RENWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH A CRITICAL INVESTMET FOR THE ARAB REGION Prof. Ali Al-Karaghouli Consultant for the United Nations Environmental Program For West Asia (UNEP/ROWA) Email: [email protected] WIPO/ IDB Regional Seminar for Arab Countries on Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 4-6 June 2007 1 The World currently relies heavily on Fossil fuel (coal, oil and Natural gas) Fossil fuel is: - Non-renewable (finite resources).
- Becoming too expensive. - Have a high impact on environment. Renewable energies resources are: - Clean. - Non-depleted. - Have very small impact on environment 2 Characteristics and Benefits of RE Resources RE resources are sustainable sources of energy . Renewable RE resources promote energy diversification. Development of a diverse portfolio of technologies are
designed to run on a virtually inexhaustible or replenish able supply of natural fuels. The primary long term benefits of renewable technologies is that once a renewable energy project has been constructed and fully operated, it become a permanent and low cost component of the national energy system. generation assess reduces a country dependence on any one particular form of technology or fuel. RE resources have the lowest environmental impact? Renewable energy technologies have a very small impact on environment compared to fossil fuel. The discharge of unwanted or unhealthy substance in air, ground and water commonly associated with other forms of energy use can be reduced significantly by using renewable energies. RE resources have values beyond they generate . Renewable energy systems are
modular, flexible and can be installed anywhere and in any size. Investment in locally available renewable energy generates more jobs, greater earnings and higher output. The renewable energy industry provides a wide range of employment opportunities, from high technology manufacturing of PV components to maintenance jobs at solar thermal or wind systems. 3 Types of Renewable Energy resources Solar Energy Wind Energy Biomass Energy Hydrogen Energy & Fuel Cell Hydropower Energy Ocean Energy Geothermal Energy
4 Solar Energy Intensity of solar radiation along the earth orbit is 1.368 kW/ m2. The average earth radius 6366 Km. Therefore the Amount of insolation intercepted by the earth 174000 x 1012 Watt 174000 tera Watt 17000 times the world installed power generation capacity. The sun's heat and light provide an abundant source of energy that can be harnessed in many ways. There are a variety of technologies that have been developed to take advantage of solar energy. These include:
Solar hot water heating systems. Solar process heat and space heating & cooling. Photovoltaic systems. Concentrating solar power systems. 5 Solar Water Heating Solar water heating is a very cost effective way to produce hot water in any climate, and the fuel they use is free (sun shine).
Solar water heating systems include solar collectors and storage tanks, and they are two types: Active systems (have a circulating pump and control). Passive systems which works on natural convection. Active solar heating systems They are two types; Pump circulates household water through the collectors and into the home (open loop), Pump circulates the heat transfer fluid through the collectors and a heat exchanger (closed loop). This heats the water that flows into the home.
6 Thermosyphon systems Water flows through the system when warm water rises as cooler water sinks. The collector must be installed below the storage tank so that warm water will rise into the tank. 7 Solar water heater (Thermosyphon system) 8
Solar Space Heating Systems There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid that is heated in the solar energy collectors. Liquid-based systems which heat water in a liquid collector. Air-based systems which heat air in an air collector. 9 Solar space cooling A solar thermal cooling system consists of: -Solar collectors. -Storage tank. -Control unit, pipes and pumps. -Thermally driven chiller.
10 Solar power production Photovoltaic systems Photovoltaic (PV) (photo=light, voltaic=electricity) is a semiconductorbased technology which converts light energy directly into an electric current that can either be used immediately or stored, such as in a battery, for later use. Solar cell
PV cell consist of two or more thin layers of semi conducting material most commonly silicon. A silicon cell is a wafer of P-type silicon doped with a small amount of impurity (usually boron) and a thin layer of N-type silicon dopes with a small amount of impurity (usually phosphorous). When the cell exposed to the light, electrical charges are generated and this can be connected a way by metal contacts as direct current. 11 Solar panel (Module)
Consist of solar cells connected in series and parallel. Solar Array Consist of different solar panels connected in series and parallel. Types of Solar Cells The performance of a solar or photovoltaic (PV) cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at converting sunlight into electricity. There are a variety of solar cell materials available, which vary in conversion efficiency. Mono crystalline silicon
Manufactured by saw- cut from a single cylindrical crystal of silicon. Most efficient (around 15%) and most expensive. Poly crystalline silicon Manufactured by cut from an ingot of melted and recrystallized silicon. Less efficient and cheaper than mono-crystalline. Amorphous silicon Manufactured as a thin film of deposit silicon on substrates. less efficient than crystalline silicon and cheaper.
