What size shoe do you wear? - Purdue University

What size shoe do you wear? - Purdue University

The Quality Improvement Model Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Define Process Select Measures Collect Collect&& Interpret Interpret Data Data Collect & Interpret Data: Diagnosing Variability Purpose: Begin to understand why there is variability in data collected Is Process Stable ? No Investigate & Fix Special Causes Yes Improve Process Capability No Is Process Capable ? Yes Use SPC to Maintain Current Process 5-1 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data What size shoe do you wear? Size 11 Shoes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 Why arent size 11s all the same size? 5-2 GC CHDM Test Method Example Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Histogram of % Water Time Series Plot of % Water 14 0.50 12 10 Frequency % Water 0.45 0.40 8 6 4 0.35 2 0.30 39 43 47 51 55 Batch 59 63 67 71 75 0 0.325 0.350 0.375 0.400 0.425 % Water 0.450 0.475 0.500 Why dont we get the same %Water value? 5-3 Collect Collect&&Interpret

InterpretData Data Cause & Effect Matrix A Tool to Identify and Quantify Sources of Variation 9 10 4 8 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Process Step Process Input Mixing Mixing Mixing Mixing Mixing Mixing Mixing Mixing Mixing Total Rate Mixer Speed Al2O3 Quality Recycle Composition Recycle Rate Nitric Acid Water Temperature Water Flow Recycle Water Rate 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 9 1 1 9 1 9 3 0

1 9 1 1 9 1 9 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 1 Dust/Fines Content % Moly & % Nickel 4 Moly Distribution in Pellett (within & between) 8 Catalyst Performance 8 Plugging Cycle Time Length Distribution Porosity Distribution Color Rating of Importance to Customer 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 0 0 0 1

Total 24 12 140 104 138 108 12 108 48 Cause & Effects Matrix 5-4 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Cause and Effects Matrix Relates the key inputs to the key outputs (customer requirements) using the process map as the primary information source Key outputs are scored as to importance to the customer Key inputs are scored as to relationship to key outputs Pareto of key inputs to evaluate in the FMEA and control plans Input into the initial evaluation of the Process Control Plan 5-5 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Cause & Effect Matrix Steps Identify key customer requirements (outputs) from process map or other sources Rank order and assign priority factor to each Output (usually on a 1 to 10 scale) Identify all process steps and materials (inputs) from the Process Map Evaluate correlation of each input to each output low score: score changes in the input variable (amount, quality, etc.) have small effect on output variable high score: score changes in the input variable can greatly affect the output variable Cross multiply correlation values with priority factors and sum for each input 5-6 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Examples Bottle Production Big Block Diagram Bottle Production Upstream

Resin IV Other resin Properties Bottle Design Etc Inputs Regrind % Barrell Temperature Screw Speed Screw Design Etc Note: Only a partial list Outputs Break % at Molder Bottle Output Melt Temperature Clarity Weight Wall Thickness Variation Etc Downstream Break % at Filler Etc 5-7 Bottle Production Example Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Bottle Production Block Steps Diagram Inputs Resin Outputs Vacuum out of box Pellet change Blending with Regrind Dryer Hopper (Regrind + virgin) Vacuum into machine hopper Resin Regrind%-C Barrel temperature-C Screw speed-C Meter cooling temp-C Screw design-C Barrel/screw condition-U Melt Resin Melt Temperature Melt strength MW/IV Throughput Extrude Parison Parison programming-C Head adapter design-C Head design (PVC, HDPE)-C Tooling Zone temps Die tip temp Support air (straight and controlled) Parison cut Note: Only a partial Map Parison length Parison diameter Parison temp Thickness Profile Clarity Melt stability 5-8

Cause & Effect Matrix Form Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data 1. List Key Outputs Rating of 7 8 9 Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement 10 11 12 13 14 15 Requirement 6 Requirement 5 Requirement 4 Requirement 3 Requirement 2 Requirement 1 Requirement Importance to Customer Total Process Step Process Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 Excel Template C&E Matrix.XLS 5-9 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Bottle Production Example Process Step 1. List Key Outputs 5 W all V ariation 4 W eight M elt Tem p 3 Clarity 2 B ottle Output 1 B reak % Rating of Importance to Customer 6 Total Process Input 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The Outputs are defined in Step 1 of Process Mapping 5-10 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Cause & Effect Matrix Form Rating of Importance to Customer 13 14 15 Requirement 2. Rank Outputs as to Customer

