VI. Kinetics/Equilibrium

VI. Kinetics/Equilibrium

VI. KINETICS/EQUILIBRIUM The rate of a chemical reaction depends on several factors: temperature, concentration, nature of reactants, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst. Increase temperature faster rate More kinetic energy

Molecules move faster Collide more often and with more energy Increase concentration faster rate

J Deutsch 2003 More particles to collide with Increase surface area- smaller particlesfaster rate More sites for collisions to occur 2

*The nature of the reactants Solids react slowly Gases react quickly Ions in solution react VERY quickly Catalyst - lowers the activation energy to speed up a chemical reaction without being used up - Provides an alternate pathway for a reaction

J Deutsch 2003 3 RAISING THE TEMPERATURE INCREASES THE REACTION RATE BY Increasing both the number of collisions and the

efficiency of the collisions. AS THE PRESSURE ON GAS-PHASE REACTANTS , THE RATE OF RXN Increases . Substance that increases the rate of a

chemical reaction without itself being consumed. CATALYST AS THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THE REACTANTS , THE RATE OF RXN increases

Regents Question: 01/03 #5 Which event must always occur for a chemical reaction to take place? (1) formation of a precipitate (2) formation of a gas (3) effective collisions between reacting particles (4) addition of a catalyst to the reaction system

J Deutsch 2003 8 6 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RATE OF REACTION Nature of reactants (ionic or covalent) Temperature Concentration Pressure (for gases)

Surface area (for heterogeneous reactions) Presence of a catalyst Collision theory states that a reaction is most likely to occur if reactant particles collide with the proper energy and orientation.

An ineffective collision reaction does not occur J Deutsch 2003 An effective collision reaction occurs 10 Energy released or absorbed during a

chemical reaction (heat of reaction-H ) is equal to the difference between the potential energy of the products and the potential energy of the reactants. H = PE products PE reactants J Deutsch 2003

11 Enthalpy (H) The heat of reaction

J Deutsch 2003 H=PE products PE reactants The value for H is the same in the forward and the reverse reaction. Only the sign is changed. Measured in kJ (kilojoules) + H Endothermic Energy absorbed - H Exothermic Energy released

The large the value of H, the more energy absorbed or released Reference Table I gives H for many reactions 12 Energy is released: It flows from system to environment. Temperature of environment increases.

EXOTHERMIC REACTION Energy is absorbed: It flows from environment to system. Temperature of environment drops. ENDOTHERMIC REACTION

Table I gives heats for many different types of reactions. J Deutsch 2003 15 Regents Question: 08/02 #14 Given the reaction: CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 H2O(g) + CO2 (g)

What is the overall result when CH4 (g) burns according to this reaction? (1) Energy is absorbed and H is negative. (2) Energy is absorbed and H is positive. J Deutsch 2003 (3) Energy is released and H is negative. (4) Energy is released and H is positive.

16 Regents Question: 08/02 #34 According to Table I, which salt releases energy as it dissolves? J Deutsch 2003

(1) KNO3 (3) NH4NO3 (2) LiBr (4) NaCl 17 Regents Question: 08/02

#34 According to Table I, which salt releases energy as it dissolves? J Deutsch 2003 (1) KNO3 (3) NH4NO3

(2) LiBr (4) NaCl 18 Exothermic Potential energy

decreases Releases energy H is negative Energy is on the right 2H2 + O2 2H2O + energy PE

J Deutsch 2003 Endothermic Potential energy increases Absorbs energy H is positive Energy is on the left

2H2O + energy O2 2H2 + PE 19 Regents Question: 06/02

#55-56 Given the reaction: A+BC Does the diagram illustrate an exothermic or an endothermic reaction?Endothermic

State one reason, in terms of energy, to support your answer. Energy is absorbed. Potential energy is increasing. On the diagram provided in your answer booklet, draw a dashed line to indicate a potential energy curve for the reaction if a J Deutsch 2003 catalyst is added. 20

A catalyst speeds up both the forward and reverse reactions equally. Using a catalyst will not effect the equilibrium. J Deutsch 2003 21

Regents Question: 06/03 #35 A catalyst is added to a system at equilibrium. If the temperature remains constant, the activation energy of the forward reaction (1) decreases (2) increases (3) remains the same

J Deutsch 2003 22 Endothermic reaction. Products have more potential energy than reactants. H IS POSITIVE?

