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Photography in Agriculture 1 Objectives To understand the basic techniques of photography. To compare traditional film and digital cameras in photography. To analyze the various equipment which can enhance photography. To create a quality photograph using basic rules and technology. To discuss the impact of photography in

publications. 2 Main Menu The Camera Film vs. Digital Equipment, Accessories & Necessities What Makes a Good Photograph Photography and Publications 3 The Camera 4

History of the Camera Ancient Times: Primitive camera formed images on walls in darkened rooms 16th century: Camera was improved by inserting a telescope lens 1727: Professor J. Schulze mixed chalk, nitric acid and sliver to accidentally create the first photo-sensitive compound 1834: Henry Fox Talbot created negatives 1888: First Kodak camera containing a 20foot roll of paper 1889: The Kodak camera was improved with a roll of film instead of paper 5

History of the Camera 1924: First high quality 35mm film camera released 1963: First color instant film developed by Polaroid 1983: Kodak introduced disk camera 1985: Minolta marketed the worlds first auto focus SLR camera 1990: Adobe Photoshop released 6 History of the Camera 1991: Kodak DCS-100 became the first digital SLR

2000: Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone 2001: Polaroid went bankrupt 2004: Kodak ceased production of film cameras 2007: New digital cameras average 5.0 to 7.0 megapixels for $400 2011: Smartphones account for a fourth of all digital pictures taken 7 How a Camera Works A camera is made of three basic elements: an optical element (the lens) a storage element (the film or memory card)

a mechanical element (the camera body) 8 Optical Element The lens uses a curved piece of glass or plastic takes the beams of light bouncing off of an object and redirects them to form a real image 9 Storage Element Film is used in a traditional camera makes a chemical record of the pattern of

light Memory card is used in a digital camera makes digital images made up of tiny squares of light called pixels resolution is measured in pixels per inch 10 Camera Diagram 11 Types of Cameras

Compact or Viewfinder single use ultra compact point and shoot Prosumer Professional Single Lens Reflex (SLR) 12 Single Use Film & Digital Cameras Compact

Lightweight Point and shoot only No creative control Some have built in flash Turn entire camera in for processing Inexpensive Widely available

13 Ultra Compact Digital Cameras Lightweight Easy to use Convenient to carry Few controls and features Buttons and dials are small though usually work well Moderate to high priced

14 Point & Shoot Cameras

Easiest to use Offer point and shoot convenience Automatic flash usually built in Single, non-interchangeable lens Film speed rating is automatically detected All settings automatic Most produce good results Low cost Minimal input from user 15 Point & Shoot Cameras Lightweight Offer plenty of scene modes

Some have semi-automatic and manual controls All but the cheapest offer good image quality Low- to moderately-priced depending on the following: features number of megapixels 16 Prosumer Cameras Step above the point and shoot camera Through-the-lens (TTL) focusing One of the fastest growing categories of cameras

Appeal to budget conscious semi-serious photographers Most have a zoom lens 17 Prosumer Digital Cameras 5.0 to 6.0 megapixels Higher resolution is combined with more advanced features such as high quality lenses Advanced features for creative control Accept accessories and add-ons including:

converter lenses filters remote controls external flashes Moderately- to high-priced 18 How It Works Light enters the viewfinder directly to allow the photographer to frame and compose the picture

19 Parallax Error With point-and-shoot and prosumer cameras, the photograph is taken through the main lens However, the view from the lens and the viewfinder is slightly different, this is called parallax error 20 Professional Cameras

Cost between $1,500 and $8,000 Based on SLR design Resolution 6.0 12.0 megapixels Advanced creative controls 21 SLR Cameras Light path is directed from the lens through a mirror and prism Same image is projected onto the storage

device during exposure Offers the greatest accuracy when focusing and composing a scene 22 SLR Cameras Single lens refers to the fact that a single lens is used to both view and photograph your subject Reflex refers to the mechanical operation of the camera during exposure Light from the lens is immediately reflected upward, through a prism, and then out the viewfinder for the photographer to see

23 SLR Cameras When the shutter is released, the mirror momentarily moves up and out of the lights path in a reflex action Light can be focused onto the storage device at the back of the camera During exposure, the light passes through the lens directly to the storage device without being reflected by the mirror to the viewfinder this is why the image temporarily vanishes from the viewfinder when the shutter is released