Total importance Requirement Requirement 12 Requirement 11 Requirement 10 Requirement 9 Requirement 8 Requirement 7 Requirement 6 Requirement 5 Requirement 4 Requirement 3 Requirement 2 Requirement Requirement 1 Process Step Process Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5-11 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data 1 9 9 5 8 1 2 3 4

5 6 Melt Temp Bottle Output Clarity Weight 2. Rank Outputs as to Customer importance Process Step Wall Variation Rating of Importance to 10 Customer Break % Bottle Production Example Total Process Input 5-12 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Cause & Effect Matrix Form 7 8 9 Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement 10 11 12 13 14 15 Requirement 6 Requirement 5 Requirement 4 Requirement 3

Requirement 2 Requirement 1 Requirement 3. List Key Inputs by Process Step Requirement Rating of Importance to Customer Total Process Step Process Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Note: Information obtained from process map 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5-13 Bottle Production Example 9 9 5 8 2 3 4 5 6 Melt Temp Bottle Output Clarity Weight Break % Process Step Melt Melt Melt Melt Melt Resin Resin Resin Resin Resin

Melt Resin Melt Resin Extrude Parison Extrude Parison Extrude Parison Extrude Parison Extrude Parison Wall Variation Rating of Importance to Key 10 1 3. List Customer Inputs by 1 Process Step Note: Only a partial list of inputs Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Process Input Resin Barrell Temp Screw Speed Screw Design Regrind% Barell/Screw Condition Screw Tip Cooling Programing Die Tip Temp Head Design Tooling Support Air This step uses the Process Map inputs directly. Notice the Process Inputs follow the Process map step-by-step. 5-14 Cause & Effect Matrix Form Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data 7 8 9 Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement Requirement 10 11 12

13 14 15 Requirement 6 Requirement 5 Requirement 4 Requirement 3 Requirement 2 Requirement 1 Requirement 4. Relate Inputs to Rating of to OutputsImportance Customer Total Process Step Process Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5-15 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Relating Inputs to Customer Requirements You are ready to relate the customer requirements to the process input variables Correlational scores: scores No more than 4 levels 0, 1, 3 and 9 Assignment of the scoring takes the most time To avoid this, spell out the criteria for each score: 0 = No correlation 1 = The process input only remotely affects the customer requirement 3 = The process input has a moderate effect on the customer requirement 9 = The process input has a direct and strong effect on the customer requirement

5-16 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Bottle Production Example 1 Melt Resin 1 Melt Resin 2 2 2 2 2 Extrude Extrude Extrude Extrude Extrude Parison Parison Parison Parison Parison 2 Extrude Parison 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wall Variation 8 Note: Only a partial list of inputs Weight Resin Resin Resin Resin Resin 5 Clarity Melt Melt Melt Melt Melt 9 Bottle Output 1 1 1 1 1

9 Melt Temp Process Step 1 Break % 4. Relate Inputs to Outputs Rating of Importance to 10 Customer 9 3 3 3 3 9 9 9 9 1 3 9 9 9 1 9 1 1 1 3 9 3 3 1 3 9 3 3 1 3 324 168 168 142 106 3 3 3 1 1 1 82 1 1 3 0 3 3 77

3 3 3 3 1 3 3 9 3 0 9 3 3 3 9 0 9 3 3 0 9 3 3 3 1 9 9 9 9 1 231 228 180 174 104 3 3 3 3 1 1 100 Total Process Input Resin Barrell Temp Screw Speed Screw Design Regrind% Barell/Screw Condition Screw Tip Cooling Programing Die Tip Temp Head Design Tooling Support Air Lower Manifold This is a subjective estimate of how influential the key inputs are on the key outputs 5-17 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Cause & Effect Matrix Form Rating of Importance to

