Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4

Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 2 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web)

will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials. Earth Science, 12e Minerals: Building

Blocks of Rocks Chapter 2 Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral

Natural Inorganic Solid Possess an orderly internal structure of atoms Have a definite chemical composition

Mineraloid lacks an orderly internal structure Composition and structure of minerals Elements Basic building blocks of minerals Over 100 are known

Atoms Smallest particles of matter Have all the characteristics of an element Periodic Table of the Elements Figure 2.4

How atoms are constructed Nucleus central part of an atom that contains Protons positive electrical charges Neutrons neutral electrical charges Energy levels, or shells Surround nucleus Contain electrons negative electrical

charges Simplified view of the atom Figure 2.5 How atoms are constructed Atomic number is the number of protons in an atoms nucleus

Bonding of atoms Forms a compound with two or more elements Ions are atoms that gain or lose electrons Isotopes Have varying number of neutrons How atoms are constructed

Isotopes Have different mass numbers the sum of the neutrons plus protons Many isotopes are radioactive and emit energy and particles Minerals Physical properties of minerals

Habit Luster Color

Streak Hardness Cleavage The mineral quartz often exhibits good crystal shape Figure 2.21

Pyrite (fools gold) displays metallic luster Figure 2.11 Mohs scale of hardness Figure 2.13

Three examples of cleavage halite, calcite, and fluorite Figure 2.15 B Minerals Physical properties of minerals Fracture Specific gravity

Other properties Taste Smell Elasticity

Malleability Conchoidal fracture Figure 2.16 Minerals Physical properties of minerals Other properties

Feel Magnetism Double refraction Reaction to hydrochloric acid

Minerals A few dozen minerals are called the rockforming minerals The eight elements that compose most rockforming minerals are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) Most abundant atoms in Earths crust are oxygen (46.6% by weight) and silicon (27.7% by weight)

Composition of continental crust Figure 2.19 Minerals Mineral groups Rock-forming silicates

Most common mineral group Contain the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (molecule) Four oxygen atoms surrounding a much smaller silicon atom Combines with other atoms to form the various silicate structures The silicate (SiO4)4 molecule

Figure 2.20 Minerals Mineral groups Rock-forming silicates Groups based on tetrahedral arrangement Olivine independent tetrahedra Pyroxene group tetrahedra are arranged in

chains Amphibole group tetrahedra are arranged in double chains Hornblende a member of the amphibole group Figure 2.21

Minerals Mineral groups Rock-forming silicates Groups based on tetrahedral arrangement Micas tetrahedra are arranged in sheets Two types of mica are biotite (dark) and muscovite (light) Feldspars Three-dimensional network of tetrahedra

Minerals Mineral groups Rock-forming silicates Groups based on tetrahedral arrangement Feldspars Two types of feldspar are Orthoclase and Plagioclase Quartz three-dimensional network of

tetrahedra Potassium feldspar Figure 2.21 Minerals Mineral groups Rock-forming silicates

Feldspars are the most plentiful mineral group Crystallize from molten material Nonsilicate minerals Major groups Oxides Sulfides Minerals

Mineral groups Nonsilicate minerals Major groups Sulfates Carbonates Native elements Common nonsilicate mineral groups

Table 2.1 Minerals Mineral groups Nonsilicate minerals Carbonates A major rock-forming group Found in the rocks limestone and marble

Halite and gypsum are found in sedimentary rocks Many have economic value Minerals Mineral resources Reserves are already identified deposits Ores are useful metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit Economic factors may change and influence a

resource An underground halite (salt) mine Figure 2.22 End of Chapter 2

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