24 SLR Cameras The main advantage is the choice of: automatic semi-automatic completely manual control over shutter speed, aperture and focus 25 SLR Cameras Lens of the SLR is interchangeable Nearly unlimited choice of optional lenses with differing focal lengths, such as:

wide angle telephoto fish bowl macro 26 SLR Cameras Have various attachment points for accessories, such as:

tripod remote shutter release flash Most new models contain a small built-in flash Relatively bulky size compared to compact cameras High-priced 27 Digital SLR Cameras Top-of-the-line Outstanding optics

Produce high resolution images Accept interchangeable lenses Sophisticated accessories Function automatically but also have a full range of manual controls May not come with lenses, but can be purchased separately High-priced to very expensive

28 Film vs. Digital 29 Film A strip of material coated with chemicals When exposed to light, chemicals react and produce a defined image amount of light determines the exposure too much light = overexposed image will be pale and washed out

too little light = underexposed image will be too dark Each camera has controls to obtain the correct exposure 30 Film Size A camera will only accept one size of film Most common format is 35mm number represents the width of the film shows excellent results can be enlarged to about 20 x 30 before the

resolution, or grain, becomes to noticeable 31 APS APS film (Advanced Photo System) Called Advantix by Kodak Smaller than 35mm

Photos almost as good as 35mm Cameras are generally smaller and lighter Offer additional features, such as: easier film loading selectable print formats data (time and date) encoding Printing can be more expensive Fewer labs do one-hour developing 32 Larger Format Film Larger formats are available produce high-quality images more detailed images

Cameras are large and heavy Used by professional portrait or wedding photographers 33 Slide vs. Print Film Print Film also called negative film records a negative image (inverse, complementary colors) most popular choice more forgiving (less particular about exposure)

resulting prints are easier to: store view show cheaper to enlarge 34 Slide vs. Print Film Slide Film

best quality enlargements for use in magazines or competitions captures greater detail deeper, truer colors correct exposure is very important 35 Black & White Film Emphasis on contrast

Far easier to develop than color Attraction is in manipulating the image in a home darkroom Famous photographer Ansel Adams artistry was in the darkroom developing his prints rather than in the field taking the shots 36 Film Speed Rating system developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO = speed of the film Also called ASA and DIN Speed of a film (100, 200, 400) represents

how quickly the film reacts to light 37 Film Speed 200 is the most popular Use a faster film such as 400 or 800 to avoid blur Disposable cameras contain 800 or 1000 film to avoid amateur mistakes like camera shake Use 100, 64, 50, or lower speed film for competitions or enlarging photos 38

Film Speed Slower film is less grainy Professionals generally use slow film Slow films can end up costing more due to: longer exposure need a lot of sunlight faster lenses need for a tripod Slow film (100) is suggested for bright days

Fast film (400, 800) for overcast, dim days 36 exposure is more cost effective than 24 39 Storage Always keep film out of direct sunlight and heat Preferably in a moisture-resistant bag in a refrigerator Use fresh film whenever possible check the expiration date For best results, develop film as soon as possible

The longer film is left, the more the image will deteriorate 40 Digital Cameras Take photographs by focusing light from the lens onto a charge-coupled device (CCD) converts light to electrical signals Data is projected onto a grid of pixels Each pixel is assigned a color and brightness value All the pixels together form the entire image 41

Digital Cameras Image data is stored in the following: the cameras internal memory a memory card computer hard drive 42 Digital Cameras Have a small preview (LCD) screen to view the images stored in memory Can be connected to a computer for downloading the photos to the computers hard drive for storage

Allow for easy viewing printing posting photos to the Internet Avoid the expense and delay associated with film processing 43 Picture Size Number of pictures that can be taken depends on the memory capacity Several resolution settings resolution: the number of pixels per inch of the picture file

Low-resolution photos take up less memory but may be too small to print or enlarge to the desired size without losing detail enlarged image can take on a pixelated appearance ideal for uploading to the Internet 44 Picture Size High-resolution photos take up more storage space extra information present in these photos produces better results when printing or enlarging

Large file size of high-resolution photos make them impractical for uploading to the Internet 45 Digital Zoom Is a function of a digital camera used to make the image seem larger Works the same as cropping or enlarging a photo in a graphics program Image quality may be reduced 46

