Course Specification, the aims of the Course are to enablelearners to: develop and apply knowledge and understanding of chemistry develop an understanding of chemistry’s role in scientific issues and relevantapplications of chemistry in society and the environment develop scientific inquiry and investigative skills develop scientific analytical thinking skills in a chemistry context develop the use of technology, equipment and materials, safely, in practicalscientific activities develop problem solving skills in a chemistry context use and understand scientific literacy, in everyday contexts, to communicateideas and issues develop the knowledge and skills for more advanced learning in chemistryProgression into this CourseEntry to this Course is at the discretion of the centre. However, learners wouldnormally be expected to have attained the skills, knowledge and understandingrequired by the following or equivalent qualifications and/or experience: National 3 Chemistry CourseThere may also be progression from National 3 Biology, National 3Environmental Science, National 3 Physics, and National 3 Science Courses.Experiences and OutcomesNational Courses have been designed to draw on and build on the curriculumexperiences and outcomes as appropriate. Qualifications developed for thesenior phase of secondary education are benchmarked against SCQF levels.SCQF level 4 and the curriculum level 4 are broadly equivalent in terms of levelof demand although qualifications at SCQF level 4 will be more specific to allowfor more specialist study of subjects.Learners who have completed relevant Curriculum for Excellence experiencesand outcomes will find these an appropriate basis for doing the Course. In thisCourse, learners would benefit from having experience of the following:OrganisersPlanet EarthLines of developmentBiodiversity andInterdependenceEnergy sources andsustainabilityProcesses of the planetSpaceCourse Support Notes for National 4 Chemistry CourseSCN 03SCN 04SCN 05SCN 062

Forces, Electricityand WavesMaterialsElectricitySCN 10Properties and uses ofsubstancesEarth’s materialsChemical changesSCN 15, SCN 16SCN 17SCN 18, SCN 19More detail is contained in the Chemistry Progression Framework. The ChemistryProgression Framework shows the development of the key areas throughout thesuite of Courses.Skills, knowledge and understanding coveredin this CourseNote: teachers and lecturers should refer to the Added Value Unit Specificationfor mandatory information about the skills, knowledge and understanding to becovered in this Course.Progression from this CourseThis Course or its components may provide progression for the learner to: National 5 Chemistry CourseNational 4 or 5 Course in another science subjectSkills for Work Courses (SCQF levels 4 or 5)National Certificate Group AwardsNational Progression Awards (SCQF levels 4 or 5)Employment and/or trainingHierarchiesHierarchy is the term used to describe Courses and Units which form astructured sequence involving two or more SCQF levels.It is important that any content in a Course and/or Unit at one particular SCQFlevel is not repeated if a learner progresses to the next level of the hierarchy. Theskills and knowledge should be able to be applied to new content and contexts toenrich the learning experience. This is for centres to manage. Chemistry Courses from National 3 to Advanced Higher are hierarchical. Courses from National 3 to National 5 have Units with the same title.Course Support Notes for National 4 Chemistry Course3

Approaches to learning andteachingThe purpose of this section is to provide advice and guidance on learning andteaching. It is essential that you are familiar with the mandatory information withinthe Chemistry Added Value Unit.Teaching should involve an appropriate range of approaches to developknowledge and understanding and skills for learning, life and work. This can beintegrated into a related sequence of activities, centred on an idea, theme orapplication of chemistry, based on appropriate contexts, and need not berestricted to the Unit structure. Learning should be experiential, active,challenging and enjoyable, and include appropriate practicalexperiments/activities and could be learner-led. The use of a variety of activelearning approaches is encouraged, including peer teaching and assessment,individual and group presentations, role-playing and game-based learning, withlearner-generated questions.When developing your Chemistry Course there should be opportunities forlearners to take responsibility for their learning. Learning and teaching shouldbuild on learners’ prior knowledge, skills and experiences. The Units and theconcepts identified within them may be approached in any appropriate sequence,at the centre’s discretion. The distribution of time between the various Units is amatter for professional judgement and is entirely at the discretion of the centre.Each Unit is likely to require an approximately equal time allocation, although thismay depend on the learners’ prior learning in the different key areas.Learning and teaching, within a class, can be organised, in a flexible way, toallow a range of learners’ needs to be met, including learners achieving atdifferent levels. The hierarchical nature of the new Chemistry qualificationsprovides improved continuity between the levels. Centres can, therefore,organise learning and teaching strategies in ways appropriate for their learners.Within a class, there may be learners capable of achieving at a higher level insome aspects of the Course. Where possible, they should be given theopportunity to do so. There may also be learners who are struggling to achieve inall aspects of the Course, and may only achieve at the lower level in some areas.Teachers/lecturers need to consider the Course and Unit Specifications, toidentify the differences between Course levels. It may also be useful to refer tothe Chemistry Progression Framework.When delivering this Course to a group of learners, with some working towardsdifferent levels, it may be useful for teachers to identify activities coveringcommon concepts and skills for all learners, and additional activities required forsome learners. In some aspects of the Course, the difference between levels isdefined in terms of a higher level of skill.Course Support Notes for National 4 Chemistry Course4