Other Thin Films They have higher efficiency than amorphous silicon cell and can be produced cheaper. Cadmium telluride (CdTe). Copper Indian Deselenide (CIS) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). 12 Complete battery backup system configuration with options 1 - Solar array 2 - Fused array combiner and/or ground fault protection. 3 - Solar regulator
4 - System storage battery 5 - DC load equipment 6 - DC/AC inverter 7 - AC load equipment load panel 8 - AC load equipment operating from solar system 9 - AC load equipment operating from utility 10 - AC utility panel 11 - Utility meter 12 - Utility power 13 - Backup generator 13 14 Solar thermal power
Technology works by converting sun energy to heat, which is usually used to produce steam for driving a turbine and a generator. This technology is more efficient (15%) than PV (around 10%) and less expensive when the system is very large in MW. Three types of systems Parabolic trough The system works by concentrating the sun rays through long rectangular, curved (U-shaped) mirrors, focusing the sunlight on a pipe that runs down the center of the trough. The temperature of the fluid flow inside the pipe (usually oil) could reach 400C 15
Central receiver system It uses a large number of mirrors and heliostats that track the sun and reflect sunlight to the top of a tower, where the receiver sits. The system operates at temperatures between 500C and 1500. 16 Parabolic Dish System Mirror dish that reflects and concentrate sunlight to a
receiver which absorbs the heat and transfer it to fluid within the engine. Engines types are: Rankine engine, Brigton engine and stirling engine. Striling engine is the most efficient one (30%). 17 18 Wind Energy Wind turbines capture the kinetic energy in the wind using propeller-like blades mounted on a shaft. When the
wind makes the blades turn, the shaft spins a generator to produce electricity. Small wind turbines can be used to pump water or provide power to a home, for example. Larger turbines can be used to a power an entire community or to provide power to the electricity grid. Wind-generated electricity is the least expensive form of renewable power, and is becoming one of the cheapest forms of electricity from any source.
In some locations, the cost of electricity from wind is comparable to that from conventional fossil-fueled power plants. 19 20 Biomass Energy Biomass is any organic material derived from plants or animals essentially all energy originally captured by photosynthesis.
Domestic biomass resources include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic "energy crops" grown solely for energy purposes. Biomass power Biomass power is electricity produced from plant materials and animal products. Biomass power technologies convert renewable biomass fuels into electricity (and heat) using modern boilers, gasifiers, turbines, generators, and fuel cells. Biomass fuels include residues from the wood and paper products industries, residues from food production and processing, trees and grasses grown specifically as energy
crops, and gaseous fuels produced from solid biomass, animal wastes, and landfills. Wood chips made from energy crops, such as hybrid willows (upper), provide raw material for a new gasifier at the McNeil Generating Station (lower). 50-MW wood- fired power plant located in Vermont. 21 Direct Combustion and Co-firing Diagram : In a direct combustion system, processed biomass is the boiler fuel that produces steam to operate a steam turbine and generator to make electricity. 22
Gasification Solid biomass can be converted into a fuel gas in a gasifier such as the one shown in Diagram . In this method, sand (at about 1,500F) surrounds the biomass and creates a very hot, oxygenstarved environment. These conditions break apart wood or other biomass and create an energy-rich, flammable gas. The biogas can be cofired with wood (or other fuel) in a steam boiler or used to operate a standard gas turbine. Diagram: one method of transforming
biomass particles into biogas fuel. 23 Anaerobic Digestion Biogas can also be produced by digesting food or animal wastes in the absence of oxygen, as shown below. Diagram: Anaerobic digestion, which takes place in three stages inside an airtight container, produces biogas. Different kinds of micro-organisms are responsible for the processes that characterize each stage. 24
Landfill gas Landfills also produce a methane-rich biogas from the decay of wastes containing biomass. However, landfill gas must be cleaned to remove harmful and corrosive chemicals before it can be used to generate electricity. Using Biomass Fuel Gases Fuel gases made from biomass can be used to generate electricity in a gas turbine, as shown. Diagram: In a simple-cycle gas turbine, both pressurized fuel gas and hot combustion product gases operate a gas turbine and generator, producing electricity. 25
Biomass Energy - Biofuels "Biofuel" is liquid fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel used for transportation and electricity production. Unlike gasoline and diesel, biofuels contain oxygen. Adding biofuels to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust more completely, reducing air pollution. The market for biofuels is growing. Existing production methods typically use relatively high-priced common crops oil-rich seeds such as soybeans; sugarcane, corn, and other cereals as feedstocks. All of these crops have other uses, driving up their cost. Ethanol Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel today.
