What is a Paragraph?

What is a Paragraph?

WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? A paragraph is a group of sentences which all talk about one topic or subject or idea. Sometimes a paragraph can stand alone. In this case, all the sentences will talk about only one thing. If a paragraph contains sentences which all discuss one idea, the paragraph is said to possess UNITY. Unity means that there is only one idea in the paragraph. The sentences in the paragraph do not talk about any other ideas, only the main idea. The main idea of the paragraph is stated in the TOPIC SENTENCE. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in the paragraph, but it does not have to be. Sometimes the topic sentence may be in the second,

third, fourth or even the last sentence in a paragraph. A writer who pays attention to the topic sentence and writes a good one will ensure that the paragraph possesses unity. The CONCLUDING SENTENCE is not only the last sentence in the paragraph, but it has another job: It sums up the main idea of the paragraph. But the sentences in the paragraph also have to be arranged in order that makes some sense. This arrangement of sentences is called COHERENCE. If a paragraph possesses coherence, then one sentence will lead logically to another. The writer will not skip around or jump from one idea to another. A good paragraph is one which contains unity and coherence.

The ideas are presented in the topic sentence and summed up in the concluding sentence. Usually, a paragraph does not stand alone. It is part of a longer piece of writing which consists of several (or sometimes many) paragraphs. EXERCISES IN UNITY A) Read the following ten sentences carefully. Cross out the two sentences that do not belong. Locate the sentence that you feel would make the best topic sentence. Write the paragraph out in full and in order. 1. In this short, complex dance, the scout bee has given the hive information that is vital to its survival.

2. Once back at the hive, it does a complicated dance on the wall of the honeycomb. 3. Bees do not usually sting unless they are frightened or hurt. 4. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee.

5. It shows direction by the position of its dance and by the distance it dances from the top of the comb. 6. The dance tells the other bees two things: the distance of the food from the hive and the direction in which it lies. 7. If the food is far away, the bee dances in short straight lines. 8. Frisch found that after a bee has discovered a source of food, it returns to the hive.

9. Although there are over 10,000 different kinds of bees, only honey bees produce honey that we can use. 10. If the food is nearby, the bee makes a series of circular movements. CROSS OUT THE TWO SENTENCES THAT DO NOT BELONG. CROSS OUT THE TWO SENTENCES THAT DO NOT BELONG. 3. Bees do not usually sting unless they are frightened or hurt.

9. Although there are over 10,000 different kinds of bees, only honey bees produce honey that we can use. 1. In this short, complex dance, the scout bee has given the hive information that is vital to its survival. 2. Once back at the hive, it does a complicated dance on the wall of the honeycomb. 3. Bees do not usually sting unless they are frightened or hurt.

4. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee. 5. It shows direction by the position of its dance and by the distance it dances from the top of the comb. 6. The dance tells the other bees two things: the distance of the food from the hive and the direction in which it lies.

7. If the food is far away, the bee dances in short straight lines. 8. Frisch found that after a bee has discovered a source of food, it returns to the hive. 9. Although there are over 10,000 different kinds of bees, only honey bees produce honey that we can use. 10. If the food is nearby, the bee makes a series of circular movements.

1. In this short, complex dance, the scout bee has given the hive information that is vital to its survival. 2. Once back at the hive, it does a complicated dance on the wall of the honeycomb. 4. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee.

5. It shows direction by the position of its dance and by the distance it dances from the top of the comb. 6. The dance tells the other bees two things: the distance of the food from the hive and the direction in which it lies. 7. If the food is far away, the bee dances in short straight lines. 8. Frisch found that after a bee has discovered a source of food, it returns to the hive.

10. If the food is nearby, the bee makes a series of circular movements. LOCATE THE SENTENCE THAT YOU FEEL WOULD MAKE THE BEST TOPIC SENTENCE. LOCATE THE SENTENCE THAT YOU FEEL WOULD MAKE THE BEST TOPIC SENTENCE. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee. (4)

4. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee. 1. In this short, complex dance, the scout bee has given the hive information that is vital to its survival. 2. Once back at the hive, it does a complicated dance on the wall of the honeycomb.