Optical Zoom Allows the photographer to zoom in on the subject in the viewfinder Adjusts the image within the camera Produce greater quality images 47 Pixels & Megapixels Digital cameras create images as a collection of pixels One megapixel = one million pixels 48

Pixels Tiny, tile-like squares digitally assigned with various colors and amount of light Digital images are made up of thousands of pixels More pixels = higher image resolution High Resolution Low Resolution 49 Resolution

Resolution relates primarily to: print size amount of detail an image has when viewed on a computer monitor at 100% Also referred to as DPI dots per inch Higher DPI = higher quality For professional printing, resolution must be 300 DPI or higher 50 LCD Monitor Screen on the back of a digital camera Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

Used to frame shots instead of using the viewfinder Also used to preview images right after they are taken view menus and settings review recorded images when the camera is in play mode 51 LCD Monitor

Displays 100 percent view of a framed shot Does not display complete color accuracy May be difficult to view in bright light Consumes a lot of battery power 52 File Formats There are three types of digital camera file formats: JPEG most common TIFF RAW

Higher-end digital cameras allow you to select the format Professional photographers usually prefer to shoot RAW Advanced cameras have a setting to simultaneously shoot RAW + JPEG both formats will be saved to a memory card as separate files 53 Equipment, Accessories & Necessities 54

Photography Equipment Camera Lenses Filters

Caps and straps Cases Flash Film or memory card Batteries Tripod Voice recorder, notepad or journal 55 Cameras Compact or point-and-shoot automatic camera makes photography very easy small and simple to operate

SLR Single Lens Reflex better image quality ability to change lenses according to situation manual control over focus, aperture and shutter speeds increased flexibility and control 56 Lenses Fixed focal length lens lens does not change at all only way to get a close up shot is to move closer to the subject get too close, subjects features become

distorted found mainly on point-and-shoot cameras 57 Optical vs. Digital Zoom Lens Optical zoom true zoom focal length actually extends and retracts

image is magnified by the lens itself produces the best quality images used to magnify an image 3x, 4x, 10x and more Buy a camera with the longest optical zoom affordable Very long zooms are prone to camera shake, particularly in low light use a tripod 58 Optical vs. Digital Zoom Lens Digital zoom lens not a true zoom

simulated zoom that enlarges the central portion of an image actual length of the lens does not change pre-crops the center area of an image resolution is reduced, giving the appearance of zooming in similar to cropping with photo editing software Original Using a digital zoom 59 Interchangeable &

Converter Lenses Single Lens Reflex cameras accept a wide range of interchangeable lenses Lenses are measured in focal lengths usually specified in millimeters (mm) 60 Focal Lengths of Lenses Lens Focal Length* Lens Name Typical

Photography Less than 21 mm Extreme Wide Angle Architecture 21-35 mm Wide Angle Landscape

35-70 mm Normal 70-135 mm Medium Telephoto Portraiture 135-300+ mm Telephoto Sports, Bird &

Wildlife Street & Documentary 61 Filters Are transparent or translucent glass elements attached to the front of the lens Protect a camera lens Change the characteristics of light entering it Add special effects and colors to an image 62

Caps & Straps Lens caps protect lenses with front and rear lens caps add a UV or skylight filter to each lens to serve as extra protection NEVER touch either end of the lens unless cleaning with appropriate materials Straps useful for carrying the camera keeps your hands free while keeping the camera ready for action 63

Camera Cases Carry all parts and small accessories Need to be well padded Adjustable compartments and pockets are very useful Shoulder bags are popular weight on one side all day can get uncomfortable Backpack frees up both hands makes is easier to travel distributes weight evenly 64

Flash Are useful for: brightening faces on overcast days indoor shots enhancing color creating unique lighting effects Most cameras include a built-in flash Hand-held flash

brightens dark areas while the shutter remains open Many museums prohibit flash units because they can damage the exhibits 65 Hot Shoe Slotted bracket generally located on the top of a camera Also known as an accessory shoe Allows an external flash or other device to be connected to a camera 66

Hot Shoe & Flash When an external flash is inserted into the hot shoe the following occurs: 1. electrical contacts touch the contacts on the foot of the flash 2. when the shutter-release button is pressed, the flash goes off in sync with the shutter 3. primarily found on prosumer and SLR cameras 67 Film or Memory Card Storage Carry extra film or memory cards

Store in protective cases Keep out of heat and direct sunlight 68 Memory Cards As a rule of thumb, the following size is a recommended minimum: Camera Megapixels Minimum Card Size 3