In 2003, more than 2.8 billion gallons were added to gasoline in the United States to improve vehicle performance and reduce air pollution. starch crops are converted into sugars, the sugars are fermented into ethanol, and then the ethanol is distilled into its final form. Ethanol is used to increase octane ratings and improve the emissions quality of gasoline. Ethanol production plant in Nebraska. 26 Renewable Diesel Fuels There are a variety of fuels that
can be used in diesel engines and that are made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, or other types of biomass such as grasses and trees. These renewable diesel fuels can be used in place of, or blended with, petroleum diesel. 27 Hydrogen Energy & Fuel Cell Hydrogen can be found in many organic compounds, as well as water. It's the most abundant element on the Earth. But it doesn't occur naturally as a gas. It's always combined with other elements, such as with oxygen to make water. Once separated from another element, hydrogen can be burned as a fuel or converted into electricity. Hydrogen can be produced from:
Solar Thermal Water Splitting Concentrated solar energy can also be used to generate temperatures of several hundred to over 2,000 degrees at which thermo chemical reaction cycles can be used to produce hydrogen. Such high-temperature, high-flux solar driven thermo chemical processes offer a novel approach for the environmentally benign production of hydrogen. Renewable Electrolysis Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, biomass, hydro, and geothermal can provide clean and sustainable electricity to produce hydrogen through the electrolysissplitting with an electric currentof water and to use that hydrogen in a fuel cell to produce electricity during times of low power production or peak demand, or to use the hydrogen in fuel cell vehicles. 28 Fuel Cell
fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. It produces electricity from external supplies of fuel (on the anode side) and oxidant (on the side). These react in the presence of an electrolyte. Generally, the reactants flow in and reaction products flow out while the electrolyte remains in the cell. Fuel cells cacathode n operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained. Fuel cells differ from batteries in that they consume reactants, which must be replenished, while batteries store electrical energy chemically in a closed system. Additionally, while the electrodes within a battery react and change as a battery is charged or discharged, a fuel cell's electrodes are catalytic and relatively stable. Two electrodes; one positively charged and one negatively charged & a substance that conduct electricity (electrolyte) sandwiched between them. 29
Hydropower Energy Water constantly moves through a vast global cycle, evaporating from lakes and oceans, forming clouds, precipitating as rain or snow, then flowing back down to the ocean. The energy of this water cycle, which is driven by the sun, can be tapped to produce electricity. 30 There are three types of hydropower facilities: Impoundment( usually large).
Diversion( usually small). Pumped storage. Some hydropower plants use dams and some do not. Hydropower plants range in size from small systems for a home or a village to large plants producing electricity for utilities. Impoundment (Large) power plant It is typically a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. The water may be released either to meet
changing electricity needs or to maintain a constant reservoir level. An impoundment hydropower plant dams water in a reservoir. 31 32 Small power plants A diversion (small), sometimes called run-of-river, facility channels a portion of a river through a canal or penstock. It may not require the use of a dam.
The Tazimina project in Alaska is a diversion hydropower plant. No dam was required. 33 Micro Hydropower A micro hydropower plant has a capacity of up to 100 kilowatts. A small or micro-hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home, farm, ranch, or village 34 Geothermal Energy Systems
Geothermal ("Earth-heat") energy comes from the residual heat left over from the Earth's formation and from the radioactive decay of atoms deep inside the earth. This heat is brought up to the earth's crust by molten rock (magma) and by conduction through solid rock. There it raises the temperature of the earth's surface and of groundwater trapped in the fissures and pores of underground rock, forming
zones called hydrothermal (hot water) reservoirs. Geothermal water cycle. 35 Electricity Production Geothermal power can be generated by modular units ranging in size from a few hundred kilowatts to more than 100 MW in size. The cost of producing geothermal electricity ranges from roughly 5 cents/kWh to 8 cents/kWh. Three technologies can be used to convert hydrothermal fluids to electricity. The type of conversion used depends on the state of the fluid resource (whether steam or water) and its temperature. These are: - Steam power plant
- High water temperature power plant - Moderate water temperature power plant 36 Steam power plant With a 750-MW output, The Geysers in California is the largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. (Photo: David Parsons) 37 High-Temperature Water power plant Moderate-Temperature Water power plant
38 The Mammoth geothermal plant, located in the eastern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, showcases the environmentally friendly nature of geothermal power. Three air-cooled binary units generate a total of 28 MW of electricity, and release essentially no emissions into the atmosphere or land surface. 39 Direct Use of Hydrothermal Resources Hot water from geothermal resources can be used directly to provide water and space heating.
