Veterans in Agriculture: Military 101 - Purdue Engineering

Veterans in Agriculture: Military 101 - Purdue Engineering

Veterans in Agriculture Martina Mohrbacher, M.A. Outreach Specialist Operation Diploma Basic Webinar Instructions Need speakers or headphones to hear the presentation Meeting > Manage My Settings > My Connection Speed Dial-up not recommended Questions about presentation type into chat window and hit send icon, and theyll be addressed at the end. Captioning pod Problems: use chat window or email [email protected]

4 quick survey questions Session recorded and archived with PowerPoint file at www.agrability.org Online Training link AgrAbility: USDA-sponsored program that assists farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities. Partners land grant universities with disability services organizations Currently 23 projects covering 25 states National AgrAbility Project: Purdues Breaking New Ground Resource Center, Goodwill Industries International, the Arthritis Foundation-Indiana Chapter, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign More information available at www.agrability.org

Veterans and Agriculture: Opportunities for Employment, Entrepreneurship, and Enrichment A workshop for veterans interested in agriculture and for professionals who work with veterans November 7-8, 2012 Beck Agricultural Center, Purdue University www.breakingnewground.info/vets Overview The Military Family Research Institute at Purdue University The US military and veterans of recent conflicts Readjustment issues and strategies

The Military Family Research Institute at Purdue University Military Family Research Institute at Purdue University M A K I N G A D I F F E R E N C E F O R FA M I L I E S W H O S E R V E 1. Support the military infrastructures that support military families. 2. Strengthen the motivation and capacity of civilian communities to support military families. 3. Generate important new knowledge about military families.

4. Influence policies, programs, and practices supporting military families. 5. Create and sustain a vibrant learning organization. Programs Generating New Knowledge Operation Diploma Help student service members achieve academic goals and transition into meaningful employment. US Military and

Veterans of Recent Conflicts Military Branches Branch Army Navy Air Force Marines Coast Guard Department of Defense (March 2012) Todays Military (August 2012) Active Duty 558,000

321,000 333,000 198,000 43,000 Reserves 201,000 50,000 70,000 40,000 8,000 National Guard Branch Army National Guard Air National Guard

National Guard Bureau Posture Statement (2012) Strength 358,000 107,000 Military Culture Strong values High group cohesiveness Pride in service and branch Special lingo 14

Our Military Since 2001 Approximately 2.4 million US service members deployed for OIF (Iraq) and OEF (Afghanistan) since 2001. Since 2001 more than 1.4 million service members transitioned from the military to civilian employment. Of those, about 772,000 have used VA health care. More than 1 million are expected to transition over the next five years. US Department of Veterans Affairs, (June 2012) Institute for Veterans and Military Families (2012) Spelman, J.F., Hunt, S.C., Seal, K.H. & Burgo-Black, A.L. (2012)

Consequences of Deployment Conflict WWII Vietnam OEF/OIF Ratio Death/Wounded 1:2.6 1:2.6 1:6 Statistical and Accounting Branch Office of the Adjutant General (1953) Leland, A., Oboroceanu, M-J. (2010) Wounded

That Died 4.5% 3.3% 2.6% Deployments, Injuries, and Deaths Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation New Dawn (OND), & Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF): Over 3 million deployments resulting in multiple deployments for individuals 6,539 deaths (5,149 hostile) 49,322 wounded in action 70,175 medical transports Largest reason for injury or death (34,647) is explosive device Department of Defense (August 2012)

Department of Defense (May 2012) Mechanism of Blast Injuries Primary: Overpressure of blast wave Secondary: Flying debris Tertiary: Body displacement, victim thrown into stationary objects Quaternary: Any injury or disease not due to other mechanisms like burns, toxic inhalation, radiation exposure, etc. Center for Deployment Psychology (2012, March) Service-Connected Disabilities Disabilities by body system for Global War on Terror veterans receiving VA compensation at the end of fiscal year

2011: Musculoskeletal: Back strain, knee impairment, or tendon inflammation (45%) Skin: Scars and eczema (12%) Auditory: Tinnitus and hearing loss (10%) Mental: PTSD, depression, and adjustment disorder (7%) Neurological conditions (7%) US Department of Veterans Affairs (2012) Physical Pain Almost a third of OEF / OIF veterans experience chronic pain. Service members are exposed to

multiple blasts and wear 100 pounds of gear for long hours. Chronic headaches Lower back pain Shoulder, neck, wrist, and knee pain Spelman, J.F., Hunt, S.C., Seal, K.H. & Burgo-Black, A.L. (2012) 20 Mental Health Issues Between 20 and 40% of combat veterans are experiencing mental health issues.

