Healthiest children possible: why schools matter DR. ART HISTER The good news: were living longer than ever Overall life expectancy (LE) at birth (Canada) 1991 2005 77.8 80.4 By gender:2005
Male: Female: 78.0 82.7 Statscan (January 15, 2008) BC (child born in 2005) Male: Female:
78.76 83.43 The bad news: nearly every chronic disease increasing in prevalence Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Cancers: NHL, colorectal, esophagus,
testicular, others Arthritis, OP Neurological diseases Dementias Sensory deficits: eye problems, hearing loss Chronic pain Disability of daily living
Cost of chronic health conditions is appalling Chronic health conditions account for 76 % of all direct medical costs Chakravarthy MU. Mayo Clin Proc 2002;77:165173 The burden of chronic health conditions Noncommunicable
(chronic health) conditions will cause over three quarters of all deaths worldwide in 2030 WHO World Health Statistics, 2008 Lifestyle factors are main key variables for chronic diseases Seven
largely modifiable factors account for 60 % of all chronic health problems WHO Annual Report (2005) Heart disease 90 % of heart attacks occur from modifiable (i.e. controllable) risk factors Yusuf S et al, Lancet 2004; 364: 937-52 Heart disease starts in childhood
The development of heart disease begins in childhood Reducing heart disease in mid and late life necessitates healthy habits in nutrition and lifestyle in early life Berenson GS. Bogalusa Heart Study, American Journal
of Cardiology. 82(10B):22T-29T, 1998 Nov 26. The epidemic of Type 2 diabetes, aka diabesity The prevalence of diabetes in Ontario has (already) exceeded the rate projected for 2030! Lipscombe, L et al Lancet 2007; 369:750-756
Why diabetes matters Death: 6th leading cause (rising) CVD: 70 % of diabetics die of MI or stroke Kidneys: No. 1 cause of kidney failure Blindness: No. 1 cause of blindness ages 20-74 Dementia: high risk of AD (Type III DM?) Cancer: pancreas, liver, colo-rectal, others Diabetes starts in childhood 1
in 3 kids born in 2000 will get type 2 diabetes Narayan KM et al JAMA 2003;290:1884-1890 Pediatric prescriptions for type 2 diabetic drugs doubled between 2002 and 2005 2 DM now represents as many as 45% of all cases of diabetes among youth Type
Lafontaine, T American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 2 (1): 30-36 (2008) Diabetes in kids The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising at an alarming rate in children . . . and is greatest among minority groups Vivian E Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22(2):297-306
So what is making kids so unhealthy? Poor nutritional habits Exercise, or lack of it How badly are kids doing because of weight problems? Childhood obesity could decrease life expectancy by 2-5 years
Ludwig, David, Director, Obesity Program Childrens Hospital, Boston Why weight problems matter in kids Raises risk of: Premature death at all ages Cardiovascular disease
Type 2 diabetes Joint problems Abnormal clotting Hormonal abnormalities, infertility Sleep apnea Psych problems: low self-esteem, depression Weight problems in kids are especially bad for the heart
Compared to normal-weight, overweight girls 10 times more likely to have high BP 2.4 times more likely high LDL levels 6.3 times to have low HDL Relationship between heart disease risk factors and weight may already be present at age 9 Obarzanek, D et al. The Journal of Pediatrics, 150 (1): 18-25 Being overweight as a child increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood as early as age 25 Baker J et al. NEJM (357):2329-2337
Benefit of exercise The single thing that comes close to a magic bullet, in terms of its strong and universal benefits (on overall health), is exercise Frank Hu, epidemiologist, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Magazine, March-April 2004
Benefits of exercise in kids Weight control Lower risks of chronic diseases Better sleep Fewer behaviour problems Better school performance More energy Dont need to start with much Kids
who did 15 minutes a day of moderate exercise (e.g. brisk walk) were 50 % less likely to be obese Ekelund U et al. The European Youth Heart Study. PLoS Med 3(12): e488 Exercise starts to work quickly Overweight childrens arteries: significant
reversal of atherosclerotic changes within 6 weeks of exercise, nutrition program Woo K et al. Circulation. 2004;109:1981-1986 Should schools be involved?
. . . the time has come to consider a markedly expanded role for schools in providing physical activity to our children and youth. Schools could become the central element in a community system that ensures that students participate in enough physical activity to develop healthy lifestyles Pate R et al, Promoting Physical Activity in Children and Youth - A Leadership Role for Schools: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Circulation. 2006;114:1214-1224 Why schools matter The
more exercise children engaged in, the lower their likelihood of having cardiovascular risk factors Andersen LB et al. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: A cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 2006 Jul 22; 368:299-304. Exercise benefits the school, too Children
who are active during the school day are more likely to be better focused and more on-task than their more sedentary peers Mahar MT et al, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 38(12):2086-2094, December 2006 Every step counts The only thing you ever need to become fit
is to live in a two-story house And have a very poor memory Dr. George Sheehan
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NHS data: Scottish Public Health Observatory scotpho.org.uk . Making best use of existing data and resources. Academic resources: Orian Brook, University of Stirling. Making best use of existing data and resources. Academic resources. Scottish Civil Society Data Partnership.
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