Direct use applications include crop drying, industrial processes, resorts and spas; and heating buildings, greenhouses, and fish farms. 40 Renewable Energy World Market
According to a recent Reuters article, the world solar market jumped 70 % in 2004. Two big drivers in that growth were Japan and Germany. Renewable energy creates 200,000 jobs in Europe. Solar electricity production growth jumped 67 percent last year. World solar cell production reached 1,256 MW. Grid Connected Solar PV grew by more than 40%. Off-grid PV grew by about 10%. Wind power is today the fastest growing electricity generation technology. Impressive wind annual growth rates of more than 35% between 1996 and 2001 have made Europe into the frontrunner in wind energy technology development. At the end of 2003 the installed capacity of wind power reached 28,440MW
in the EU 15 and more than 39,000MW world wide. The industry is capable of continuing its high growth rates if other countries follow the success stories of Germany, Spain and Denmark, which together accounted for more than 80% of the 2003 market. 41 Since 2000, the market has clearly passed the mark of 1million m2 newly
installed solar collectors per year. After a significant contraction in 2002, mainly originated in Germany, a new peak over 1.4 million m2 was reached in 2003. Taking into account the last estimates, the surface in operation at the end of 2003 is roughly 11.9 million m2. The European Union would already be very close to reaching the target of 100 million m2, corresponding to 266 m2 per 1,000 inhabitants. The present biomass contribution to the total energy demand approach 1415 %( 1.2 billion toe/year) with much higher contribution in developing countries ( 38%) for heating and cooking. Annual bio-fuels production, ethanol and bio-diesel, increased by 14%. Small hydro-power grew 10-15%, mainly in China. the present state of market progress and a strong political support, the current expectation is that the overall contribution of renewable energy to energy consumption in 2020 will be 20%. 42 Renewable Energy Financing Opportunities in the
World $ 28 billion was invested in new renewable energy in 2004. This amount comes from: WB and UN system: $ 500 million European investment bank: $ 600-700 million The rest comes from private sector and local banks.
An additional $ 4-5 billion in new plant and equipment was invested in 2004 by the Solar PV manufacturing industry. Several million dollars was invested by the ethanol industry in new production plants. These investments compare to a $ 110-150 billion invested annually in the power sector worldwide, or 20-25% of the total power sector investment. Investment shares in 2004 were: $ 9.5 billion for wind power $ 7.5 billion for solar PV $ 6 billion for solar hot water/heating $ 5 billion for the remaining technologies such as geothermal power and heat, small hydro power, and biomass. 43 44
45 46 47 48 49 50 RE Potentials in Arab region Solar Energy Potentials The economical production of solar
electricity requires radiation of 1700 kWh/m2/year or 4-5 kW/ hr/m2/day. All Arab countries are among those who intercept more than the amount of 1700 kWh/m2/year 51 Annual direct normal irradiance of the year 2002. 52
Annual global irradiation on surfaces tilted south with latitude angle in kWh/m2/year. 53 Wind Energy Potentials Several Arab countries, such as Oman, Egypt, and Morocco have good wind energy resources (wind velocity ranges from 8-11 m/sec). The full load hours per year for Arab countries is shown below.
Areas with annual full load hours over 1,400 h/y were considered as long-term economic potential. All Arab countries are qualified to harness wind energy. 54 Biomass Energy Potentials Due to the arid nature of all Arab countries the only biomass potential comes from municipal waste. 55 Hydropower Potentials Hydropower production varies from year to year, depending on precipitation. Several countries in Arab region particularly Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria have hydro resources. The
potentials of some of these countries is much higher than the generated power by this source. 56 Current Renewable Energy Situation in Arab Countries Renewable Energy Share to Energy budget In spite of the high potential of renewable energy resources availability (solar, wind, biomass and hydro) in Arab region, small portions of these resources are exploited at present. However excluding biomass and hydro, renewables are negligible and represent less than 0.1% of the total energy supply and less than 0.3% of the electric power capacity. The current situation of each country are as follows: In Algeria, renewable energy resources accounted for about 0.1 Mtoe in 2003. This represent 0.3% of total energy supply. It includes basically biomass wood and hydro. Concerning solar water heaters, the installed capacity is only 1000m. Total renewable energy generated power capacity reached 276 MW, 1MW from PV, 10 MW from wind and the rest (96%) from hydro resource.