PTSD Depressive disorders Suicide Substance use Sleep TBI Center for Deployment Psychology (2012, March) Tanelian, T. & Jaycox, L.H. (2008) Post-traumatic Stress (Disorder) Post-traumatic stress (PTS): A normal response to exposure to

extreme, emotionally charged events. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): An anxiety disorder that can develop following a traumatic event. Estimated incidence of PTSD: OEF/OIF combat troops: 1320% Civilian population: 39% Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2012) Kessler, R., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R.., Merikangas, K. & Walters, E. (2005) Humvee Traffic Driving in Baghdad PTS(D) Symptoms Intrusive memories: Flashbacks, reliving traumatic event, upsetting dreams, etc. Avoidance and numbing: Not talking about the

event, memory problems, hopelessness, emotional numbness, etc. Increased anxiety or hyperarousal: Irritability and anger, self-destructive behavior, easily startled or frightened, hearing or seeing things, etc. Mayo Clinic (2011) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts normal brain function For service members, TBI often results from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), mortars, Incidencesgrenades, of TBI

bullets, or mines. OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed by VA (2010): 45,606 Total diagnosis annually in the US: 1.4 million Bagalman, E. (2011) (m)TBI Symptoms

Headache Fatigue Lethargy Dizziness Blurred vision Behavioral or mood changes Problems with memory, attention, concentration, or thinking Congressional Research Service (2011) Co-morbidity TBI Headache PTSD

Fatigue Avoidance Sensitivity to light and noise Insomnia Flashbacks Hypervigilance Vision problems Cognitive deficits

Dizziness Nausea Center for Deployment Psychology (2012, March) Irritability Nightmares Tension Readjustment Issues and Strategies: Dealing with disabilities Employment Veterans in agriculture

Concepts of Disability Public / media concepts Military concept: soldier on VA disability rating system Hierarchy of disability within the veteran community Amanda Kraus (2012) Veterans Attitudes

Reluctance to identify as disabled Service orientation and cohort mentality Low self-management skills Language: Wounded warrior Injured Amanda Kraus (2012) Frain, M., Bethe, M. & Bishop, M. (2010) Specific Issues Disability is newly

acquired. Lack of knowledge of accommodations and services available Not familiar with mitigating skills and techniques, like Braille Employment Group by age 2010 Unemployment 2011 Unemployment Male

Female Male Female Veterana 18-24 yrs 21.9% 15.3% 29.1% 36.1%

Civilian 18-24 yrs 19.7% 14.6% 17.6% 14.5% Veterana 25-34 yrs 13.0% 13.6%

13.4% 10.6% Civilian 25-34 yrs 10.7% 9.1% 9.5% 9.1% a

Defined as having served during the Gulf War Era II period. Bureau of Labor Statistics (March 2011) Bureau of Labor Statistics (March 2012) Employment by Disability Status Employment by Disability Status 80 60 40 20 0 D

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an h t % 30 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2012) D le b isa

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Desirable Workplace Skills Organizational behavior Leadership and supervision Interpersonal communication Business communication Psychology Sociology Accounting American Council on Education. (July 2011) CareerBuilder (2009)

Discipline Teamwork Respect and integrity Leadership Problem solving Ability to perform under pressure The Legal Framework Employment Uniformed Service Employment &

Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) with special provisions for hiring veterans with a disability Training VA VetSuccess Program (Chapter 31 Voc Rehab) Post 9/11 GI Bill (Chapter 33) Funding REAP (Chapter 1607) for Selected Reserve, Individual Ready Reserve and National Guard

Impact of War on Rural Areas High survival rate after injuries Disproportionally affected by consequences of recent conflicts Less access to medical services like psychotherapy Offer therapeutic environments for healing and reintegrating wounded warriors Cully , J., Jameson, J., Phillips, L., Kunik, M. & Fortney, J. (2010) Frain, M., Bethel, M. & Bishop, M. (2010) Thorsen Gonzalez, Hartig, Patil, Martinsen & Kirkevold (2011) Veterans in Agriculture