128 MB 4 256 MB 5 512 MB 6 1 GB

8 2 GB 69 Memory Card Care No moisture, dust or other harmful elements Static electricity may cause loss of data Do not touch contacts on the edge Face card in correct direction before inserting into camera or card reader Do not force into slot Turn off camera before inserting or removing Store in case while not in use

70 Batteries Buy correct type of batteries Some cameras may use manufacturers batteries only Carry extra batteries for the following: camera flash voice recorder

Rechargeable batteries charge before leaving carry charger for emergencies Keep batteries in dry, cool environment 71 Camera Support Essential for steady, top-quality shots Various types include:

tripod mono-pod mini-tripod window mount suction cup mounts Avoid camera movement by using one of the following: cable release self-timer feature 72 Recording Devices Voice recorder, notepad, journal and pen are

useful for remembering good locations details about your subjects camera settings for individual shots 73 Camera Care Cameras do not respond well to the following:

dirt sand vibration being dropped Protect your investment with regular attention 74 Camera Care Dirty lenses or filters produce low-contrast images and washed out colors Keep equipment clean with the following:

soft, lint-free cloth special dust-free tissues lens-cleaning fluid blower bush A small screwdriver can tighten up any screws which come loose 75 Camera Care

Use a good padded case and strap Always replace the lens caps when you remove a lens Clean the lenses regularly Add a UV or skylight filter to every lens Clean auto focus, exposure and viewfinder windows for correct operation Use a can of compressed air to blow dust and lint out of camera parts 76 Traveling With a Camera X-ray machines hand-luggage (carry-on) scanners do not

significantly affect your film or memory cards checked-luggage scanners can harm your film and memory cards Do NOT put film or memory cards in checked baggage Always take your camera and lenses as carry-on baggage Never check your equipment with suitcases to prevent rough handling, vibration, cold or theft 77 What Makes a Good

Photograph 78 What Makes a Good Photo? A photograph is a message It conveys: a statement an impression an emotion 79 What to Include Subject is the central point of interest

is usually placed in the foreground of the shot (towards the viewer) Background gives the subject: relevance presence location other interest

80 What to Exclude Anything which is not part of the subject or its context is only a disruption clutters up the image weakens the message, such as: unnecessary background objects trees that appear to be growing out of the subjects head power lines in a landscape

81 What to Exclude Eliminate irrelevant surroundings by: moving closer to the subject trying a different angle zooming in using editing software, such as:

Adobe Photoshop Adobe Photoshop Elements Corel Paintshop Microsoft Digital Image Suite 82 Theme Good photographs have a theme a universal message that is communicated by the photo

Example: A picture of a deer may convey a message of calm and peacefulness. However, a picture of a bear eating its prey can convey a sense of urgency and fearfulness. 83 What Makes a Great Photo? Human eyes instinctually find light, bright areas look for people particularly eyes and mouths 84

What Makes a Great Photo? Our minds quickly ask questions, such as: Do we know the people in the picture? What are they feeling, and how does this relate to us? Are they drawing attention to something? Do we recognize it and what does it look like? What is the picture about? What is the main subject or objective? How big is the subject? 85 Subject

Should be obvious Is usually 2/3 and background 1/3 in certain cases proportions may be opposite in any case, attention should be focused on the subject 86 Scale Is determined by comparing elements to something of known size, such as: person animal car

87 Abstract Features Draw attention to more abstract features color or tone fiery red relaxing blue natural green gloomy black

shape soft curves hard edges sweeping line Manipulate color and shape by using shade and shadows 88 Composition Draws the eye from one element to another, investigating: unity contrast detail

89 Composition Common rules of composition include rule of thirds framing cropping angle

balance 90 Rule of Thirds When looking through your cameras viewfinder, imagine there are lines dividing the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically essentially dividing your image into nine equal-shaped blocks like a tic-tac-toe board Frame your subject at one of the intersection

points Do not place the subject in the center of the viewfinder 91 Framing Every photo has a foreground and a background Use them together to add an interesting element to the shot Use foreground elements to frame the photos subject architectural or natural elements such as: doorways arches

trees 92 Visual Cropping Crop photos visually before taking them Look into the corners of the viewfinder Are things included that should not be? Remove, or crop, these elements from photos by:

moving closer to the subject zooming in on the subject moving the subject in the viewfinder trying different angles Remove anything which will reduce the impact of the subject 93 Angle The best angle is not always upright and directly in front Unique vantage points can increase interest in the photo

get down to eye level climb a tree or stand on a stool Experiment and try different perspectives Look for angles which increase the portrayal of mood and inspiration 94 Balance Achieving good balance requires a combination of colors shapes areas of light and dark which complement one

another 95 Natural Lines Use natural lines to draw the viewers eye to the subject, such as a path or road fence horizon

bridge 96 Lighting One of the most important elements of a good photograph Sunlight affects the following:

warmth depth texture form contrast color Biggest difference between an amateur and a professional shot 97 Time of Day Best times to shoot outdoors include: early morning and late afternoon sun is low

light is gold and orange Called magic hours one hour after sunrise one to two hours before sunset 98 Camera Controls The two most useful controls include: Focal length (the zoom of your lens) affects how much of the view is included in the shot Depth-of-Field (the f-stop of your lens)

affects how much of the foreground and background is in focus 99 Lenses Long lens (210mm) allows zoom-in to your subject makes distant elements look closer together than they really are Short lens (35mm) called a wide-angle lens because it allows you to zoom-out and get a wider view

exaggerates depth by combining a close foreground with a deep background Select the focal length based on the following: what should be included in the shot how you want to portray depth 100 Four Factors of Exposure Correct exposure is determined by four factors:

aperture shutter speed film speed light level Most cameras are automatic and make these decisions for you Higher-end cameras allow you to intervene to create particular effects Understanding the relationship between these four factors increases creative advantage

101 Aperture Is the size of the shutter opening Diaphragm is an adjustable device inside the lens alters the size of the shutter opening Very small aperture focuses both the background and foreground Large aperture focuses only the subject 102 Depth of Field

Is the area of acceptable sharp focus Extends in front of and behind the point of focus For landscapes, a wide depth of field is used to get both in focus For portraits, emphasize the foreground and make the background blurry by using a narrow depth of field 103 Depth of Field Is affected by three things size of the aperture focal length of the lens

distance to the subject in focus Aperture and lens focal length combined create the field number or f-stop Bigger f-stop = Wider zone of focus 104 Shutter Speed Controls how long light is allowed to act on the film When the shutter-release is pressed, the shutter opens and then closes a fraction of a second later which is measured in seconds fast shutter speed 1/500th of a second

good for action shots slow shutter speed 1/60th of a second good for portraits, etc., allows more light 105 Selecting a Shutter Speed Select a shutter speed based on the size of your lens camera shake increases when the camera is zoomed in Rule of thumb shutter speed > or = length of the lens

wide lens of 35mm = shutter speed of 1/60s lens zoomed to 210mm = shutter speed of 1/250s 106 Light Level General rule: the brighter the view, the better the photograph Add light by using a flash Fill-flash usually built in to the camera fills in some light Use a reflective surface, such as a white card

or a reflector Use a filter to reduce the amount of light if needed 107 Optimum Exposure Considers four factors: aperture shutter speed

light level film speed All four factors are interrelated When one is set, the other must be adjusted to get the right exposure 108 Tips for a good photograph

Make sure the camera is steady Put the sun behind you and to one side Get closer Choose a format (vertical or horizontal) Include people Consider a variety of subjects Add depth Use proportion

Search for details Position the horizon Try different angels 109 Overall Composition As the artist, decide which features appeal to you and how best to emphasize them. 110 Photography and Publications 111

Photography in Communication Since 1839, photography has been used to record, report and inform Photography can: overcome the barriers of language communicate through universal visual symbols help to manage any farm aerial photos could mean the difference between a successful harvest or avoidable crop failure 112

Photography in Mass Media Today, photographs are reproduced by the billions can be found in the following:

newspapers magazines books catalogs brochures shop windows posters broadcast television slideshows and filmstrips 113 Photography & Publications The human eye is drawn to photos before text

naturally follows the flow of the photos because of shape and size Arrange photos by size and importance largest = most important 114 Layout Considerations for Photos When designing a layout, consider the design format use of color

subject or theme Use photos to: create the theme draw attention to important details evoke desired emotions and reactions 115 Color or Black & White Using color or black and white photographs can add visual stimuli to publications can draw a readers attention

should be based on the intended message and image of the publication has been the most common information sources in agriculture Color is usually more expensive to print than black and white 116 Captions Are phrases, sentences or paragraphs which describe the contents of an illustration, chart or

photograph Are usually placed directly above, below, or to the side of a picture 117 Good Captions Are more than just the subjects name and whats going on in the photograph Incorporate the five Ws: who when what why

where and sometimes how Are accurate Leave the copy editors with few, if any, questions 118 Copyrights Before you take a photo, you may need permission for the following:

buildings works of art other copyrighted items people public or private property Symbols are sometimes used to mark a copyrighted, trademarked or registered item