In Egypt, renewable energy resources represent 11% of total energy supply in 2003. This may seems high, but if we exclude hydro and biomass wood, other renewables represent 0.1% of total energy supply. Solar water heating is currently used in residential, commercial and tourist hotels buildings with varying degree of success. More than 500,000m of solar collectors have been installed so far. The total renewable energy generated power reached 2,929 MW (in 2003), 94% of which being large hydro. The rest is composed of 145 MW from wind, 36 MW from biomass, and 3 MW from PV. The renewable energy generated power represent 17.5% of the total electricity installed capacity and the renewable energy power generation was 13.2 TWh, representing about 15% of the total electricity generation. 57
In Iraq, several R&D demonstration projects were implemented during the period 1982-1990. Among these are the solar air-conditioning of the Energy and Environment Research Center (120 tons capacity), solar air-conditioning of a house (10 tons), 24 kWp of PV for a vertical drainage pump, 7 kWp PV for drinking water pump, manufacturing of 200 solar heaters, solar heating of plastic houses and several small PV installations for communications and cathodic protection. Iraq also started assembling PV modules in 1987 in cooperation, with Siemens Company, with a planned production capacity of 300 kWp per year. The currant activities of Iraq in renewable energy field is limited only to hydro power. The actual share of electricity produced from hydropower respect only 2.04% of the total power generated. In Jordan, more than 200,000 solar water heaters, 7 MW of hydro power (represent 0.68% of total electricity capacity), 1MW of pilot plant biomass (from municipal waste disposal) electricity generation are currently in operation. In addition to that 100 kWp of PV systems, twelf wind turbines projects with a total capacity of 1620 kW were demonstrated in many remote applications.
In Bahrain, two R&D research projects were implemented by the Energy Research Center (the center is not existing now), one was a mobile solar powered Reverse Osmosis desalination unit with a capacity of 200 gallons per day, while the other is a solar & wind power mobile generator with a capacity of 1.5 kW 58 In Saudi Arabia, numerous R&D demonstration projects were conducted by the American-Saudi cooperation program (SOLERAS) during the last two decades of the previous century in the areas of solar cooling, solar desalination, solar thermal electricity and photovoltaic. Among these projects are 50 kW of solar thermal electricity & 400 kWp total of PV systems. Saudi is currently concentrating on energy efficiency and energy management.
In Kuwait, R&D renewable energy demonstration projects in solar pond, passive heating and cooling and PV were implemented before the Gulf War 1990. Kuwait now limited the work to energy efficiency and energy management. In Lebanon, the main renewable energy resources is the hydropower. The total installed capacity of hydropower is 275 MW which represent 7.36% of the total installed electricity. Promotion to use solar hot water heaters is currently going with the cooperation of UNDP. Six wind turbines with a total capacity of 2 MW were installed in 1999 by a private investor, but none of them were made operational. In Libya, around 8000 solar water heaters were located in different parts of the
country, 1 MW of PV systems were also installed in rural electrification and communications, and 1000 W of demonstrated wind turbine was implemented. 59 In Morocco, renewable energy sources represent 25% of the total energy supply. This seems very high in comparison with other countries in the region. However excluding non-commercial biomass and large hydro, renewables represent only 0.1% of the total energy supply. A national solar water heater program called PROMASOL was launched in November 2000 to improve quality and encourage use of solar water heaters. The objective of this program is to increase the actual installed capacity (60,000 m ) to about 400,000 m, and it is also planning to build 50 MW solar thermal plant. The total renewable energy electricity generation installed capacity reached 1324 MW, more than 93% of which being large hydro. The rest is composed of 30 MW small hydro (2.5%), 53 MW wind (4%), and 3 MW PV (0.5%).
