What is Architecture?

What is Architecture?

CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO WHAT IS DESIGN? The information contained in this presentation is for general information purposes only and it is intended that there will be strictly no commercial gain from its production. The content has been prepared in good faith from what are believed to be reasonably dependable sources but its accuracy and completeness cannot be absolutely guaranteed and should not therefore ever be completely relied upon. Any perceived breach of copyright is unintentional and entirely accidental. C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO WHAT IS DESIGN? DESIGN CAN BE VIEWED AS AN ACTIVITY THAT TRANSLATES AN IDEA INTO A BLUEPRINT FOR SOMETHING USEFUL, WHETHER IT IS A CAR, A BUILDING, A GRAPHIC, A MOBILE PHONE OR A PAIR OF TRAINERS. THE IMPORTANT PART IS THE TRANSLATION OF THE IDEA FROM INITIAL CONCEPT INTO REALITY. GOOD DESIGN BEGINS WITH THE NEEDS OF THE USER. NO DESIGN, NO MATTER HOW BEAUTIFUL AND INGENIOUS, IS ANY GOOD IF IT DOES NOT FULFILL A USER NEED.

DESIGNERS HAVE TO ASK THEMSELVES QUESTIONS SUCH AS: IS THE PRODUCT OR BUILDING THEY ARE CREATING CATCH THE PUBLICS IMAGINATION? HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM EVERYTHING ELSE ON THE MARKET? WILL IT COST TOO MUCH TO CONSTRUCT? IS IT SAFE? WILL IT BE EXCITING, CREATIVE AND DYNAMIC? C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 01 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO WHAT IS ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN? ARCHITECTURE STARTS WHEN YOU CAREFULLY PUT TWO BRICKS TOGETHER. LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, ARCHITECT ARCHITECTURE IS ROUGHLY CONCERNED WITH CAREFULLY BALANCING HORIZONTAL THINGS ON TOP OF VERTICAL

THINGS. REYNER BANHAM, DESIGN CRITIC 02 C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO ARCHITECTURE IS UNIQUE TO HUMAN BEINGS NO OTHER LIVING ORGANISM CAN PLAN, CONSTRUCT, INHABIT AND ADAPT THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES IN THE WAY THAT HUMAN BEINGS CAN. ARCHITECTURE HOLDS A MIRROR UP TO CULTURE, HISTORY AND SOCIETY. In Iran sophisticated arched, domed and vaulted structures have been built for thousands of years using mud bricks which have been dried in the sun. 03 C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO ARCHITECTURE IS MORE THAN CONSTRUCTION THE HISTORIAN NIKOLAUS PEVSNER FAMOUSLY WROTE A CATHEDRAL IS ARCHITECTURE BUT A

BICYCLE SHED IS NOT. WHAT HE MEANT WAS THAT ARCHITECTURE ADDRESSES AESTHETICS, UNLIKE PURELY FUNCTIONAL BUILDINGS. SOME CRITICS DISAGREE WITH PEVSNER ABOUT THIS (INCLUDING REYNER BANHAM, A DESIGNER AND KEEN CYCLIST), BUT THE MAIN POINT IS THAT ARCHITECTURE AIMS TO FULFIL OUR CULTURAL NEEDS AS WELL AS PROVIDE FOR OUR BASIC NEED FOR SHELTER. REYNERBANHAM ON HIS BIKE DREAMING OF HIS SHED ARCHITECTURE IS COMPLEX CONTEMPORARY BUILDINGS HAVE TO DEAL WITH MANY ISSUES. THE DESIGN OF A BUILDING OR PUBLIC SPACE MUST ADDRESS FOUR MAIN AREAS: BRIEF FUNCTION LOCATION CONSTRUCTION C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 04 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO

BRIEF THIS DESCRIBES THE OVERALL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BUILDING, ITS INTENDED USE AND THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF ROOMS THAT WILL BE REQUIRED. IT WILL ALSO CONFIRM THE NUMBER AND TYPE OF PEOPLE WHO WILL USE THE BUILDING, WHAT THEY DO, AND THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY ARE EXPECTED TO WORK, LIVE OR PLAY. FUNCTION THIS MEANS THE ARRANGEMENT, QUALITY AND RELATIONSHIP OF SPACES AND HOW WELL THE BUILDING IS DESIGNED TO BE ACCESSIBLE AND USEFUL TO ALL. The function of the Egyptian pyramids were stone tombs for Egypt's kings the Pharaohs and one of the world's greatest historical mysteries. Pyramids were huge structures and contained storage rooms, courtyards, secret passageways, and all kinds of fancy traps designed to catch robbers who might try to break in. SOME THINGS TO CONSIDER WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE BUILDING? IS IT TO BE USED FOR LEISURE AND RECREATION, ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT, RELIGIOUS, SPIRITUAL, COMMERCIAL, RETAIL, INDUSTRIAL, HEALTHCARE, OR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES? IS THE BUILDING EASY TO USE? IS THE BUILDING EASY FOR EVERYONE TO GET TO AND MOVE AROUND IN? CAN YOU TELL THE FUNCTION OF A BUILDING BY LOOKING AT IT? ARE THE ROOMS THE RIGHT SIZE AND WELL ARRANGED? IS THE ENTRANCE BIG OR SMALL; PUBLIC OR PRIVATE; FORMAL OR INFORMAL? IS IT WELCOMING OR INTIMIDATING? HOW MANY WINDOWS ARE THERE?