119 Copyrights Under U.S. law, copyright protection occurs automatically when an original work of authorship is fixed in a tangible medium of expression Example: A photograph of any subject is original as long as it was created by the photographer No minimal creativity is necessary to meet the originality requirement and no artistic value or beauty is required

120 Copyrighted Works Works of art are protected by copyright, such as: sculptures paintings clothing designs Buildings created on or after December 1, 1980, are protected Copyright owner has the exclusive right to reproduce a copyrighted work

121 Building Copyright Guidelines If the building is located in a public place or is visible from a public place no permission is needed to stand on a public street and photograph a public building no permission is needed to photograph a public building from inside the building permission may be needed to photograph separately-owned decorative objects in the building, such as a statue no permission is needed to stand on a public street and photograph a private building such as a church or house

122 Photographers Exception Applies only to buildings, which includes: houses office buildings churches gazebos garden pavilions

Does not apply to monuments or other copyrighted works such as statues and paintings 123 Art Permission may be needed to photograph a copyrighted work of art, such as: a statue in a public park a painting in a private collection or art museum

Getting permission can be tricky According to copyright law, permission is needed from the copyright owner buying a piece of art does not buy the copyright 124 Public Domain & Fair Use Works fall into public domain for several reasons, such as expiration of the copyright term in 2007, works created before January 1, 1932 are in public domain

Fair use is decided on a case-by-case basis by considering the purpose and character of the use nature of the copyrighted work amount of the piece used effect on the potential market for or value of the protected work 125 Publicity & Privacy Rights

Permission may be needed to photograph people due to state laws giving individuals privacy and publicity rights Most states recognize that individuals have a right of privacy Right of privacy gives an individual a legal claim against someone who intrudes on the individuals physical solitude or seclusion and against those who publicly disclose private facts 126 Publicity & Privacy Rights Avoid publishing or distributing any photo of an individual that reveals private facts about

the individual without permission Obtain a photographic release to include a person in a photograph 127 Permits Commercial photography on public property may need a permit from the appropriate government authority Usually a local or state film commission Permission is generally not required for tourist type photos Obey no entry signs Private property always requires permission

to enter the premises 128 Photos & the Internet Copyright laws and other laws do apply to the Internet Posting a photo on the Internet exposes it to the eyes of the whole world 129 Photography in Agriculture Spreads information to an assorted audience which consist of individuals that have

knowledge in agriculture, as well as those with no agricultural knowledge 130 Photography in Agriculture Plays an important role in agriculture Example: breeders of livestock depend on photos to display their animals in marketing and sales publications Deliver information to agricultural producers regarding new equipment, disease and insects

131 Photojournalism in Agriculture Gives the reader or viewer an image of the information delivered Helps to deliver content and meaning while making the publication more attractive 132 Photojournalism in Agriculture Example: aerial photos will relay visual information on the following:

irrigation patterns cattle crops harvesting 133 Sources www.photosecrets.com http://www.notrain-nogain.org/Train/Res/Write/caps.asp

http://photography.families.com/blog/elements-of-a-goodphoto www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/digitalphotography/ learnmore/composition.mspx http://www.elijournals.com/premier/showArticle.asp? aid=5394 http://clearlyexplained.com/technology/cameras/index.html www.scphoto.com/html/types.html www.shortcourses.com/choosing/types/04.htm www.digicamhelp.com http://photo.net/history/timeline http://www.outdoorphotographer.com/content/articles/gear/ digital_darkroom.shtml 134 Acknowledgements

Production Coordinator Stevi Huffaker Maggie Bigham Graphics Editor Maggie Bigham Production Manager Dusty Moore V.P. of Brand Management Clayton Franklin MMXV CEV Multimedia, Ltd. Executive Producer Gordon W. Davis, Ph.D.

135

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