EXTREME WAVES: THEIR OBSERVATION AND THEIR GENERATION Frdric DIAS, University College Dublin John Dudley, Claudio Viotti, Roxana Tiron, Sarah Gallagher and others The Extreme Waves Map of Ireland Ireland is battered by waves from all sides and has suffered many extreme oceanic events. From one of the largest known underwater landslides in the world at Storegga to the tragedy of the Fastnet Yacht race; from tsunamis in Kinsale to the navy vessel Risn battered by rogue waves, it is clear that Ireland has experienced a wide variety of ocean extremes. This map presents the first catalogue of such events, dating as far back as the turn of the last ice age. Detailed studies of this kind are important both to understand the science of the ocean wave environment of Ireland, and also for applications such as improving the safety of shipping and coastal structures, and generating renewable energy from the sea. They can also provide new insights into myths and legends, and the origin of many unexplained features of our natural environment. Legend Storm Waves MULTIWAVE PROJECT

S1 1989 S2 S4 S5 1837, 1861, 1894, 1935, 1987, 1988 and The Mullet Peninsula, Co. Mayo 1869 and 1881: Calf Rock, Co. Cork 1864: Valentia, Co. Kerry 1877: Railway Lines, Co. Dublin and Co. Wicklow 1899: Greenore, Carlingford Lough, Co. S6

Louth S7 1941: Inisheer Lighthouse, the Aran Islands S8 1945: Rosslare, Co. Wexford S9 1951: Kilkee, Co. Clare S10 1953: the Aran Islands S11 1962: Co. Cork S12 1974: Kilmore, Co. Wexford S13 1979: Fastnet Race S14 1982: Ventry, Co. Kerry S15

1985: Fastnet Rock Lighthouse Tsunamis T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 Extreme wave events in Ireland: 14680 BP2012 L. OBrien, J. M. Dudley and F. Dias. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1-24, 2013

Map Layout copyright L. OBrien, J. M. Dudley, F. Dias T11 T12 14,680 BP: the Barra Fan, Peach Slide 8200 BP: Storegga slide 1755, 1761, 1941 and 1975: The Lisbon, Portugal tsunamis 1767: The River Liffey, Dublin 1841: Kilmore, Co. Wexford 1854: Kilmore, Co. Wexford 1894: Galway Bay and The Atlantic (Festina Lente and Manhattan) 1922: Ballycotton, Co. Cork

1909: Westport Quay, Co. Mayo 1910: Cork, Waterford, Southampton, Jersey, Dublin and Ilfracombe 1912: Bray, Co. Wicklow 1932: Inishowen, Co. Donegal Rogue Waves R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9

R10 R11 R12 Sea R13 1852: Inis Mr, The Aran Islands 1883: Youghal , Co. Cork 1899: Kilkee, Co. Clare 1914: Iniskeeragh, off Donegal 1936: Dundalk, Co. Louth 1972: Mullaghderg, Donegal 2004: L.E. Risn, off Donegal coast 2006: off Portrush, Co. Antrim 2006: Ardglass, Co. Down 2007: Doonbeg, Co. Clare

2007: Valentia Island, Co. Kerry 2011: Swanland, off Bardsey Island, Irish 2011: Largest wave recorded in Ireland The Extreme Waves Map of Ireland 1962 ! SOME EXAMPLES : MULLET PENINSULA NOAA 16 July 2014 MULLET PENINSULA Eagle Island Lighthouse 67 m above sea level

Tower height = 11 m Close to the continental shelf Originally : two towers, only one left today NOAA 16 July 2014 MULLET PENINSULA During the construction of the west tower a great sea swept the partly built tower and much of the building materials into the sea. The towers were then completed with a massive storm wall on the sea side of the towers. 1837 Wave swept over island and took off the roofs of the dwelling homes there being no hurricane at the time. The sea must have risen 350 feet (~106m)

(The Irish Times) 11 March 1861 A monster wave broke over the east light shattering 23 panes, damaging reflectors and flooding the tower. Rock thrown up by a severe storm ? 29 December 1894 A storm damaged the dwellings and the east light beyond repair, broke the lantern glass, put out the light and damaged the protecting wall January 1987 and February 1988 Substantial damage done by storm NOAA 16 July 2014 SOME EXAMPLES : THE ARAN ISLANDS NOAA 16 July 2014 THE ARAN ISLANDS