5. It shows direction by the position of its dance and by the distance it dances from the top of the comb. 6. The dance tells the other bees two things: the distance of the food from the hive and the direction in which it lies. 7. If the food is far away, the bee dances in short straight lines. 8. Frisch found that after a bee has discovered a source of food, it returns to the hive.

10. If the food is nearby, the bee makes a series of circular movements. 4. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee. 8. Frisch found that after a bee has discovered a source of food, it returns to the hive. 2. Once back at the hive, it does a complicated dance on the wall of the

honeycomb. 1. In this short, complex dance, the scout bee has given the hive information that is vital to its survival. 6. The dance tells the other bees two things: the distance of the food from the hive and the direction in which it lies. 5. It shows direction by the position of its dance and by the distance it dances from the top of the comb.

7. If the food is far away, the bee dances in short straight lines. 10. If the food is nearby, the bee makes a series of circular movements. 4. One of the most fascinating studies of insects was made by Karl von Frisch, who spent years trying to translate the language of the honey bee. 8. Frisch found that after a bee has discovered a source of food, it returns to the hive.

2. Once back at the hive, it does a complicated dance on the wall of the honeycomb. 6. The dance tells the other bees two things: the distance of the food from the hive and the direction in which it lies. 5. It shows direction by the position of its dance and by the distance it dances from the top of the comb.

10. If the food is nearby, the bee makes a series of circular movements. 7. If the food is far away, the bee dances in short straight lines. 1. In this short, complex dance, the scout bee has given the hive information that is vital to its survival. EXERCISES IN UNITY (CONTINUED) B) The topic sentence for a paragraph is given on the next slide, followed by a number of details. Decide which details should be included in a paragraph which uses the topic sentence.

Cross out details which should not be included. Write the paragraph out in full and in order. TOPIC SENTENCE: SAM IS ONE OF THE BEST PLAYERS ON THE BASEBALL TEAM. DETAILS: 1. Sam is a good athlete. 2. Sam is very tall for his age. 3. Sam likes to eat pizza, but he does not like spaghetti. 4. Sam hit two home runs in the last game. 5. Baseball is one of the best games played professionally in North America. 6. When the pitcher throws the ball, Sam has a good eye and can determine where the ball will go in relation to the plate. 7. Sam can run to first base faster than anyone on the team. 8. Sam is a member of the safety patrol at school. 9. Baseball was invented by Abner Doubleday in Cooperstown, New York. 10. Sam can pitch, hit and catch very well. 11. Sam is a very good player at first base or short stop.

12. Michelle is almost as good a player as Sam. 13. Sam likes the new glove his father bought him for his birthday. 14. Sam can read the pitcher very well and knows when he should attempt to steal a base. 15. One day when our team was losing, Sam hit a grand-slam home run, which allowed us to win the game. 16. Sam prefers baseball to hockey. EXERCISES IN UNITY (CONTINUED) C) The topic sentence for a paragraph is given on the next slide, followed by a number of details. Decide which details should be included in a paragraph which uses the topic sentence. Cross out details which should not be included. Write the paragraph out in full and in order. TOPIC SENTENCE: MY FAVORITE PLACE TO VISIT IS THE BEACH. DETAILS: 1. The water is very warm even in the early summer.

2. There is a bird museum at the beach. 3. The bird museum has pictures of birds that you can see along the shore and in the trees. 4. I enjoy looking for different kinds of birds. 5. There are carnival rides at the beach. 6. I dont like the hot dogs sold at the cafeteria at the beach. 7. The beach is never crowded with people. 8. I like playing in the sand. 9. Sometimes crabs come out of their holes in the sand and play in the water. 10. I really like swimming in the waves and body surfing. 11. I like to be around many people when I am on holidays. 12. There are many shells at the beach, and I can make things from them. 13. My mother and father let me stay up later in the summer. 14. Sometimes we have a barbecue at the beach and I really like the hamburgers my dad makes there. 15. When it rains there is not much to do at the beach. 16. Being outside in the sunshine gives me a good appetite at lunch time. 17. My older sister lets me bury her in the sand up to her neck.

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