byUniversity of Malaya Library (UML)Source:Publication manual of the American Psychological Association .(6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

TitleContentPageContent1-3General Rules4-5Single AuthorTwo AuthorsThree to Seven AuthorsMore Than Seven AuthorsAuthor – Malay Names (Without family names)Author – Chinese NamesAuthor – Chinese Names with English NamesAuthor – Indian & Sikh Names (without family names)Inherited NamesConferred TitlesLocal Government Institution as AuthorForeign Government Institute as AuthorUnique Corporate Body NamesOrganization as AuthorConference Names with NumbersUnknown AuthorReference List: Book6Basic Format for BooksEdited Book, No AuthorEdited Book with an Author or AuthorsA TranslationEditionArticle or Chapter in an Edited BookMultivolume WorkReference List: Articles in Periodicals7Basic FormArticle in Journal Paginated by VolumeArticle in Journal Paginated by Issue1

Article in a MagazineArticle in a NewspaperLetter to the EditorReviewReference List: Other Print Sources8-9An Entry in an EncyclopediaWork Discussed in a Secondary SourceGovernment DocumentReport from a Private OrganizationPublished Conference Paper in Book FormProceedings Published Regularly OnlineUnpublished Conference PaperAcademic Exercise/Thesis (Unpublished)Doctoral Dissertation, abstracted in DAIMaster’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from a CommercialDatabaseMaster’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from an InstitutionalDatabase (sometimes referred to as commonsMaster’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from the WebDoctoral thesis, from a university outside the United StatesReference List: Electronic Sources10-12Article From an Online Periodical/DatabasesOnline Scholarly Journal ArticleOnline Scholarly Article with Printed Version AvailableOnline Newspaper ArticleOnline Magazine ArticleNon periodical Web Document, Web Page, or ReportChapter or Section of a Web DocumentOnline Forum or Discussion Board PostingComputer SoftwareE-books2

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources13-14Interview, Email, and Other Personal CommunicationsMotion PictureA Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or NationalAvailabilityA Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited AvailabilityTelevision Series Episode (Broadcast)Single Episode of a Television SeriesTelevision BroadcastA Television SeriesMusic RecordingSuggested Reading MaterialsAppendix3

General RulesSingle AuthorLast name first, followed by authorinitials.Berndt, T. J. . Friendship quality and socialdevelopment. Current Directions in PsychologicalScience, 11, 7-10.Two AuthorsList by their last names and initials.Use the ampersand (&) instead of"and."Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Moodmanagement across affective states: The hedoniccontingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality &Social; Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.Three to SevenAuthorsList by last names and initials;commas separate author names,while the last author name ispreceded again by ampersand (&).Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A.,White, A., Ganster, D. C., & Harlow, T. (1993).There's more to self-esteem than whether it is highor low: The importance of stability of self-esteem.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65,1190-1204.More Than SevenAuthorsAPA 6th ed. uses “. . .” instead,replacing all authors between thesixth author and the last author.Author - MalayNamesOmit bin/bintiHarris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro,R., Cruz, P., Berry, A. . Writing labs andthe Hollywood connection. Journal of Film andWriting, 44(3), 213-245.Asmah Binti OmarCite as(without familynames)Author - ChineseNamesAsmah Omar. (1991). Kemahiran berbahasa. KualaLumpur, Malaysia: Penerbitan Pustaka Antara.First name first, followed by authorinitials.Chu Chin NingCite asChu, C. N. (1995). Simulated counter-current adsorptionprocesses: A comparison of modeling strategies.Chemical Engineering Journal, 56, 59-65.Author - ChineseNames withEnglish NamesFamily names followed by theinitials of the English name and theauthor initials.Vincent Foo Hiap KhianCite asFoo, V. H. K. (1983). Sarawak: Mini episodes of thepast. Selangor, Malaysia: Fajar Bakti.4

Author-Indian &Sikh; NamesOmit d/o, s/o, a/l, a/pNarrayani a/p Jeganathan.Cite as(without familynames)Inherited NamesNarrayani Jeganathan.Cite as it isRaja Ahmad Niza.Cite asRaja Ahmad Niza.Conferred titlesOmit titleTun Mahathir MohamadCite asMahathir Mohamad.LocalGovernmentInstitution asAuthorCite under state and followed bythe name of department in Malay.Pahang, Jabatan Alam Sekitar.ForeignGovernmentInstitution asAuthorCite under state or country andfollowed by the name ofdepartment in English.New Zealand, Department of External Affairs.UniqueCorporate BodyNamesIf the name starts with Foundation(Yayasan), Board (Lembaga), citeas it is given.Yayasan Sabah.Organization asAuthorCite as it is.American Psychological Association.ConferenceNames withNumbersDo not include the numbers.Fifth Asia-Pacific Physics ConferenceCite asAsia-Pacific Physics ConferenceUnknown AuthorDon‟t use „Anonymous‟.Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10thed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.5

