What Do I already know about Prehistoric Cultures?

What Do I already know about Prehistoric Cultures?

Ancient Middle America The Preclassic Early Formative an introduction University of Minnesota Duluth Tim Roufs 2009-2019

Mexico (7th ed) Page 244 Mexico (7th ed.). Michael D. Coe and Rex Koontz. NY: Thames and Hudson, 2008, p. 236.

Mexico (7th ed) Page 244 Mexico (7th ed.). Michael D. Coe and Rex Koontz. NY: Thames and Hudson, 2008, p. 236. Mexico (7th ed.). Michael D. Coe and Rex Koontz. NY: Thames and Hudson, 2008, p. 236.

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/ma_timeline.html#Late_Preclassic http://weber.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/arch/mexchron.html#EPC Nine Important Points for the

Preclassic Stage After Willey and Phillips, Method and Theory in American Archaeology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. Preclassic Stage

1. With the advent of the Preclassic there is, for most American areas, a fundamental economic shift from huntingand-gathering to agricultural food production this is the most profound change in the scheme of changes

Preclassic Stage 2. The geographical focus moves from North America to Middle America, and, perhaps, even farther south

to the central Andes one exception is Cahokia in Illinois Olmec Region La Venta Mesoamerican archaeological sites.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481. Preclassic Stage 3. The gradual steps by which a sedentary, village, Formative way of life was

achieved are not yet clear ... Preclassic Stage . . . but it is likely that slow, steady experimentation by Archaic gathering peoples led to village

life in which the primary dependence was upon crops like maize and beans e.g., Tehuacn Tehuacn, Puebla

Preclassic Stage 4. Agricultural villages and towns appear in Middle America in the earliest phases of Formative sequences

in several regions of Middle America villages probably date back to as early as the middle of the second millennium B.C. Preclassic Stage 5. A stable village or town life,

with its potentialities for cultural and social development may be made possible by economics other than the agricultural . . . Preclassic Stage

5. A stable village or town life, with its potentialities for cultural and social development may be made possible by economics other than

the agricultural ... The Continental Shelf and Areas of Certain Fisheries Preclassic Stage

. . . therefore, the emphasis on the Preclassic Stage definition is upon settlement size stability the social and cultural implications which these carry

rather than upon agriculture per se Preclassic Stage . . . the Preclassic is therefore defined By the presence of agriculture, or any

other subsistence economy of comparable effectiveness, and by the successful integration of such an economy into well-established sedentary village life Preclassic Stage

. . . the Preclassic is therefore defined By the presence of agriculture, or any other subsistence economy of comparable effectiveness, and by the successful integration of such an

economy into well-established sedentary Preclassic Stage . . . this definition emphasizes the fact that the economic potential for even the richest of the huntinggathering societies was definitely

limited in such a way that further development to the New World Classic stage was precluded Preclassic Stage development to the New World

Classic stage was possible only with agriculture, or its equivalent, and only in certain natural environmental settings Preclassic Stage

6. The agricultural-based cultures are characterized by the abundant use of ceramics . . . and weaving is usually also well-developed

Zoque cloth www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Lost_Cave_People.html#title textiles take on important symbolic

meanings www.travelchiapas.com/huipils/huipils-history.php Preclassic Stage 7. The competencies of the

Lithic and Archaic stages in the chipping, grinding, and the polishing of stone are carried on into the Preclassic Stage Preclassic Stage

8. Site occupation tends to be stable and of long duration houses and other buildings are of permanent or semi-permanent quality Preclassic Stage

9. The village is the basic sociopolitical unit in some regions it is of town size Preclassic Stage

specialized politico-religious architecture and/or sites are frequently features of the Preclassic Stage these take the form of pyramidal mound-based temples within, or apart from, the village or town

communities Preclassic Stage in many places these special buildings or sites imply a politicoreligious organization and authority reaching beyond the

confines of a single site or community Preclassic Stage REM: the settlement patterns, etc., not the simple presence

of agriculture, are the effective criteria for classification . . . Preclassic Stage REM: the settlement patterns,

etc., not the simple presence of agriculture, are the effective criteria for classification . . . Preclassic Stage

. . . that is why the Preclassic Stage is defined by the presence of agriculture, or any other subsistence economy of comparable effectiveness, and by the successful integration of such an economy into well-established,

sedentary village life Preclassic Stage . . . that is why the Preclassic Stage is defined by the presence of agriculture, or any other

subsistence economy of comparable effectiveness, and by the successful integration of such an economy into well-established, sedentary village life The Continental Shelf and Areas of Certain Fisheries

Preclassic Stage but usually the basic sustenance came from the agriculture production of maize squash

beans chili http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/fish-effigy-vessels.htm Preclassic Stage

their vessels represent many of the important plants and animals of these people: squashes rabbits

ducks frogs turtles birds

fish and other animals http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/fish-effigy-vessels.htm

http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/fish-effigy-vessels.htm Preclassic Stage Because of their technologies these groups adapted themselves well to their environments. They had:

stone mortars, and manos and metates for pounding seeds and grinding maize projectile points for hunting bone awls and needles for making clothing stone axes for clearing forests and working wood

http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/everyday-use.htm Preclassic Stage the name Formative implies the formation of the New World agricultural village pattern

at the same time, it carries with it the connotation that this pattern was basic to and formational toward later and more advanced developments Preclassic Stage 1800 B.C. A.D. 250 (The Maya)