HOW BIG ARE THE WINDOWS AND WHERE ARE THE POSITIONED? IS THERE ANY DECORATION, COLOURS OR SIGNAGE. IS THE BUILDING GRAND OR HUMBLE? C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 05 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO LOCATION ARCHITECTURE IS THE ART OF GIVING SHAPE TO OUR PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND INCLUDES HOW A BUILDING DESIGN RESPONDS TO ITS LOCATION AND SURROUNDINGS. Sydney Opera House (1957 - 1973) is a masterpiece of late modern architecture. It was created by a Jrn Utzon, a Danish architect who understood and recognised the potential provided by the site against the stunning backdrop of Sydney harbour. SOME THINGS TO CONSIDER: WHAT DIRECTION IS THE BUILDING FACING AND HOW IS IT AFFECTED BY SUNLIGHT AND WIND? DOES ITS HEIGHT EFFECT THE VIEWS OUT OF IT OR BLOCK ANYONE ELSES VIEW? IS IT OR WILL IT BECOME A LOCAL LANDMARK OR ICONIC BUILDING? DOES THE BUILDING OCCUPY THE ENTIRE SITE OR LEAVE SOME OF THE SITE FREE FOR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES? HOW DO YOU ENTER THE SITE? DOES THE BUILDING CUT INTO THE SITE OR REST ON TOP OF THE SITE? HOW DOES THE BUILDING RELATE TO THE LANDSCAPE? HOW DOES THE SCALE, STYLE AND MATERIALS RELATE TO NEIGHBOURING BUILDINGS?

ARE THERE ANY LOCAL MATERIALS SUCH AS STONE, TIMBER OR SLATE WHICH CAN BE USED IN THE BUILDING? ARE THERE ANY PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES SUCH AS CLIFFS, RIVERS OR A BEACH WHICH WOULD AFFECT THE WAY THE BUILDING IS USED OR CONSTRUCTED? 06 C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO CONSTRUCTION THIS RELATES TO THE HOW THE BUILDING IS BUILT AND PERFORMS. IT ALSO INCLUDES THE STRUCTURAL STABILITY, THE MATERIALS AND MEASURES TAKEN TO MAKE SURE IT IS SUSTAINABLE. WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THE BRIDGE FLIPPER? RIVETTING! The Forth Rail Bridge west of Edinburgh was completed in 1890. Although not a building it is regarded as an engineering marvel. It is 2.5km (1.5 miles) long and consists of more than 55,000 tons of steel as well as 18,122 m of granite and over eight million rivets. The bridge structure needs to be strong enough to support any train weighing 1,422 tonnes. Up to 190 200 trains per day crossed the bridge in 2006. SOME THINGS TO CONSIDER: CAN YOU TELL HOW IT STANDS UP? IS THE STRUCTURE EXPOSED OR CONCEALED?

DOES THE STRUCTURE DETERMINE THE PLAN LAYOUT OF THE BUILDING AND ROUTES AROUND IT? WHICH MATERIALS HAVE BEEN USED? FOR INSTANCE, BRICKS AND BLOCKS, STEEL OR TIMBER FRAME, CONCRETE, GLASS AND STONE. ARE THEY NATURAL OR MAN-MADE? DOES THE STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING DETERMINE THE EXTERNAL FORM? ARE THERE ANY GLASS WALLS OR OPENINGS FOR WINDOWS IN SOLID WALLS TO LET LIGHT AND AIR IN? HOW STRONG DOES THE STRUCTURE NEED TO BE? DOES THE CONSTRUCTION MIMIC THAT OF A PLANT, ANIMAL OR ANIMALS HOME? WHAT TYPE OF CLADDING (SKIN) IS USED? IS IT TRANSPARENT OR SOLID; HARD OR SOFT; TEXTURED OR SMOOTH? ARE SOME PARTS OF THE BUILDING PRE-FABRICATED OFF-SITE THEN FITTED TOGETHER ON SITE OR IS IT ALL BUILT ON SITE? WHAT METHODS HAVE BEEN USED TO PROVIDE ACCESS BOTH EXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY? DO THEY INCLUDE EVERYONES NEEDS EVEN PEOPLE IN WHEELCHAIRS? 07 C CREATIVE SPACES 2011 CREATIVE SPACES 2012 INFORMATION PACK TWO GOOD THING I DIDNT TAKE UP SUMO WRESTLING! In 1887 the engineers, Sir John Fowler and Benjamin Baker carried out a demonstration to show how the weight of the central span of the Forth Rail Bridge was transmitted to the banks of the river through the diamond shaped supports. They used Kaichi Watanabe, one of the first Japanese engineers to visit the UK as the central weight.

HOW MANY RIVETS DID THEY SAY WERE HOLDING UP THIS BRIDGE? TRAIN BRIDGE STRUCTURE SOME OTHER THINGS TO CONSIDER: WHAT DOES THE BUILDING LOOK LIKE? HOW DO DECORATIONS AND DETAILS AFFECT HOW PEOPLE EXPERIENCE THE BUILDING. IS THIS BUILDING ENVIRONMENTALLY AND ECO-FRIENDLY AND IS IT SYMPATHETIC TO ITS CONTEXT AND LANDSCAPE? DOES THE BUILDING USE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCES OR RECYCLED MATERIALS? CAN THE BUILDING BE BUILT SAFELY? 08 C CREATIVE SPACES 2011

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