World History Vocabulary

World History Vocabulary

European Middle Ages: 500 - 1200 Chapter 13 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms Chapter 13, Section 1 Middle Ages 500 1500 Also Medieval Period. Society was based on:

Classical heritage of Rome Beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church Customs of various Germanic tribes Western Europe Invaded Disruption of Trade Invasions cause businesses to collapse Downfall of Cities

Abandoned as centers of administration Population Shifts Nobles retreat to rural areas; cities without leadership Decline of Learning Invaders couldnt read or write; Greek language almost lost

Loss of Common Language Latin not widely understood Emerging Germanic Kingdoms Small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces Concept of government changed

no longer unified society and common law No loyalty to unknown king; loyalty only to Germanic leader Franks Held power in Roman province - Gaul (today France / Switzerland)

Their leader, Clovis, converted to and brought Christianity to region Began alliance between Church and Frankish kingdom. Monasteries Church built religious communities to adapt to rural areas Monks (men) lived in monasteries Nuns (women) lived in

convents Gave up private possessions and dedicated their lives to serving God Became best-educated communities in Europe Secular Gregory I became pope

590; authority as pope went beyond spiritual to secular (worldly) role: Papacy became involved in politics. Entered into peace treaties. Church income used to raise armies, fix roads AND help the poor. Claimed right to spiritual kingdom from Italy to England and Spain to Germany. Pope Gregory I Charles Martel

Mayor of Palace was most powerful position in Frankish kingdom; 719 position was held by Charles Martel. Held more power than King Charles; extended Franks reign north, south and east; also defeated Muslim Raiders at Battle of Tours; became Christian hero.

Carolingian Dynasty Son of Charles Martel, Pepin the Short, wanted to be king Cooperated with pope to fight Lombards who threatened Rome. Pope anointed Pepin as king, beginning Carolingian Dynasty that ruled 751-987.

Coronation in 752 of Ppin Charlemagne (Charles the Great) Also known as Charles the Great; became king in 771. Built enormous empire

larger than Byzantine Empire, uniting entire Western Europe. Spread Christianity; pope crowned him as Roman Emperor. Managed kingdom and encouraged education. Feudalism in Europe Chapter 13, Section 2 Feudalism

Similar to feudalism in Japan. Set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe. Based on rights and obligations. System for structuring society based the right to hold/work land in exchange for service or labor.

Feudalism: Terms The noble who held land or landowner was called the lord. The land granted to someone was called a fief. The person receiving the land in exchange for services was the

vassal. Feudal Pyramid Status in the feudal system depended on prestige and power. At the peak was the king, and under him

the vassals. Knights served the landowners or vassals. At base of pyramid was peasants and serfs. Feudal Pyramid Knight Knights served under

wealthy landowners or vassals. They were mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords lands in exchange for fiefs (land). The rank became associated with the ideals of chivalry, i.e. a code of conduct for the perfect courtly warrior. Serf

Peasant or poor person who was required to work for the Lord of the Manor. In return they were entitled to protection, justice and the right to use certain fields within the manor. Often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also his mines, forests and roads. Serfs formed the lowest

social class of feudal society. Manor The area over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval Europe; 15-30 families. The self-sufficient village would usually contain a

church, workshops, fields, etc. where nearly everything the lord needed would be produced crops, milk, cheese, cloth, leather, lumber. The Manor House was built apart from the village where the peasants lived. Tithe Peasant families were required to give up one tenth of their income or what they produced. This was paid to the priest for the church.

The Age of Chivalry Chapter 13, Section 3 Chivalry Knights needed strength and skills to fight wars in the Middle Ages; they had to be disciplined and strong. Followed a Code of Conduct that required

chivalry a set of expectations and ideals that included courtesy, generosity, justice and bravery. Had to show loyalty to their feudal lord, heavenly lord and chosen lady. Tournament Mock battle for

knights to build experience in fighting. Combined training and recreation; fierce and bloody competitions. Winners could demand ransom from defeated knights. Troubadour Traveling poetmusicians who visited castles and courts of

Medieval Europe. Composed short verses and songs about joys and sorrows of love; would perform them for the ladies. The Power of the Church Chapter 13, Section 4 Clergy

Included all church officials from the pope to bishops, priests and monks/nuns. Power was based on status or rank within the church. Priests were supervised by Bishops who also settled disputes amongst priests. Sacrament

Sacred Christian rites or religious ceremonies. Canon Law Church Law Authority of the Church was both religious and political. EVERYONE including

royalty subject to Canon Law. Harsh punishments for offenders included excommunication and interdict. Holy Roman Empire Territories in medieval Germany ruled by Otto the Great. Otto also invaded Italy on Popes behalf; was

included in what became known as the Holy Roman Empire. Lay Investiture Appointment of bishops, abbots, and other church officials by feudal lords and vassals. Banned by Church did not want royals to

have that much power. Led to clash between Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV. Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV doing penance to reverse his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII The Formation of Western Europe: 800 - 1500 Chapter 14 Church Reform and

the Crusades Chapter 14, Section 1 Simony The act of selling offices and positions in the Church. Refers to the New Testament story where Simon Magus offered the apostles money for the gift of the Holy Ghost.

Gothic Architecture Architects developed key techniques of structural engineering. Features include: Ribbed vaults to support roofs weight Flying buttresses that transferred weight to thick exterior walls Pointed arches that framed huge stained

glass windows Tall spires that seemed to point to heaven Pope Urban II Turks massacred the Byzantine Empires armies; threatened Constantinople. Pope Urban II urged revolt, marking beginning of Crusades.

A horrible tale has gone forth, he said. An accursed race utterly alienated from God has invaded the lands of the Christians and depopulated them by the sword, plundering, and fire. Toward the end, of his sermon he made his appeal: Tear that land from the wicked race and subject it to yourselves. Crusade The Crusades were military campaigns or Holy Wars sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.