Bonding and chemical equations are central to chemistry and are visited inChemical Changes and Structure, Nature’s Chemistry and Chemistry in Society.Learners should be given the opportunity to practise solving problems relating tobalanced equations throughout the Course. By revisiting chemical equations atdifferent points of the Course, learners consolidate earlier learning and mayprogressively develop a more in-depth and secure understanding throughapplying their knowledge in different contexts.An investigatory approach is encouraged in Chemistry, with learners activelyinvolved in developing their skills, knowledge and understanding by investigatinga range of relevant Chemistry applications and issues. A holistic approach shouldbe adopted to encourage simultaneous development of learners’ conceptualunderstanding and skills.Where appropriate, investigative work/experiments should allow learners theopportunity to select activities and/or carry out extended study. Investigative andexperimental work is part of the scientific method of working and can fulfil anumber of educational purposes.All learning and teaching should offer opportunities for learners to workcollaboratively. Practical activities and investigative work can offer opportunitiesfor group work. Group work approaches can be used within Units and acrossCourses where it is helpful to simulate real-life situations, share tasks andpromote team-working skills. However, there must be clear evidence for eachlearner to show that the learner has met the required assessment standards forthe Unit or Course.Laboratory work should include the use of technology and equipment that reflectscurrent scientific use. Appropriate risk assessment must be undertaken.Learners should also have the opportunity to become familiar with the apparatus,practical techniques and data analysis strategies indicated below. The list buildson the skills from the experience and outcomes and is not exhaustive.Learners would benefit from being familiar with thefollowing apparatus, practical techniques andactivities:Learners should be ableto process experimentalresults by: using tables to presentdata representingexperimental datausing a bar or linegraph sketching lines orcurves of best fit calculation ofaverages (means) forexperiments suggestingimprovementsfiltrationevaporationuse of a balancemeasuring pHtests for starch sugars and unsaturationmethods for the collection and testing of gasessafe methods of heatingmethods for following rates of reactionssalt preparationelectrical conductivity and cellssimple distillationflame testingdrawing diagrams of apparatusCourse Support Notes for National 4 Chemistry Course5

Learners would be expected to contribute their own time in addition toprogrammed learning time.Effective partnership working can enhance the science experience. Wherepossible, locally relevant contexts should be studied, with visits where this ispossible. Guest speakers from industry, further education and higher educationcould be used to bring the world of chemistry into the classroom.Information and Communications Technology (ICT) makes a significantcontribution to the Chemistry Course. In addition to the use of computers as alearning tool, computer animations can be used to demonstrate microscopicparticles, reactions, and processes. Computer interfacing equipment can detectand record small changes in variables allowing experimental results to berecorded over short or long periods of time. Results can also be displayed in realtime helping to improve understanding. Data logging equipment, cameras andvideo cameras can be set up to record data and make observations which canthen be subsequently downloaded and viewed for analysis.Learning about Scotland and Scottish culture will enrich the learners' learningexperience and help them to develop the skills for learning, life and work they willneed to prepare them for taking their place in a diverse, inclusive andparticipative Scotland and beyond. Where there are opportunities to contextualiseapproaches to learning and teaching to Scottish contexts, teachers and lecturersshould consider this.Assessment should be integral to, and improve, learning and teaching. Theapproach should involve learners and provide supportive feedback. Self- andpeer-assessment techniques should be encouraged, wherever appropriate.Assessment information should be used to set learning targets and next steps.Suggestions for possible contexts and learning activities to support and enrichlearning and teaching are detailed in the table below.Course Support Notes for National 4 Chemistry Course6

The key areas are from the Added Value Unit Specification. Suggested learning activities are not mandatory. This offers examples ofsuggested activities, from which you could select a range. It is not expected that all will be covered. The contexts for key areas are open topersonalisation and choice, so centres are likely to devise their own learning activities. Exemplification of key areas provides an outlineof the level of demand and detail of the key areas.Risk assessment should always be carried out by teachers/lecturers prior to doing any of the experiments and demonstrations listed inthe table.Key areasRates of reactionFactors affecting rate ofreactionMonitoring reactions interms of rate of reactionInterpreting rate of reactiongraphsChemical Changes and StructureSuggested learning activitiesExemplification of key areasLearners will carry out a series of experiments thatinvolve production of a gas, for example acid withmetal carbonate or metal. Alternatively, an effervescenttablet can be added to water.Learners can collect data manually or by using dat