Warm Up December 7 Answer the following questions on a post it: 1.What kind of attack did Germany use in World War II? What country could this strategy not be used against? 2.What strategy was being used by France and Germany in regards to Hitlers aggression? What was the United States strategy? 3.What was the major invasion of Normandy, France called? Why was this such an important victory for the Allies? 4.What is the day that Germany surrendered to the Allies called? 5.5 WWII IN THE PACIFIC
Japans Ambitions in the Pacific 1937 Hideki Tojo (head of Japanese army) launched a launched a full-scale invasion of China By 1941, Tojo and Japanese army had seized all of French, Dutch, and British colonies in Asia US cut off trade with Japan no oil Japan set sights on oil fields in the Dutch East Indies inevitable war Japans Aggression November 5, 1941 Tojo ordered the Japanese army to
prepare for an attack on the US US broke Japanese secret codes to discover the planned attack but did not know when or where it would occur FDR sent military war warnings to bases in Hawaii, Guam, and the Philippines FDR believed if war was inevitable, then Japan would commit the first act Peace talks went on until December 6, 1941 when the US decoded a Japanese message instructing the Japanese diplomats to reject all US peace proposals This means war. - FDR
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor December 7,1941 Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor (Oahu Island of Hawaii) 1.5 hour attack Over 180 aircrafts launched from 6 aircraft carriers US could not effectively mount a counterattack 2,403 Americans killed, 1,178 wounded, 21 ships sunk (8 battleships), over 300 aircraft destroyed or damaged BUT 3 aircraft carriers were out at sea and were spared. It was a mess. I was working on the USS Shaw. It was on a floating dry dock. It was in flames. I started to go down into the pipe fitters ship to get my toolbox when anther wave of Japanese came in. I got under a set of concrete steps at the dry dock where the battleship Pennsylvania was. An officer came by and asked me to go into the Pennsylvania and try to get the fires out. A bomb had penetrated the marine deck, and three decks below. Under that was the magazines: ammunition, powder, shells. I said, There aint no way Im gonna go down there. It could blow up any minute. I was young and 16. Not stupid. John Garcia, Pearl Harbor witness
US Response to Pearl Harbor I never wanted to have to fight this war on two fronts. We havent the Navy to fight in both the Atlantic and the Pacific so we will have to build up the Navy and the Air Force and that will mean that we will have to take a good many defeats before we can have a victory. FDR during attacks Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, [the Japanese launched] an unprovoked and dastardly attack. FDR, address to Congress Dec. 8, 1941 Dec. 8, 1941 - Congress approved declaration of war against Japan 3 days later, Germany and Italy
declared war on US Remember Pearl Harbor! 2 front war (Europe and Pacific) US needed a bigger military Young Americans packed recruiting offices Congress expanded the draft 15M soldiers 8 weeks basic training The civilian went before the Army doctors, took off his clothes, feeling silly; jigged, stooped, squatted, wet into a bottle; became a soldier. He learned how to sleep in the mud, tie a knot, kill a man. He learned the ache of loneliness, the ache of exhaustion, the kinship of misery. He learned that men make the same queasy noises in the morning, feel the same longings at night; that every man
is alike and that each man is different. Sergeant Debs Myers Japanese Pacific Domination Jan-June 1942 Japan conquered: Mainland: Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, and a large region of China Pacific: Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake Island, the Solomon Islands, 2 Alaskan islands, and more
General Douglas MacArthur in command of Allied forces in the Philippines Losing FDR ordered him to return home I shall return. Doolittles Raid Spring 1942 tide turns for Allies in the Pacific April 18, 1942 Doolittle's Raid
Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle led 16 bombers in an air raid on Tokyo and other cities Pearl Harbor style air attack... Americans pleased, Japanese hurt Battle of Midway Midway an island northwest of Hawaii Japanese code broken to reveal the planned attack on Midway
Admiral Chester Nimitz to defend Midway June 3, 1942 US scouts found Japanese fleet Nimitz sent American torpedo planes and dive bombers Japanese could not react to bombers, all aircrafts remained on the decks Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers and 250 planes Americans had avenged Pearl Harbor. Japanese official Battle of Midway
