World War II and the Grand Alliance World War II: UK, US, and USSR Britain declared war on Germany Sept. 3 1939 Operation Barbarossa June 22 1941 US declared war on Japan Dec. 8 1941 As the three main countries fighting the Axis powers, what do they have in common? Despite being on the same side of the war, where did disagreement/tension start to show in relation to the war? Things to consider . . . Through Lend-Lease, the US provided $31 billion in aid to Britain and $11 billion to the Soviet
Union. 2015 equivalent: $450 billion and $160 billion US and UK launched propaganda campaigns to help improve public opinion of the Soviet Union Uncle Joe Although all three were at war in 1942, the Soviet Union was holding down the only front in continental Europe. Atlantic CharterAugust 1941 Roosevelt and Churchill meet at sea of the coast of Newfoundland.
Agree to oppose all postwar territorial changes that violated the wishes of the population concerned support democratically elected governments in regions emancipated from German rule Favor creating international peacekeeping organization to supplant League of Nations What would USSR think? Churchill
Declining power Fighting longest Balance of power Preserve empire Eliminate German dominance Pragmatic Roosevelt (Truman) Stalin
Smaller losses B/c of losses deserved comp. in Primarily in Pacific E. Europe (Poland More ideological and buffer frontier) goals End to Auth. Regimes Eliminate German dominance blamed for war Keep US/USSR in war Security against antagonistic
against Japan powers in West Idealist Conferences CasablancaJanuary 1943 Cairo and TeheranNovember 1943 YaltaFebruary 1945 PotsdamAugust 1945
CasablancaJanuary 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill Stalin declined b/c Stalingrad, Free French present but minimal role and not in military planning Objective: coordinate their policies Tactical procedure, allocation of resources, diplomacy Advancement of the idea of unconditional surrender to bring about the destruction of the philosophies in those countries which are based on conquest and subjugation of other people. Roosevelt Logical progression of Atlantic Charter
Why meet in Casablanca? CairoNovember 22-26 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) Objective: boost sagging Chinese morale with continued financial and military support for the nationalists. Discuss war with Japan and future of Asia. Four Policemenidea that there would be a dominant power in each main region that would be responsible for keeping the peace in that area. China would fill the vacuum after defeat of Japan. Roosevelt and Jiang shared ideas about China
overseeing decolonization and facilitate the onset of a trusteeship system in Asia. Roosevelt did not want Indo-China to go back to France. Not supported by UK and eventually dropped. Cairo Declaration Continue the war against Japan Insist upon unconditional surrender Remove Japan from lands it conquered Restore Japan to its 1894 frontiers (pre Sino-Japanese war) Agree to no Allied acquisition of land on mainland Asia or in Pacific Islands
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