The first crusade tried to restore Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem. Saladin Powerful Kurdish leader who led the Muslim opposition to the Crusaders. He united and lead the Muslim world; recaptured Jerusalem

for the Muslims in 1187. Richard the Lion-Hearted The pope, Gregory VIII, ordered another crusade to regain the Holy City for the Christians after Saladins victory. This was the start of the Third Crusade. It was initially led by Richard

I (Richard the Lion-Hearted), Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany and King Philip II of France; eventually only Richard I remained. Crusade lasted from 1189 to 1192; Richard 1 and Saladin signed truce. Reconquista

The Reconquista is the name given to a long series of wars and battles between the Christian Kingdoms and the Muslim Moors Battled for control of the Iberian Peninsula (Large part of Spain and Portugal today). It lasted from 718 to 1492. TOP: The division of the land before Granada was retaken. BOTTOM: The Moors surrendering to Ferdinand and Isabella.

Inquisition An organization in the Roman Catholic Church that was responsible for finding and punishing heretics (people who did not accept its beliefs and practices). Targeted Jews and Muslims.

Involved torture, and if found guilty, burned at a stake. Changes in Medieval Society Chapter 14, Section 2 Three-field system A system of land cultivation under which the common land is divided into three parts

of which one or two in rotation lie fallow in each year and the rest are cultivated. Increased food production; people were healthier because they could eat more and population expanded. Guild

Organization of individuals in the same business / occupation. Goal to improve economic and social conditions for members. Merchants formed first guild to control trading prices and reduce losses. Guilds later set standards for quality of work, wages and working conditions. Commercial Revolution

Expanded agriculture and trade changed way business was done; led to Commercial Revolution. No longer produced everything on self-sufficient manor.

Fairs were set up to encourage trade of cloth, food (bacon, salt, honey, cheese, wine), leather goods, knives and ropes. Goods from foreign countries became available. Business and banking services developed. Burgher

A citizen of a borough or town, usually belonging to the middle class. Did not fit in traditional order; resented interference from feudal lords. Organized themselves into groups and demanded certain rights, e.g. right to govern a town. Vernacular

The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region Different from main or official language; Shakespeare wrote his plays in vernacular spoken by ordinary people on the street. Thomas Aquinas

The Summary of Theology is considered to be Thomas Aquinas masterwork. Combined the theological principles of faith with the philosophical principles of reason to prove the existence of God. Aquinas promoted the literal reading of Scripture (not allegorical interpretation). Scholastics

Men who met at universities and used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate issues of their time. Teachings on law and government influenced Western Europeans; began development of democratic institutions and traditions. England and France

Develop Chapter 14, Section 3 William the Conqueror Was also Duke of Normandy. After the death of Williams cousin Edward, Harold Godwinson claimed the throne of England for himself; William, angered by

the betrayal, invaded England to enforce his claim to the throne. Crowned King of England after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Laid groundwork for centralized government in England. Henry II English king who married Eleanor of

Aquitine. Obtained Aquitine in addition to Normandy; vastly expanded English territory within France. Common Law Under Henry II justice

system improved. Royal judges sent all across England; held jury trials. Over years ruling of judges became common law. Common law still basis for law in many Englishspeaking countries, including USA. Magna Carta

Charter (contract between King John and nobles declaring all laws should be obeyed by everyone, including the king. Limited power of the king and guaranteed certain rights for all citizens. Basis for legal rights in England and USA. Parliament

Created by Edward I to raise taxes for warfare. 2 burgesses (wealthy property owners) from each borough and two knights from each county served in this legislative group known as parliament. Hugh Capet

After Carolingian Dynasty came to end, Hugh Capet took over small area in France that included Paris. Began Capetian Dynasty lasted 300+ years. Philip II

Powerful Capetian rulled 1180 1223 Able to seize Normandy from English and extend French territory. Established central government in France. Estates-General Consisted of: Church Leaders (1st Estate) Great Lords (2nd Estate) Commoners (3rd Estate)

Eventually played huge role in overthrowing French monarchy during French Revolution The Hundred Years War and the Plague Chapter 14, Section 4 Avignon

Pope Clement V moved from Rome to Avignon; popes lived there following 67 years. Move away from Rome weakened Roman Catholic Church Great Schism

A split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1418. Several men claimed to be the true pope. Ended by the Council of Constance (1414 1418). The rival claims to the papal chair damaged the reputation of the office; weakened Catholic Church further. John Wycliffe

Challenged power of pope.; preached that Jesus Christ was true head of the Church (not the pope). Offended by wealth displayed by clergy. Maintained Bible is final authority on Christs

life. Inspired translation of New Testament into English. Jan Hus Admired stance taken by John Wycliffe.

Maintained that authority of the Bible was higher authority than pope. Excommunicated from Church 1412 Tried as heretic 1414 Burned at stake 1415 Bubonic Plague / Black Death

Epidemic started in Asia and spread across to North Africa and Europe in 1300s. Deadly disease spread by rats; worsened by insanitary living conditions. Wiped out large sections of populations in China, North Africa and Europe. Many people believed that the Black Death was a kind of divine punishment for sins against God. Resulted in: Jews massacred

Flagellation Popes power usurped Hundred Years War Continuous battle between England and France which eventually marked the end of the Middle Ages. Started initially because

Englands Edward III claimed the right to the French throne in 1337. Continued for more than 100 years until 1453. Final outcome was that the French were able to drive England out of France (except for Calais), but it also brought about big changes in the way that wars were fought. Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc led the French army to victory over the British at Orlans at age 18. Captured a year later, Joan was burned by the English and their French collaborators as a heretic. Canonized as a Roman Catholic saint 500 years later.

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