Energy released or absorbed by a chemical reaction can be represented by a potential energy diagram. J Deutsch 2003 24 H is positive. System has net gain in energy.

H FOR ENDOTHERMIC RXN Exothermic reaction. Products have less potential energy than reactants. H IS NEGATIVE?

H is negative. System has net loss in energy. H FOR EXOTHERMIC RXN Hproducts Hreactants or H THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE PRODUCTS & THE

POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE REACTANTS? Hproducts - Hreactants HEAT OF REACTION, H Energy is absorbed: It flows from environment to system.

Temperature of environment drops. ENDOTHERMIC REACTION Energy is released: It flows from system to environment. Temperature of environment increases.

EXOTHERMIC REACTION What is H for C + D A + B? H = +45 kJ A + B C + D. H = -45 KJ.

Endothermic A REACTION OCCURS IN WATER & THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER DECREASES. ENDO OR EXO? Exothermic A REACTION OCCURS IN WATER & THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER

INCREASES. ENDO OR EXO? Gas to liquid b) Gas to solid c) Solid to gas d) Liquid to solid a) WHICH PHASE CHANGE IS ENDOTHERMIC?

Endothermic Reaction. Heat term is on reactant side. A + B + HEAT C +D Exothermic Reaction. Heat term is on product side.

A+BC+D+ HEAT Regents Question: 08/02 #41 According to Table I, which potential energy diagram best represents the reaction that forms H2O(l) from its elements? J Deutsch 2003

38 Regents Question: 06/03 #21 Which statement correctly describes an endothermic chemical reaction? (1) The products have higher potential energy than the reactants, and the H is negative. (2) The products have higher potential energy than the reactants, and the H is positive.

(3) The products have lower potential energy than the reactants, and the H is negative. (4) The products have lower potential energy than the reactants, and the H is positive. J Deutsch 2003 39 Activation Energy (Ea) is the energy needed to get a reaction started

(reach the activated complex). J Deutsch 2003 40 Endo: starts low, ends hig Endo or Exo? Regents Question: 06/03

#43 The potential energy diagram below represents a reaction. Which arrow represents the activation energy of the forward reaction? (1) A J Deutsch 2003 (2) B

(3) C (4) D 42 Regents Question: 08/02 #50 Given the reaction:

2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O(l) + 571.6 kJ What is the approximate H for the formation of 1 mole of H2O(l)? J Deutsch 2003 (1) 285.8 kJ (3) 571.6 kJ

(2) +285.8 kJ (4) +571.6 kJ 43 A catalyst provides an alternate reaction pathway, which has a lower activation energy than an uncatalyzed

reaction. (3.4g) Activated Complex With Catalyst J Deutsch 2003 44 Activation energy of forward rxn Identify the arrow

Potential energy of reactants Identify the arrow Activated Complex Reactants Products Identify reactants, products,

activated complex Exo: starts high, ends lo Endo or Exo? Exo: starts high, ends lo Endo or Exo? Potential energy of reactants

Identify the arrow Heat of reaction Identify the arrow Activation energy of forward rxn Identify the arrow

Potential energy of activated complex Identify the arrow Potential energy of products Identify the arrow Potential energy of products

Identify the arrow Activation energy of reverse reaction Identify the arrow Heat of reaction Identify the arrow

Lowers the activation energy. Effect of a catalyst? Potential energy of activated complex Identify the arrow Activation energy of reverse rxn

Identify the arrow Entropy is a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system. A system with greater disorder has greater entropy. Solids have low entropy, gases have high entropy J Deutsch 2003