Customer 14 15 Requirement 5. Crossmultiply and prioritize Total Requirement 13 Requirement 12 Requirement 11 Requirement 10 Requirement 9 Requirement 8 Requirement 7 Requirement 6 Requirement 5 Requirement 4 Requirement 3 Requirement 2 Requirement Requirement 1 Process Step Process Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sum of (Rating x Correlation Score) values for all Requirements 5-18 Bottle Production Example 1 Melt Resin 1 Melt Resin 2 2

2 2 2 Extrude Extrude Extrude Extrude Extrude Parison Parison Parison Parison Parison 2 Extrude Parison 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wall Variation 5 Note: Only a partial list of inputs Weight Resin Resin Resin Resin Resin 9 Clarity Melt Melt Melt Melt Melt 9 Bottle Output 1 1 1 1 1 1 Melt Temp Process Step Rating of Importance to 10 Customer Break % 5. Crossmultiply and prioritize Collect Collect&&Interpret

InterpretData Data 9 3 3 3 3 9 9 9 9 1 3 9 9 9 1 9 1 1 1 3 9 3 3 1 3 9 3 3 1 3 324 168 168 142 106 3 3 3 1 1 1 82 1 1 3 0 3 3 77 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 9 3 0 9 3

3 3 9 0 9 3 3 0 9 3 3 3 1 9 9 9 9 1 231 228 180 174 104 3 3 3 3 1 1 100 Total Process Input Resin Barrell Temp Screw Speed Screw Design Regrind% Barell/Screw Condition Screw Tip Cooling Programing Die Tip Temp Head Design Tooling Support Air Lower Manifold We now start getting a feel for which variables are most important to explaining variation in the outputs 5-19 Bottle Production Example 1 9 9 5 8 1 2 3 4 5

6 Blow Bottle Extrude Parison Extrude Parison Blow Bottle Melt Resin Melt Resin Melt Resin Blow Bottle Tail Detab Weight Blow Bottle Clarity Resin Mold Design Programing Die Tip Temp Mold Water Temp Water Volume/Cooli ng Rate Head Design Tooling Pinch Design Barrell Temp Screw Speed Screw Design # of Mold Cooling Zones Time from extraction to Detab Bottle Output Melt Resin Blow Bottle Extrude Parison Extrude Parison Melt Temp Process Input Break % Process Step Wall Variation Rating of Importance to 10 Customer 9 9 3 3 9 0 3 3 3 9 9 3 9 9 0 9 9 0 9 3 9

9 9 9 324 324 231 228 9 0 9 3 0 0 198 9 0 9 3 0 0 198 3 3 9 3 3 3 9 3 0 9 9 9 3 3 9 9 9 9 3 3 0 1 1 1 3 3 0 3 3 1 9 9 0 3 3 1 180 174 171 168 168 142 9

0 3 0 0 0 117 9 0 3 0 0 0 117 Total Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data We have sorted on the crossmultiplied numbers and find that the input variables in the box above are the most important We can now evaluate the control plans for these input variables Note: Only a partial list of inputs 5-20 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data General Approach Place the outputs across the top of the matrix and rank Place inputs down the side of the matrix starting with the first process step and moving to the last This approach is okay for small process with relatively few steps Should only be used for processes with a relatively small number of steps and inputs 5-21 Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Focused Approach Phase I Place the outputs across the top of the matrix and rank Place the process steps down the side of the matrix Correlate process step to outputs Pareto the process steps

Phase II Start a new C&E Matrix with the inputs from the top three or four process steps Recommended when first starting a project o Focuses the efforts and gives the team a feeling that theyre working on the important process steps first o Gives you a running start at the FMEA and preliminary Control Plan Analysis 5-22 Control Plan Evaluation Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data Standard Operating Procedures Do they exist? Are they understood? Are they being followed? Are they current? Is operator certification performed? Is there a process audit schedule? 5-23 Control Plan Evaluation Controllable Input Variables: Variables Collect Collect&&Interpret InterpretData Data How are they monitored? How often are they verified? Are optimum target values and specifications known? How much variation is there around the target value? How consistent are they? Other Questions: Questions How often is the input variable out of control? Which input variables should have control charts? 5-24

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