In Palestine, solar water heaters are used in more than 70% of houses. Several PV applications were demonstrated totaling about 25.0 kWp mainly on home systems in villages, clinical refrigerators and communication systems. In biomass application a study assessing the prospects for the use of different biogas technologies for electricity generation is being conducted in cooperation with European firms as part of EU-financial project known INTERSIDEM. In Oman, a solar thermal desalination project was built to produce 1m of fresh water using solar collectors. In addition to that, 352 kWp of PV systems used for water pumping, lighting, communications & cathodic protection were implemented. 60
In Qatar, R&D activities were limited to a pilot solar pond system and testing a solar multi-stage flash fluidized bed (MSF-FB) desalination unit using concentrating collectors. In Syria, the hydropower is the only renewable energy resource which has a significant share in the energy balance. The total installed power from hydro is about 1500 MW which represent 40.91% of the total electricity installed. In addition to that 15000-20,000 solar water heaters, 80.0 kWp of PV, 150 kw of grid connected wind turbine, four units of biogas digesters (90 m /day each) are currently operating. Mechanical wind water pumping are also installed in several locations in the middle of Syria. In Tunis, the renewable energy resources represent 12% of the total energy supply which seems relatively high, however excluding biomass and large hydro, renewables represent only 1% of total the energy supply. Renewables utilization include 110,000 m of solar water heater installed with the
help of GEF, 2 MW of PV systems, 20 MW of wind and 0.1 MW of biomass. In 2003, the total renewable energy based capacity was 85 MW, almost 74% of which being hydro (39% large hydro, and 35% small hydro). This represent around 3% of the total electricity installed capacity. In United Arab Emirates, numerous small size solar projects for different applications such as telephone cabins, traffic lights, cathodic protection .. etc has been implemented. No large size projects to include renewable energy resources in the energy budget has been implemented yet. In Yemen, more then 500 units per month of solar water heaters and possible increase to 750 units is produced locally. More than 180 kWp of PV systems were installed for telecommunication, water pumping and for domestic applications in rural areas. In addition to that 18 kW experimental wind turbine were installed by public electricity cooperation. 61
From the previous country activities we can conclude that Excluding biomass and hydropower, the other renewable energy utilization share is almost negligible and represents only 0.1% of the total energy supply and less than 0.3% of the generated electric power. Biomass (wood for house hold as well as some agriculture waste) used in rural villages of Arab countries represents the main renewable energy source in these areas. In Urban areas, the solar water heating account for less than 0.01% of the total
energy supply. The total numbers of solar heating systems are 1000 m2 in Algeria, 500,000 m2 in Egypt, 1.35 million m2 in Jordan, 8000 units in Libya, 11,332 m2 in Morocco, 15000 20000 units in Syria, 110,000 m2 in Tunis, 500 units per month in Yemen. For electricity generation, RE resources share is only 7.32% of the total electricity capacity. Hydro power dominate the use of RE in power generation (7.04% of the 7.32%), therefore the share of other renewables (solar, wind & biomass) is 0.28% only. Table 2 shows the RE resources( solar thermal, solar PV, wind, biomass and hydro) share in the installed capacity of electricity generation for MENA countries. 62 Barriers and Constrains to RE Deployment in Arab Region In spite of the high potential of renewable energy resources availability (solar, wind, biomass and hydro) in MENA region, small portions of these
resources are exploited at present. However excluding biomass and hydro, renewables are negligible and represent less than 0.1% of the total energy supply and less than 0.3% of the electric power capacity. This is due to many barriers and constrains which affect the renewable energy utilizing processes. These barriers include technological barriers, subsidies for conventional forms of energy, a variety of regulatory and institutional factors, lack of skills or information, high initial cost of RE equipment, poor market acceptance, financing risks and uncertainties, and lack in industrial capabilities.
Technological barrier Renewable energy equipment initial Cost Fossil fuel products and conventional electricity pricing Institutional and regulatory Lack of technical or commercial skills Awareness and Information Competing Energy resources Financial Situation Industrial Capabilities 63 Recommendations To remove the barriers toward the utilization of renewable energy resources, the following are several suggestions and practical measures which can help in the adoption of renewable energy technologies in Arab countries energy market: Need of Political Support
Adopting Feed in Tariffs Standard Adopting Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Need of Financial Incentives Adopting Renewable Energy Subsides Public benefits Funding Net metering Fair transmission and distribution rules Applying Tax Incentives Production Tax Credit
Emission (Carbon) Tax Credit Use the Clean Development Mechanism Need of Research and Development Apply Codes and Standards Need Testing & Labeling Need of Energy planning Need of Regulatory and legislative framework Encourage Technology Transfer Need of Information, Education and Training
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