61 Entropy increases when A phase change makes it more disorganized

More moles of gas are produced Higher temperature = more motion= more dissorder J Deutsch 2003 62 Reactions that depend on temperature when entropy and enthalpy

dont agree. Exothermic and Decrease Entropy H2O(l) H2O(s) + energy Endothermic and Increase Entropy H2O(s) + energy

H2O(l) Changing phase depends on temperature because entropy and enthalpy cant agree if the reaction should proceed or not. J Deutsch 2003 63 Systems in nature tend

to undergo changes toward lower energy and higher entropy. A reaction which is exothermic and increases entropy will always occur spontaneously. A reaction that is endothermic and decreases entropy will never occur spontaneously. J Deutsch 2003 64

Nature favors: Negative value for H: Net loss Positive value for S: Net gain NATURE IS LAZY & DISORGANIZED. Gas phase the molecules have more ways of moving & more places to be!

WHICH PHASE HAS THE GREATEST ENTROPY? Sgas >> Sliquid > Ssolid WHICH PHASE HAS THE GREATEST ENTROPY? NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq) Increase!

DID THE ENTROPY INCREASE OR DECREASE? 2H2O(l) 2H2(g) + O2(g) Increase! DID THE ENTROPY INCREASE OR DECREASE? When both factors go against nature:

Positive value for H: Net gain in energy. Negative value for S: Net loss in chaos WHEN WILL A CHANGE NEVER OCCUR? Does not shift the equilbrium point the equilibrium concentrations are the same. You just get to

equilibrium quicker. CATALYST Regents Question: 06/02 #44 Which process is accompanied by a decrease in entropy? (1) boiling of water (2) condensing of water vapor

(3) subliming of iodine (4) melting of ice J Deutsch 2003 72 Regents Question: 08/02 #39 Which sample has the lowest entropy?

J Deutsch 2003 (1) 1 mole of KNO3 (l) (3)1 mole of H2O(l) (2) 1 mole of KNO3 (s) (4) 1 mole of H2O(g)

73 Regents Question: 06/03 #50 As carbon dioxide sublimes, its entropy (1) decreases (2) increases (3) remains the same Sublimation is a phase change from solid directly

into gas. J Deutsch 2003 74 At equilibrium the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. The amount of reactants and

products remain constant at equilibrium. 3H2(g) + N2(g) 2NH3(g) We read the double arrow is in equilibrium with. We can also use an equal sign (=) or other double arrows ( )

J Deutsch 2003 75 Some chemical and physical changes can reach equilibrium. (3.4h) Types of equilibrium

Phase Between solid and liquid at its melting point Between a liquid and a gas in a sealed container Solution Between dissolved and undissolved solute in

a saturated solution Chemical Reversible chemical reactions can reach equilibrium J Deutsch 2003

76 DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM Rate of forward process = Rate of reverse Regents Question: 06/02

#57 Given the reaction at equilibrium: N2 (g)+ 3 H2 (g) =2 NH3 (g) + 92.05 kJ a State the effect on the number of moles of N2 (g) if the temperature of the system is increased. The number of moles of N2 would increase b State the effect on the number of moles of H2

(g) number if the pressure system is The of moles ofon H2the would decrease increased. catalyst speeds

both theofforward c State the effectNo oneffect. theAnumber of up moles and reverse the same amount J Deutsch 2003 NH3 (g) if a catalyst

is reactions introduced into the 78 Regents Question: 01/03 #11 Which type or types of change, if any, can reach equilibrium? (1) a chemical change, only (2) a physical change, only

(3) both a chemical and a physical change (4) neither a chemical nor a physical change J Deutsch 2003 79 At equilibrium the concentrations do not change.

Hydrogen and nitrogen are changing into ammonia as fast as ammonia is changing into hydrogen and nitrogen. The amounts of each (concentrations) are not necessarily equal, only the rates of reaction are equal.

At equilibrium, the concentrations do not change. 3H2(g) + N2(g) J Deutsch 2003 2NH3(g) 80 Regents Question: 06/02 #35

Given the equilibrium reaction at STP: N2O4 (g) = 2 NO2 (g) Which statement correctly describes this system? (1) The forward and reverse reaction rates are equal. (2) The forward and reverse reaction rates are both increasing. (3) The concentrations of N2O4 and NO2 are equal.

