What Color is a Rainbow?

What Color is a Rainbow?

Conversation in the car, upon looking at a beautiful rainbow: Mom: How many colors do you see? 10-year old boy: Two. One is yellowish green, and the other is blueor maybe purple. Meeting the Needs of Learners Through the Use of Color in School Libraries: An Exploratory Study of What School Librarians Know About Color Vision Deficiencies Dr. Karla B. Collins Assistant Professor Longwood University 2015 ALISE Conference, Chicago, IL

Background Information Color vision deficiency: The inability to discriminate between various colors (Neitz, M., & Neitz, J., 2000) Approximately 8% of the Caucasian male population has some form of color vision deficiency (Jenny & Kelso, 2007) Affects approximately 200 million people worldwide (Machado, et al., 2009) http:// nosuchthingascolor.com /

Impact in Education Unusual for children to know they have color vision deficiencies (Dwyer, 1991) Inconsistency in state vision screening requirements Not considered a disability (Colourblind Awareness, 2013; Patrick, 2000) Much of primary education relies on color, so teachers need to be aware, but many are not (Cole, 2004; Gallo, 1998; Suero, et al., 2004) Teacher perception difference in performance assessment (Suero et al, 2004)

The Study Purpose The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore how elementary school librarians provide instruction and prepare the library environment to meet the needs of students with color vision deficiencies. Research Questions 1. What do elementary school librarians know about color vision deficiencies? 2. What attitudes or understandings do elementary school librarians exhibit related to color vision deficiencies? 3. What is the effect of participation in color vision deficiency

awareness research on elementary school librarians': knowledge of color vision deficiencies; attitudes or understandings of color vision deficiencies and the needs of students with color vision deficiencies; behaviors related to the use of color and the needs of students with color vision deficiencies? Research Design Statewide Study One-shot, cross-sectional design Instrumentation: Questionnaire Knowledge and attitude/understanding 51 Likert-type scale (1-4) with 0 category for do not know response 5 categorical items (knowledge) 3 open-response items

Demographic items Sample Voluntary sample those who completed questionnaire n=242 (34% return rate) Research Design Case Study Pre-experimental, one group pretest - posttest design, no control Sample: 8 elementary school librarians from one school district in Virginia Instrumentation - Qualitative Activity Purpose

Qualitative Data Pre-Observation Library Space The current use of color in the library space Pictures, video, written description Pre-Observation Class Instruction How the librarian uses color in teaching a primary grade class

Interview Further information about knowledge and Written description, attitudes; differentiation, accommodations, audio answer questions that have arisen Pictures, audio, written description Training Color Vision Deficiencies and Universal Design for Learning Blog prompts Training follow-up, applying what was learned

Blog responses Post-Observation Library Space Changes in use of color Pictures, video, written description Post-Observation Changes in use of color; new ideas class instruction; informal discussion Pictures, audio, written

description Findings - Knowledge What do elementary school librarians know about color vision deficiencies? Knowledge items Statewide: = 2.82 Case study: = 2.73 Some items had high number of 0 responses from statewide and case study Over 60% of statewide respondents had a personal connection with CVD Knowledge

High mean scores: General knowledge of color vision deficiencies Low mean scores: Library design and instruction for color vision deficiencies Zero Responses Item N (state) N (case) Color vision deficiency is classified as a disability under 174 7 Special Education guidelines In Virginia, all children are tested for color vision

125 5 deficiencies as part of the vision screening before entering school Findings - Attitude What attitudes or understandings do elementary school librarians exhibit related to color vision deficiencies? Attitude items Statewide: = 2.68 Case study: = 2.73 Some items had high number of respondents on statewide and case study choose do not know

Support and self-advocacy Attitude High Mean Scores Training about color vision deficiencies would be helpful for educators If I suspected a student was color vision deficient, I would want to help him/her Low Mean Scores If I suspected a student was color vision deficient, I would know how to help him/her Color vision deficiencies are discussed in Education courses in college Teachers know if there are students in their classes with color

vision deficiencies Findings Attitude, cont. Themes Changing attitude Importance of the subject "I think this is an issue that has been left out of the educational arena, so I'm glad you are doing research into it. My husband is color blind and to this day denies it because his sister told him when he was young that if he just tried hard, he could see red. He has had many embarrassing moments due to this problem. He seems to see it as some kind of a 'moral failing' to be colorblind. I wish that he did not feel so stigmatized. Findings Pre to Post-test Change

Knowledge: Pretest = 2.73; post-test = 3.12 Statistically significant change Attitude: Pretest = 2.73; post-test = 2.62 Not statistically significant Findings Pre to Post-test Change, ctd. Zero responses Inconsistent Some increased in post-test on attitude scale Themes Increasing awareness throughout the course of

the study Desire to change behaviors and library space Increasing Awareness Thelma: More aware and alert to students who respond incorrectly to color questions." I learned the extent of how many boys have color deficiency and am floored by the thought of how many go undiagnosed. I also have a better understanding of the everyday ways it can affect a person. In my library, I have started being more aware of contrast when publishing information and developing library stations.

Increasing Awareness Angela: "It helps me to understand, maybe some of the ones who seem really confused, that there could be a reason. It's not that they're doing it willfully, it's because they don't see it as red. I think that I am now more aware of the reasons why students might refer to a color in a certain way. Prior to the training I presumed that the student did not know their colors correctly. Now I am aware that there could be a vision deficiency...I think that sometimes we blame kids for being lazy or in a hurry, but it could be something else entirely. Desire to Change

Most commented about need to change signage Lottie added books about color vision deficiencies and reassessed AR labeling I also looked around the library, and said we have colors in AR. And I say get a book on your color. And for a child not to see the colors, I just would hope they'd say We're confused. But no child's ever done that. They just pull the color. But I did think, we do AR colors, that's a big thing. And I read a lot of stories and we talk about illustrations and illustrators, so...I'm interested. Unanticipated Findings How and what information about the needs of students is shared with school librarians

Impact of the questionnaire on those who completed it Practical Implications Need for awareness training and inclusion in Education courses Best practices Use of color in library space Instructional lessons and materials Future Research In states where color vision screening is mandated, what do educators know about color vision

deficiencies? Is color vision deficiency discussed in teacher preparation programs? How do young children with color vision deficiencies experience picture books? Is there a correlation between color vision deficiencies and reading levels in young children? What memories do adults with color vision deficiencies have about school? References

Cole, B. L. (2004). The handicap of abnormal colour vision. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 87(4-5): 258-275. Colour Blind Awareness. (2013). Colour blind awareness. Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.colourblindawareness.org/ Evans, L. (2011). No such thing as color. Retrieved from http://nosuchthingascolor.com Gallo, P., & Panza, M. M. (1998). Congenital dyschromatopsia and school achievement. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(2), 563. Jenny, B. & Kelso, N. V. (2007). Color design for the color vision impaired. Cartographic

Perspectives, 58, 61-67. Machado, G. M., Oliveira, M. M., Fernandes, L. A. F. (2009). A physiologically-based model for simulation of color vision deficiency. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 15(6), 1291-1298. Neitz, M. & Neitz, J. (2000). Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects. Arch Ophthalmology, 118, 691-700. Patrick, J. C. (2000). Should Color Vision Screening Yield a Black or White Answer? Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42(7), 679-682. Suero, M. I., Perez, . L., Diaz, F., Montanero, M., Pardo, P. J., Gil, J., & Palomino, M. I. (2004). Does Daltonism influence young children's learning? Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 89-98. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2004.08.002

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