Women in Late Republican Rome

Women in Late Republican Rome

Women in Late Republican Rome Communal and Family Power Political Upheaval and Social Change Punic Wars: 218-202 BCE: Italy invaded and occupied Husbands/sons serving in the military Hard times, impact on small farms

Civil disturbances: 120s-27 BCE Extensive infighting and proscriptions among the elite Marriage and divorce Sources Livy: Historian, c. 30 BCE Writes a standard history of Rome from its foundation Republican sentiments; embroidered with Livys reconstruction of events

(influenced by values common in his time) Polybius, c. 120 BCE Greek historian, writing an inclusive history, lived for a long time in Rome Other historians Sources Inscriptions Often funerary Show conventional values Specifics of lives

Comedy Plautus, Terence Based on Greek originals but with ideas specific to Roman experience An exaggerated, comic view but must relate to Marriage and Dowry What were a wifes or husbands legal rights over her dowry? Women apparently retained control over it, as we have

references to loans or gifts to husbands Husbands did typically use it and manage it, as evidence references to husbands who had a hard time replacing it when divorced Children had a legal right to it, 1/6 per child in the event of divorce The arbitrator [in a divorce] has the authority to

impose what seems good to him, if the woman has acted in any wrong or dishonorable fashion. She is fined if she drinks wine; if she has had a dishonorable relationship with another man, she is condemned.

Gellius, quoting Cato Economic Life Women engaged in marketing as a regular thing both free and slave Economic Life Professions: Pedagogue Personal secretary Hairdresser

Fishmonger An unusual female slave profession: gladiators. This plaque commemmorates the Grocer (in business with her husband) Porter Economic Life Wool-weigher

(market position) Seamstress; Weaver Fuller some of the slaves shown are Actress Musician Slaves and Freedwomen Womens personal slaves are predominantly female and

female slaves are often portrayed doing typically But most slaves described or referred to, even domestics, are male. Slaves and Freedwomen Catos Instructions to a slave overseer, regarding the hosuekeeper: See that the housekeeper perform all her duties. If the master has given her to you as a wife, keep yourself only to her. Make her stand in awe of you. Restrain her from

extravagance. She must visit the neighboring and other women very seldom, and not have them either in the house or in her part of it. She must not go out to meals or be a gadabout. She must not engage in religious worship herself or get others to engage in it for her without the orders Slaves and Freedwomen Slaves were not allowed to marry, though they could live in marriage-like relationships. A slaves partner was called a contubernalis, essentially, roommate.

Slaves had no rights over their children, and at any point either partner or children could be sold away As Catos passge reveals, from the other. masters could reward male slaves with wives, niether slave having much choice in the matter. Masters had sexual rights to their slaves. Though social disapproval and family issues were factors limiting this in

dominus ancillae Slaves and Freedwomen One measure of status in Rome was the large numbers of slaves the elite had attending and serving them. Elite women, as well as elite men, participated in this sort of display. Domestic slaves in rich households might have light duties but little Slaves and Freedwomen Slaves

attending their mistress and her daughter Slaves and Freedwomen Funerary monuments of freedmen and freedwomen often emphasize

mainstream family values. Slaves could be manumitted, either for a price or otherwise, and could buy the freedom of their children if the masters cooperated. Freedmen (and freedwomen) sometimes became Slaves and Freedwomen Lucius Aurelius Hermia, freedman of Lucius, a butcher of the Viminal Hill. She who went before me

in death, my one and only wife, chaste in body, a loving woman of my heart possessed, lived faithful to her faithful man; in fondness equal to her other Slaves and Freedwomen In life, I was named Aurelia Philematium, a woman chaste and modest, knowing not the crowd, faithful to her man. My man was a fellow-freedman; he was

also in very truth over and above a father to me; and alas, I have lost him. Seven years old was I when he, even he, took me to his bosom; forty years old - and I am in the power of violent death. Adornment: Personal and Political Limiting womens display:

The Lex Oppia, imposed during the Punic wars, restricted womens finery and withdrew the privilege of riding in carriages Taxes were imposed on wealthy womens property in particular (as individual rather than precisely related to the patriarchal concerns of

Adornment: Personal and Political Women cannot hold magistracies or priesthoods or triumphs or military decorations or awards or spoils of war. Cosmetics and adornments are womens decorations. They delight and boast of them and this is what

our ancestors called What viewestate. of womens womens (Valerius, value ininsociety and the Livy 34.7.8) outside world emerges here? The Lex Oppia,

instituted in the Punic War, was protested by women afterward Adornment: Personal and Political The ancient Trophy wife: Whenever Aemelia left her house to partake in womens processions, it had been her habit to appear in great

state, as befitted a woman who had shared the life of the great Africanus , , , Apart from the magnificence of her personal attire and the decoration of her carriage, all the . . . sacrificial essels and utensils were made of gold or silver, and were carried in her train in such ceremonial occasions . . . Adornment: Personal and

Political Sumptuary and morality legislation often focuses on women, and is often an issue in conservative declarations of socal control: Solons restrictions on Athenian womens display in mourning Islamic

fundamentalism If you will let them unbind each element [of social control] and finally be raised level with men, do you think that they will be tolerable? As soon as they begin to be our equals, they will be our masters . . . Speech attributed to Cato, Livy 34.3.2

Elite Women Political marriages Roles as mediators Julia Cornelia Servilia Octavia Education Moral guidance Fame (usually through deeds of her sons)

Finis Slaves and Freedwomen

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • NE Drought Conditions CARC Update: November 17, 2015

    NE Drought Conditions CARC Update: November 17, 2015

    Lake McConaughy. At Lake McConaughy has 1.484 million acre-feet in storage (85.1% of capacity). Inflows have decreased recently and ranged from 1,242 cubic feet per second (currently) to 1,442 cubic feet per second a month ago, which is slightly below...
  • 3. Segment Printing inks

    3. Segment Printing inks

    On the one hand the quality of image illustration has improved. On the other hand the ongoing development of printing inks lead to a quality level which lives up to classical gravure and offset printing qualities.
  • Information Extraction

    Information Extraction

    [tT]he. Incorrectly returns other or theology [^a-zA-Z][tT]he[^a-zA-Z] Errors. The process we just went through was based on fixing two kinds of errors. ... Chinese words are composed of characters. Characters are generally 1 syllable and 1 morpheme.
  • Basic Cryptogrphy

    Basic Cryptogrphy

    cipher is called an . autokey. cipher and uses the message itself for the key. EXAMPLE: The following is an autokey version of the Vigenère cipher, with the key. drawn from the plaintext. key XTHEBOYHASTHEBA. plaintext THEBOYHASTHEBAG. ciphertext QALFPNFHSLALFCT. Contrast...
  • Popularizace vědy II.

    Popularizace vědy II.

    Filosofie I. Od epistemologického obratu k filosofii mysli
  • Top Tips: Preparing the Brief to Counsel

    Top Tips: Preparing the Brief to Counsel

    On the case law, HHJ Matthews found . the fact that a litigant had been acting in person was not of itself a reason to dis-apply procedural rules, orders or directions, or excuse non-compliance with them. The exception was that...
  • Design and Implementation of an Omni-directional Robotic Ground

    Design and Implementation of an Omni-directional Robotic Ground

    Andrew Niedert, Yazan Aljeroudi, Dr. Nassif Rayess, and Dr. Richard Hill Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Detroit Mercy Purpose The purpose of this project is to validate a novel robotic ground vehicle design that has high-speed capability, omni-directional mobility...
  • Personal Health & Physical Activity

    Personal Health & Physical Activity

    Power helps you hit a hockey puck a long distance. Fitness Skills. The President's Challenge is a government-developed physical fitness test for children and teens. Exercises: muscular strength & endurance, total body coordination, flexibility, &