J Deutsch 2003 (4) The concentrations of N2O4 and NO2 are 81 Regents Question: 08/02 #13 Which statement correctly describes a chemical reaction at equilibrium? (1) The concentrations of the products and

reactants are equal. (2) The concentrations of the products and reactants are constant. (3) The rate of the forward reaction is less than the rate of the reverse reaction. (4) The rate of the forward reaction is greater than the rate of the reverse reaction. J Deutsch 2003 82

Regents Question: 08/02 #60 The equation for the saturated solution equilibrium of potassium nitrate (KNO3 ) is shown below. KNO3 (s) + energy K+ (aq) + NO3 (aq) Compare the rate of dissolving KNO3 with the rate of recrystallization of KNO3 for the

saturated solution. The rate of dissolving equals the rate of recrystallization J Deutsch 2003 83

LeChateliers principle can be used to predict the effect of stress (change in pressure, volume, concentration, and temperature) on a system at equilibrium.

J Deutsch 2003 When you add something, the reaction tries to use it up When you remove something, the reaction tries to replace it Changes in pressure only affect gases Changes in temperature has greater affect on the

endothermic side A catalyst does not cause a shift in equilibrium 84 Equilibrium on a see-saw 3H2(g) + N2(g) 2NH3(g)+ energy Upsetting the equilibrium is like upsetting a balanced see-saw with the reactants on the left side, products on

the right Pressure favors the side with less moles of gas (pretend that pressure is just another reactant or product) moles of gas on the left, 2 on the right 4 Temperature affects the endothermic side (pretend that energy is just another reactant or product) exothermic on the right, endothermic on the left)

J Deutsch 2003 85 Equilibrium on a see-saw 3H2(g) + N2(g) 2NH3(g)+ energy Use [ ] to indicate concentration. [H2] is read The concentration of H2.

If I increase anything on one side, that side goes down and the other side goes up Inc [H2] [N2] and pressure go down J Deutsch 2003 [NH3] and temperature go up 86 Equilibrium shifts to the

right. Concentration of N2 & H2 . Temperature . N2(G) + 3H2(G) 2NH3(G) + HEAT Stress What happens? Equilibrium on a see-saw 3H2(g) + N2(g)

energy 2NH3(g)+ If I remove something from one side, the other things on that side go up and the other side goes down. Dec [H2] [NH3] and temperature go down J Deutsch 2003

[N2] and pressure go up 88 Equilibrium shifts to the left. Concentration of N2 . Concentration of NH3 . Temperature . N2(G) + 3H2(G) 2NH3(G) + HEAT

Stress What happens? Add to the right, shift to the left. Add to the left, shift to the right. Remove from the right, shift to the right. Remove from the left, shift to the left. 3H2(g) + N2(g)

Causes a shift to the right Increase [H2]* Increase [N2] Decrease [NH3] J Deutsch 2003

Decrease temperature Increase pressure 2NH3(g)+ energy Causes a shift to the left Decrease [H2] Decrease [N2]

Increase [NH3] Increase temperature Decrease pressure *[H2] is read The concentration of H2 90

Regents Question: 08/02 #38 Given the equilibrium reaction in a closed system: H2 (g) + I2 (g) + heat = 2 HI(g) What will be the result of an increase in temperature? (1) The equilibrium will shift to the left and [H2 ] will increase. (2) The equilibrium will shift to the left and [H2 ] will decrease.

