Wetlands - Lower Dauphin School District

Wetlands - Lower Dauphin School District

Fresh Water Systems Fresh water systems are classified as either lotic (meaning moving water) or lentic (meaning standing water) Freshwater Systems

Frayer Diagram Ponds and Lakes Ponds and lakes are considered lentic water systems. These are standing water systems.

Activator Bill Nye's Lakes and Ponds Lakes are formed in at least five ways. 1. A cut-off river meander may become an oxbow lake. 2 Ice sheets melted from glaciers may created lakes in the depressions

of the Earths crust due to the heavy layers of ice. 3. Movements in the Earths crust may create deep valleys allowing lakes to form such as Lake Tanganyika in Africa. 4. Empty craters (known as calderas) may be formed from volcanic eruptions, such as Crater Lake in Oregon or craters formed from meteorites can

leave depressions for lakes to form. 5. Lakes known as reservoirs are man-made and can be used to store drinking water such as the one at Memorial Lake. Ponds Generally, ponds are shallower than lakes. This allows sunlight to

reach the bottom so that more vegetation can grow in a pond often attracting a greater biodiversity of life. Not all ponds exist year-round. For example, in the northern and western US some ponds appear only in the spring when runoff from spring rains and melting snow collect in low areas. The ponds often dry up in midsummer as the shallow water quickly evaporates. These are often called vernal ponds.

Ponds in colder climates often freeze over in the winter. Living things in the pond survive in the liquid water below the frozen ice. Threats to Water Systems Lake Erie 1. Mankind- People are one of the greatest threats to a standing water system due to pollution, over-developing an area, changing

the surface of the land (such as putting in more roads, etc.). Threats continued 2. Too many nutrients - Put into a standing water system, this poses a great threat through a process called eutrophication

This process can be caused naturally or unnaturally (by man). The process begins as algae and other organisms add nutrients to a lake. These nutrients support plant life. If too many nutrients are added, then the algae begins to crowd out the lake creating lots of decaying matter and robbing this system of the necessary oxygen to support the life within it. Finally, the plants completely fill the lake creating a grassy meadow. In a moving water system this process may also occur creating an area known as a dead zone

to support life. Lake Turnover (demo) Particularly in cool, northern areas of North America, many lakes undergo changes with the seasons. In the summer, the sun warms the upper layer of water in the lake.

The warm water floats on top of the cooler, dense lower layer. In fall, the top layer cools off, too. As the water cools, it becomes denser and sinks. This causes the lake waters to mix together. As the water mixes, minerals, plant matter, and other nutrients rise from the lake bottom to the surface. This is called lake turnover helps refresh the supply of nutrients throughout the lake. Another type of lentic system is a

Wetlands An area of land that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year Why are wetlands important? Long regarded as wastelands, wetlands are now recognized as

important features in the landscape that provide numerous benefits for people, fish, and wildlife. 1. Flood Control Wetlands function like natural sponges, storing water and slowly releasing it. This process slows the waters momentum and erosive potential, reduces floods heights, and allows ground water to recharge.

2. Natural Filtration After being slowed by a wetland, water moves around plants, allowing suspended sediment to drop out and settle to the wetland floor. In many cases, this filtration process removes much of the waters nutrients and pollutant load by the time it leaves the wetland. 3. Habitat Wetlands are some of the most biologically diverse ecosystems in the world, comparable to a rainforest or coral reef in regards to the amount of life in which it can support. The nutrient-rich habitat is home to many

different types of plants and animals. There are at least fourteen different types of wetlands Here are some of them Freshwater Marsh

periodically saturated or flooded with water; filled with many herbaceous (non-woody) plants adapted to wet soil Bog freshwater wetland characterized by spongy peat deposits, a growth of evergreen trees and shrubs; and a floor covered with sphagnum moss. They tend to be acidic.

Swamp freshwater swamp is fed primarily by surface water inputs dominated by trees and shrubs; they have very wet soils during the growing season and standing water during certain times of the year Saltwater Marsh A wetland that is high in salt content; influenced by the tides so life in it must be very tolerant of

saline and changing conditions in and out of water for part of the day. Usually filled with many different types of grasses such as cord grass, salt-grass, and glasswort Estuary a wetland filled with brackish water (water that mixes salt and freshwater); very rich in nutrients and a wide diversity of life; a place where freshwater stream puts into the ocean

Mangrove Swamp a wetland that also is found along the coast; brackish water; environment characterized by special salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, and other plants capable of growing in such conditions; trees have special roots that help anchor the tree against tropical winds and storms

Wetland Concept Map Everglades Ecosystem Hurricane Katrina/wetlands? PBS predicts Hurricane Katrina Disaster

What can be done to protect lentic systems? Beginning in the 1970s, government enacted laws to protect wetland habitats. In PA for every acre of wetland you destroy you must create two acres of wetlands.

Effective drainage systems can direct run-off water so that it can get the wetland areas. In addition, retention ponds are also being created. This is a type of manmade wetland where large volumes of water can be held and then slowly released back into a water system.

Creating effective sewage treatment plants and revising our farming practices to cut down on excess nutrients from entering the system. As consumers, we can elect to purchase eco-friendly products such as shampoos and cleaners that reduce the phosphates or

nitrates we pour down the drain. Plant more trees and shrubs to help hold back soil and excess nutrients. This is known as a riparian buffer. Bill Nyes Wetlands Wetlands

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