1839 1852 1914 - 1953 1839 Boulders thrown up during the Night of the Big Wind 1852 Story that 15 people were swept to their deaths by a wave on Inis Mr Williams and Hall (2004) Cliff-top megaclast deposits of Ireland, a record of extreme waves in the North Atlantic storms or tsunamis? Evidence of megaclast deposits on the top of vertical cliffs up to 50m above sea level weighing 2.9 tonnes (117 tonnes at 12m, 250 tonnes at sea level) NOAA 16 July 2014 2013 2014 WINTER IN IRELAND

Loop Head, Ireland This cliff is about 30 m high 01 February 2014 NOAA 16 July 2014 SOME EXAMPLES : IRISH NAVAL SHIP 05 October 2004 On Canadian submarine, HMS Chicoutimi, a fire broke out onboard after a significant ingress of water during repairs

LE Risn had taken shelter in Donegal Bay due to bad weather when it responded to a pan-pan broadcast Strong gale, heavy swell with waves approximately 3 4 m Sustained damage just off Rathlin OBirne island by two unusually large waves NOAA 16 July 2014 IRISH NAVAL SHIP 2004 Captain Lt Cdr. Terry Ward, eyewitness account 2 very large waves ~10-12 m with short period The ship pivoted on the crest of the first wave and fell down the other side.

The bow plunged into a second large wave, about one third of the ship was submerged The front of the ship filled with water until the buoyancy of the ship pushed it back up through the wave On the port side of the forecastle the flare cracked and a piece (~A4 size) of the deck broke away and water was getting in. The window wipers were all removed The flare was moving and could have peeled back if the ship was to continue NOAA 16 July 2014 OCEAN WAVE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

Current ocean wave measurement uses spectral approaches developed in the 1950s Surface waves are recorded with a fixed length time series (usually around 20 minutes) from which are derived nominal wave spectra Measurements are made at a single point Many of the most dangerous wave classes on the ocean (wave breaking, rogue waves, etc) either cannot be measured at all or are inaccurately recorded because of sampling deficiencies Sensor cost precludes wide area deployment and inhibits measurement of full spatio-temporal wave evolution dynamics NOAA 16 July 2014

ALTERNATIVE OCEAN WAVE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES Spatial coverage Remote sensing Extensive In situ Optical methods Limited

Limited Sea surface Limited representation High quality High quality/ Problems in rough sea states Accessibility High costs

High costs/ platforms required Available Advantages (in green) and drawbacks (in red) NOAA 16 July 2014 Irish M4 Weather Buoy LOCATION OF THE M-BUOYS FROM THE IRISH MARINE WEATHER BUOY NETWORK AND THE NEARSHORE BUOYS Today (16 July 2014), only the M3 and M4 wave buoys operate normally unfortunately !

The nearshore buoys have been deployed only during the recent years and for a limited amount of time. NOAA 16 July 2014 THE IRISH MARINE WEATHER BUOY NETWORK NOAA 16 July 2014 Irish M4 Buoy 12 14 December 2011 Several 20 m waves HMAX (Sarah Gallagher, PhD student) 12 Dec 2011

13 Dec 2011 NOAA 16 July 2014 14 Dec 2011 IRELAND 13 December 2011 at 12:00 Some even larger waves away from the buoy Scale goes to more than 26 metres NOAA 16 July 2014 IRELAND Winter 2013/2014 Wave height of 23.4 m

recorded at M4 wave buoy on 26 JAN 2014 Wave height of 25 metres recorded at Kinsale Energy Gas Platform on 12 FEB 2014 NOAA 16 July 2014 Wave height of 25 metres recorded at Kinsale Energy Gas Platform on 12 FEB 2014 IRELAND Winter 2013/2014 Thank you Joe Sienkiewicz, Laury Miller and

Sinead Farrell NOAA 16 July 2014 EXTREME OCEAN WAVES GENERATED BY THE BATHYMETRY Giants Causeway, Northern Ireland 01 February 2014 Mullaghmore, Ireland 06 January 2014 NOAA 16 July 2014 THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION NAO index: Difference in sea level pressure between Iceland and the Azores Positive mode generates strong westerly winds at mid-latitude, and mild and wet winters in Ireland Negative mode generates weaker winds, and cold winters (such as 2010/2011)

NOAA 16 July 2014 A CLEAR INFLUENCE OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION Averaged winter (December, January, February) NAO index Very strong contrast between for example 1993 and 2010 NOAA 16 July 2014

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