TURNING POINT in WWII in the Pacific in favor of the Allies island hopping to get closer to Japan Allies on the Offensive August 1942 19,000 Allied troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands Japanese left island in early 1943 (1st defeat on land) Island of Death Island hopped back to the
Philippines in Oct 1944 People of the Philippines: I have returned. - MacArthur The Japanese Defense Kamikaze divine wind attack in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships Not used until 1944 a strange mixture of respect and pity Vice Admiral Charles Brown Despite the effectiveness of
kamikazes, Japanese defense in the Philippines was a disaster Lost 3 battleships, 4 aircraft carriers, 13 cruisers, and 500 men Japanese Imperial Navy severely damaged Iwo Jima Feb-March 1945 - After success in Philippines, MacArthur and Allies turned to the island of Iwo Jima sulfur island Critical asset for Allies wanted
to set up a temporary base to be close to Japan Heavily guarded with 27,000 Japanese soldiers 6,000 marines died most deadly battle in the Pacific at that time Only 200 Japanese survived Most-enduring image of WWII
The Battle for Okinawa April 1945 US marines invaded Okinawa an Island off of Japan (340 miles) - Typhoon of Steel Allied ships suffered large kamikaze attacks, as well as large land casualties 7,600 Americans killed < 110,000 Japanese killed
2 Japanese generals committed suicide Allies one step closer to mainland Japan The Manhattan Project Allied victory at Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan BUT Allied leaders knew Japanese troops would put up a strong fight to protect the island. Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon the atomic bomb developed by the Manhattan Project Truman didnt know about project until POTUS Led by General Leslie Groves and American
scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimer July 16, 1945 1st test a red-hot elephant standing balanced on its trunk. Trumans Decision July 26, 1945 Truman ordered military to make final plans to drop atomic bombs on 2 Japanese targets The final decision of where and when to use the atomic bomb was up to me. Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used. US warned Japan that it faced prompt and utter destruction if it did not surrender immediately.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6, 1945 Enola Gay (B-29 bomber) dropped Little boy over Hiroshima (Japanese military hub) ceased to exist August 9, 1945 Bockscar dropped Fat Man on Nagasaki leveled half of city By end of 1945 almost 200,000 people died of injuries because of the bomb itself or radiation September 2, 1945 Victory Over Japan Day aka V-J Day - Emperor Hirohito
surrendered Japan Yalta Conference Feb 1945 - Yalta Conference Big Three (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) met in USSR to discuss Germanys fate when they lost Stalin harsh approach, separate Germany into zones occupied by Allied troops Churchill disagreed FDR acted as mediator Wanted Soviet army to join in the Pacific Wanted Stalins support of new world
peace-keeping organization called the United Nations. Yalta Conference Compromises at Yalta Division of Germany into 4 temporary zones (US, GB, USSR, France) Free and unfettered elections in Poland and other Soviet occupied eastern European countries Stalin joined war against Japan and agreed to participate in an international peace conference in the US (form the UN)
Nuremburg War Trials Discovery of death camps 24 Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of citizens crimes against peace planning/waging an aggressive war war crimes acts against the customs of warfare, such as the killing of hostages and prisoners, the plundering of private property, and the destruction of towns and cities. Nuremburg Trials (1945-49)
Defendants (the accused): Hitlers most trusted party officials, govt ministers, military leaders, and powerful industrialists Prosecution led by US Chief Justice Robert Jackson Nuremberg War Trials 12 of 24 sentenced to death (2 committed suicide before execution), most remaining sentenced to prison time Later, 200 lesser leaders found guilty of war crimes Many Nazis did go free some argue the Nuremburg Trials didnt go far enough in finding and prosecuting Nazis IMPACT established the principle that people are responsible for their own actions during war
following orders is not an excuse Model for the Declaration of Human Rights and eventual establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) ATOMIC BOMB DEBATE 1 you are arguing FOR dropping the atomic bombs 2 you are arguing AGAINST dropping the atomic bombs
Protocols for arrival and departure. Security officers present. Panic buttons in rooms. Mediators and staff trained in IPV. Findings cannot be applied to less safe environments or untrained mediators. Not suggesting mandated mediation or joint mediation for these cases.
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