(3) The equilibrium will shift to the right and [HI] will increase. J Deutsch 2003 91 Regents Question: 01/03 #50 Given the system at equilibrium: N2O4 (g) + 58.1 kJ 2 NO2 (g)

What will be the result of an increase in temperature at constant pressure? (1) The equilibrium will shift to the left, and the concentration of NO2 (g) will decrease. (2) The equilibrium will shift to the left, and the concentration of NO2 (g) will increase. (3) The equilibrium will shift to the right, and the concentration of NO2 (g) will decrease. The equilibrium will shift to the right, and (4) the

concentration of NO (g) will increase. J Deutsch 2003 2 92 Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction

without itself being consumed. CATALYST Hproducts - Hreactants HEAT OF REACTION, H Hproducts Hreactants or H

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE PRODUCTS & THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE REACTANTS? H is negative. System has net loss in energy. H FOR

EXOTHERMIC RXN Exothermic reaction. Products have less potential energy than reactants. H IS NEGATIVE? Endothermic reaction. Products have more potential

energy than reactants. H IS POSITIVE? H is positive. System has net gain in energy. H FOR ENDOTHERMIC RXN Exothermic Reaction.

Heat term is on product side. A + B C + D + HEAT Endothermic Reaction. Heat term is on reactant side. A + B + HEAT C + D

Gas to liquid b) Gas to solid c) Solid to gas d) Liquid to solid a) WHICH PHASE CHANGE IS ENDOTHERMIC? Exothermic

A REACTION OCCURS IN WATER & THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER INCREASES. ENDO OR EXO? Endothermic A REACTION OCCURS IN WATER & THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER DECREASES. ENDO OR EXO?

Degree of disorder or chaos in a system. ENTROPY The more degrees of freedom a system has, the higher the entropy. ENTROPY

Entropy S Enthalpy or Chemical Potential Energy H 2-way process

Closed System CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM Macroscopic level looks constant. Microscopic level lots of action DYNAMIC

EQUILIBRIUM 1) 1) Physical: Phase: closed system 2) Solution: 1) gas in liquid

2) solid in liquid (saturated solutions) 2) Chemical TYPES OF EQUILIBRIA Saturated A SOLUTION AT

EQUILIBRIUM MUST BE H2O(l) H2O(g) PHASE EQUILIBRIUM NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq) SOLUTION

EQUILIBRIUM IONIC CMPD C6H12O6(s) C6H12O6(aq) SOLUTION EQUILIBRIUM COVALENT CMPD Phase Equilibrium

H2O(G) H2O(L) 0C or 273K AT WHAT TEMPERATURE CAN H2O(S) AND H2O(L) EXIST IN EQUILIBRIUM? 100C or 373K AT WHAT TEMPERATURE CAN

H2O(G) AND H2O(L) EXIST IN EQUILIBRIUM? Solution Equilibrium NH4CL(S) NH (AQ) + CL-(AQ) + 4 N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) +

heat CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM HABER SYNTHESIS A system at equilibrium will respond to remove a stress LECHATELIERS

PRINCIPLE Change in temperature, pressure, or concentration WHATS A STRESS FOR A CHEMICAL SYSTEM? Equilibrium shifts to right.

Concentration of H2 . Concentration of NH3 . Temperature N2(G) + 3H2(G) 2NH3(G) + HEAT Stress What happens? Only affect systems that have a gas in them

PRESSURE CHANGES Does not shift the equilbrium point the equilibrium concentrations are the same. You just get to equilibrium quicker. CATALYST

Shifts to the side with fewer moles of gas, in this case the right. 4 moles 2 moles N2(G) + 3H2(G) 2NH3(G) + HEAT How does this system respond to an increase in pressure?

CO2(g) CO2(aq) When P , more CO2 dissolves! AN INCREASE IN PRESSURE FAVORS WHICH SIDE? Shifts to the side with more moles of gas, in this case the left. N2(G) + 3H2(G) 2NH3(G) + HEAT

How does this system respond to a decrease in pressure? This system has the same # of moles on each side. It cannot respond to pressure changes. 2 moles 2 moles

H2(G) + I2(G) + HEAT 2HI(G) How does this system respond to a decrease in pressure? This system has no gases. It does NOT respond to pressure changes. NACL(S) NA+(AQ) + CL-(AQ)

How does this system respond to a change in pressure? Equilibrium shifts to the left. Concentration of N2 & H2 . Temperature . N2(G) + 3H2(G) 2NH3(G) + HEAT Stress What happens?

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