1800 B.C. A.D. 150 (Mexico) 1600 200 (300) B.C. but probably developed as early as 2000 B.C. in some areas . . . and by 1500 farming villages were common

Preclassic Stage the origins of the Preclassic Stage cultures are extremely complex and diverse include the gradual assemblage of elements over considerable periods of time and over

wide areas Preclassic Stage in Mesoamerica several different archaeological regions have Preclassic

cultures these include the earliest known pottery-and-agriculture phases Preclassic Stage the distinction between a

purely village life and a village-life-plus- ceremonialcenter-participation poses a problem in stage classification ... Preclassic Stage

the ceremonial center with its public works generally stands for multi-village cooperation and for the beginning of a relatively large-scale politicoreligious organization Preclassic Stage

the ceremonial center with its public works generally stands for multi-village cooperation and for the beginning of a relatively large-scale politicoreligious organization

Preclassic Stage the groups in the Valley of Mexico practiced a fertility cult related to natural phenomena and fecundity female figurines were modeled in

clay with a view to propitiating gods who controlled harvests Preclassic Stage Under Olmec influences Central Mexico adopted a jaguar deity related to the rain

this soon became fused with an aquatic serpent and resulted in sort of a celestial dragon that was later to evolve into the god of water Preclassic Stage

a burial at Tlatilco indicates that a cult of the dead was also being practiced . . . Preclassic Stage they wrapped the deceased in mats or

blankets and placed them, in either an extended or flexed position, inside pits dug in the ground they sprinkled the bodies with red ochre bodies were accompanied with offerings of food and personal objects for use in the hereafter

Preclassic Stage Ceramics appear in abundance Olmec Figurine

Preclassic Stage the Preclassic Stage can be broken down into three substages . . . Preclassic Stage

Late Preclassic Middle Preclassic Early Preclassic Early Preclassic Stage

Late Preclassic Middle Preclassic Early Preclassic Early Preclassic Stage Early Preclassic Stage

1800 1000 B.C. (The Maya) 1800 1200 B.C.

(Mexico) 2500 1250 B.C. Early Preclassic Stage Early Preclassic Sites include: San Lorenzo

Chiapa de Corzo Cerros Ocs Cuello Early Preclassic Stage

Early Preclassic Sites include: El Arbolillo Zacatenco Tlatilco Barra Cuadros San Jos Mogote

Early Preclassic Stage Late Preclassic Middle Preclassic Early Preclassic

Middle Preclassic Stage 1000 - 300 B.C. (The Maya) 1200 - 400 B.C.

(Mexico) Olmec Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.

Middle Preclassic Stage Middle Preclassic Sites include: La Venta Chalcatzingo Monte Alban I Copilco

Kaminaljuy Uaxactn Middle Preclassic Stage Middle Preclassic Sites include: Gualupita

Mamon Xe El Arbolillo Conchas Mazatn Late Preclassic Stage

Late Preclassic Middle Preclassic Early Preclassic Late Preclassic Stage 300 B.C. - A.D. 250

(The Maya) 400 B.C. A.D. 150 (Mexico)

300 B.C. A.D. 1 / 150 Late Preclassic Stage Late Preclassic Sites begin to multiply rapidly and include Teotihuacn I (Tzacualli phase)

Monte Albn II Chupicuaro Cuicuilco Early Tres Zapotes Tikl Dzibilchaltn

Late Preclassic Stage Late Preclassic Sites include La Mojarra Tlapacoya Izapan styles Edzn

Early Remojadas Ticomn Miraflores Late Preclassic Stage Late Preclassic Sites include:

Miraflores Chikanel Santa Clara Protoclassic Stage Protoclassic ?

Late Preclassic Middle Preclassic Early Preclassic Protoclassic Stage 200 B.C. A.D. 200

In the stage which some call the Protoclassic a number of features which will later distinguish the major Mexoamerican civilizations can already be recognized . . .

Protoclassic Stage 200 B.C. A.D. 200 These civilizations include . . . Maya Zapotec Central Veracruz cultures (Totonac)

and perhaps the Huastec and Teotihuacn Protoclassic Stage . . . among these are: a precise technique of working

stone the erection of stelae and altars associated with them . . . Protoclassic Stage . . . among these are:

the calendar and a system of numbering using dots and bars the god of rain with recognizable attributes Protoclassic Stage

. . . among these are: fresco-type painting on vessels and tombs tetrapod vessels with mammiform legs labial and basal moldings on pottery

What happens next? And after that? Time line of New World Civilizations. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.

End of Introduction to the Preclassic Continue on to The Classic

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