Reference List : BooksBasic Format forBooksAuthor, A. A. (Year of publication).Title of work: Capital letter also forsubtitle. Location: Publisher.Note: For place of publication citeincludes a country.Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide topreparing manuscripts for journal publication.Washington, DC: American PsychologicalAssociation.Neftci, S. N. . Principles of financial engineering(2nd ed.). London, England: Academic.Lawford, C. K. . Moments of clarity: Voices fromthe front lines of addiction and recovery. New York,NY: William Morrow.Edited BookUnknown author.Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997).Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY:Russell Sage Foundation.Edited BookWith author / authors.Plath, S. . The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil,Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.A TranslationNote: When you cite a republishedwork in your text, it should appearwith both dates.Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay onprobabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.).New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published1814).EditionOnly for 2Article or Chapterin an Edited BookAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Yearof publication). Title of chapter. InA. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title ofbook (pages of chapter). Location:Publisher.ndedition onwards.Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997).The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, NY: Universityof Chicago Press.Rogoff, B., & Mistry, J. (1985). Memory development incultural context. In M. Pressley & C.J. Brainerd(Eds.), Cognitive learning and memory in children(pp. 117-142). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Note: When you list the pages ofthe chapter or essay inparentheses after the book title,use "pp." before the numbers: (pp.1-21). This abbreviation, however,does not appear before the pagenumbers in periodical references,except for newspapers.MultivolumeWorkUse Vol. for a single volume andVols. for multiple volumes.Levinson, D. & Ember, M. (Eds.). (1996). Encyclopediaof cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY:Henry Holt.6

Reference List : Articles in PeriodicalsBasic FormThe APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication yeargoes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case,meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title isrun in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized orunderlined.Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volumenumber(issue number), pages.Article in JournalPaginated byVolumeContinuous pagination throughoutvolume.Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparingpsychology journal articles. Journal of Comparativeand Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.Article in JournalPaginated byIssueJournals paginated by issue beginwith page one in every issue.Therefore, the issue number getsindicated in parentheses after thevolume. The parentheses andissue number are not italicized orunderlined.Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The NewCriterion, 15(30), 5-13.Article in aMagazineArticle in aNewspaperHenry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade intoday's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp.precedes page numbers for anewspaper reference in APA style.Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2;multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp.B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.Schultz, S. (December 28). Calls made tostrengthen state energy policies. The CountryToday, pp. 1A, 2A.Letter to theEditorMoller, G. (August). Ripples versus rumbles[Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.ReviewBaumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledgemyth [Review of the book The self-knower: A herounder control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466467.7

Reference List : Other Print SourcesAn Entry in anEncyclopediaWork Discussedin a SecondarySourceBergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The newencyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).Chicago, NA: Encyclopedia Britannica.List the source the work wasdiscussed in:Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P.,& Haller, M. (1993). Models ofreading aloud: Dual-route andparallel-distributed-processingapproaches. PsychologicalReview, 100, 589-608.NOTE: Give the secondary sourcein the references list. In the text,name the original work, and give acitation for the secondary source.For example, if Seidenberg andMcClelland's work is cited inColtheart et al. and you did notread the original work, list theColtheart et al. reference in theReferences.GovernmentDocumentReport from aPrivateOrganizationIn Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited inColtheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), .Reference list:Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993).Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and paralleldistributed-processing approaches. PsychologicalReview, 100, 589-608.National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinicaltraining in serious mental illness (DHHS PublicationNo. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S.Government Printing Office.Author & publisher samePublishedConferencePaper in BookFormProceedingspublishedregularly onlineIn the text, use the following citation:American Psychiatric Association. . Practiceguidelines for the treatment of patients with eatingdisorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Hasmah Zanuddin, & Azizah Hamzah. .International trade agreement of intellectual propertyrights (TRIPS), copyright issues & burden to enforcein Malaysia. In K.Y. Choi (Ed.), Korean studies inSoutheast Asia: Strategic cooperation anddevelopment in research and education:ndProceedings of the 2 International Conference ofthe Korean Studies Association of Southeast AsiaUniversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (pp. 121-138).Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya.To cite proceedings that arepublished regularly, use the sameformat as periodical.Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., & Lent, R. .The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences105, 245-249. doi:10.1073/pnas.08054171058

Nadaraja Kannan. (Nov). The economicdepression of the 1930s: Its impact on race relationsin the Federated Malay State. Paper presented atthe International Association of Historians of AsiaConference, Manila, cise / Thesis(Unpublished)Eg:(Unpublished academic exercise);(Unpublished master‟s thesis);(Unpublished doctoral dissertation)Santini, S. N. . Research methods for business: Askill building approach. (Unpublished master‟sthesis). University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.Yoshida, Y. . Essays in urban transportation.Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.DoctoralDissertation,abstracted in DAIMaster's Thesis /DoctoralDissertationfrom acommercialdatabaseEg:(Master‟s thesis);(Doctoral dissertation).Saarivirta-Kolpack, M. . A history of early teachertraining practices at Northern (Michigan University),1899-1953 (Master's thesis). Available fromProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMINo. 1439820)Master’s Thesis /DoctoralDissertation froman institutionaldatabase –Institutionalthesis from US(sometimesreferred to as aCommons)Eg:(Master‟s thesis);(Doctoral dissertation).Harper, E. B. . The role of terrestrial habitat in thepopulation dynamics and conservation of pondbreeding amphibians (Doctoral dissertation). Thesis /DoctoralDissertation fromthe webEg:(Master‟s thesis);(Doctoral dissertation).Bartel, T. M. C. . Factors associated withattachment in international adoption (Doctoraldissertation, Kansas State University). Carbody and passengers in railvehicle dynamics (Doctoral thesis, Royal Institute ofTechnology, Stockholm, Sweden).

Reference List : Electronic SourcesArticle From anOnline Periodical /DatabasesOnline articles follow the sameguidelines for printed articles.Include all information the onlinehost makes available, includingan issue number in parentheses.Article without DOI:Bernstein, M. . 10 tips on writing the living Web. AList Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149.Retrieved from le without DOI:Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.(Date of publication). Title ofarticle. Title of Online Periodical,volume number(issue number ifavailable). Article with DOI:Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.(Date of publication). Title ofarticle. Title of Journal, volumenumber, pa