World War I

World War I

World War I The failed peace Situation at wars end Exhaustion of belligerents Collapse of German regime Threat of revolution Collapse of Austria-Hungary Russia: Revolution in 1917 civil war from 1918 Major economic dislocations Problem: How to

a establish stable international order Respond to national aspirations provide security for France Prevent a resurgence of German militarism Compensate victors for damages Negotiating the peace (1919-20) Massive conference Total of 32 countries present, but dominant role of the great powers (big 5, then 4) Exclusion of Germany Absence of neutrals Absence of the Soviet Union Multiple negotiations under way simultaneously: Discussion of principles Expert committees

Separate treaties The protagonists and their goals Woodrow Wilson - U.S. an idealist Making the world safe for democracy A new international order via League of Nations David Lloyd George Britain Interest in restoring Britains global position Georges Clemenceau France a realist Aging cynic/ French nationalist Interest in security for France Reparations Orlando - Italy Interest in territorial gains

Japan interest in replacing Germany in China Wilsons Fourteen Points (January 1918 Open covenants openly arrived at Freedom of the Seas Evacuation of occupied territories National self determination for diverse peoples Poland Peoples of Austria-Hungary

An international organization to keep the peace (League of Nations) Treaties: Separate treaties for different areas: Versailles (Germany) St. Germain (Austria) Trianon (Hungary) Neuilly (Bulgaria) Sevres (Turkey) Treaty of Versailles -I Negotiated by Britain, France, US

Imposed on Germany as diktat Limitations on military Dissolution of general staff Volunteer army, max. 100,000 Severe limits on navy Surrender of merchant fleet

15 year occupation of Rhineland, Including demilitarized zone, 50 km from River Presumption of German guilt Provision for reparations (amounts to be determined by separate Commission) for all losses and damages as a result of the war Treaty of Versailles: Territorial changes (net loss: 15%)

Alsace Lorraine back to France Saar under French jurisdiction for 15 years Boundary changes with Denmark, Belgium Cede territory to Czechoslovakia Poland Danzig (Gdansk) as Free City in Polish corridor to sea Effect: separates East Prussia from the rest of Germany Loss of colonies

Eastern Europe Austria cedes territory to Italy, Poland Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia union with Germany forbidden Hungary cedes territory to Romania, Serbia Map redrawn into independent countries, ostensibly embodying principle of self-determination: Poland

Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia Hungary Bulgaria Romania Baltic states Problems with the peace The League of Nations is created but not fully empowered numerous tasks, mandates to be supervised Failure of the US to ratify Versailles or join the League Presumption that democracies would keep the peace

Numerous aggrieved parties: France feels inadequately protected Anglo-American guarantees, but US not involved, Britain reluctant France instead becomes guarantor of countries surrounding Germany Italy Other minorities: numerous national aspirations not protected Slovaks Hungarians.. Croats Ethnic Germans

Germany Germany and the peace Peace regarded as imposed and harsh both by New regime (Socialists and Catholics) Supporters of older order Germany is weakened, but not entirely (nor permanently) Rejection of the war guilt clause Reluctance to acknowledge defeat Successes and failures: League of Nations able to administer some mandates, able to sort out some territories

But no permanent mechanism to keep the peace League itself bound up with Versailles rejected by some Failure to make the world safe for democracy: Democracy fails in most successor states

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