6.1 million veterans live in rural communities. USDA Veterans Employment Program Office 2012 Farm Bill changes Variety of farming programs targeted towards veterans Loan programs for new farmers VHA Office of Rural Health (April 2012) Programs and Activities Multitude of for-profit and not-forprofit training and educational / therapeutic programs: Archies Acres

Veterans Farmers Project Vets to Ag by Michigan State University Interest groups: Farmer Veteran Coalition Therapeutic horticulture Takeaways About one million service members will transition to veteran status over the next five years. Many veterans leave the service with varying degrees of disability. Veterans have specific reintegration issues and

needs. The veteran unemployment rate is high. Rural areas are critical for veteran reintegration. Resources Military The Military Family Research Institute: https://www.mfri.purdue.edu/ General military information such as service branches, rank structure, insignia and uniforms, etc. at Ourmilitary.mil: http://www.ourmilitary.mil/learn/our-services/ Free online course on military competence at Center for Deployment Psychology: http:// deploymentpsych.org/training/training-catalog/military-cu ltural-competence

Dictionary on military terms by Department of Defense: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/ Resources, Contd Veterans Health VA Polytrauma/TBI information: http:// www.polytrauma.va.gov/understanding-tbi/symptoms.asp VA National Center for PTSD: http:// www.ptsd.va.gov/public/index.asp Free mental health service for military personnel and families: http://www.giveanhour.org/ Star Behavioral Health Providers: http:// starproviders.org/providers/index.php Resources, Contd Veteran Employment

USERRA: http://www.inesgr.org/Userra.htm WOTC: http://www.doleta.gov/business/incentives/opptax/ VetSuccess: http://www.vba.va.gov/bln/vre/ Workplace preparation for returning veterans: http://nod.org/assets/downloads/AmericasBestHiring.pdf Guide to veteran employment policies, practices, and resources: http://vets.syr.edu/pdfs/guidetoleadingpractices.pdf Resources, Contd Veterans in Agriculture The Farmer Veteran Coalition: http://www.farmvetco.org/ The Veteran Farmers Project: http:// www.cfra.org/veteran_farmers_project Michigan State University, Vets to Ag: http://

iat.msu.edu/iat/vets_to_ag Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture Combat Boots to Cowboy Boots: http:// liferaydemo.unl.edu/web/ncta/combatcowboyboots VHA Office of Rural Health: http:// www.ruralhealth.va.gov/index.asp References American Council on Education. (July 2011), ACE Military Programs.: www.acenet.edu/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Military_Programs Bagalman, E. (2011). Traumatic Brain Injury Among Veterans. CRS Report for Congress, 7-5700. Retrieved from Congressional Research Service : http://www.nashia.org/pdf/tbi_among_veterans_may_2011.pdf Bureau of Labor Statistics (March 2011), Employment Situation of Veterans News Release: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/vet_03112011.htm Bureau of Labor Statistics (March 2012), Employment Situation of Veterans News Release: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/vet.htm

CareerBuilder (2009), Employers Targeting US Veterans for Hiring: http://www.careerbuilder.com/share/aboutus/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id=pr523&sd=9%2F10%2F2009&ed=12 %2F31%2F2009 Center for Deployment Psychology (2012, March). Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in the Military. In Star Behavioral Health Providers training conducted at Purdue North Central, Portage, IN. Cully , J., Jameson, J., Phillips, L., Kunik, M. & Fortney, J. (2010). Use of Psychotherapy by Rural and Urban Veterans . The Journal of Rural Health, 26, 225-233. Frain, M., Bethel, M. & Bishop, M. (2010). A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 76, No. 1, 13-21 Institute for Veterans and Military Families, Syracuse University. (2012). Guide to Leading Policies, Practices & Resources: Supporting the Employment of Veterans & Military Families. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Treatment for PTSD in Military and Veteran Populations (2012): http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2012/PTSD-Initial-Assessment/PTSD_I_RB.pdf References, Cont Kessler, R., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. &Walters, E. (2005). "Lifetime Prevalence and Ageof-Onset Distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication." Archives of

General Psychiatry 62: 593-602 Kraus, A. (2012). Understanding Disability in the Student veteran Community. In A. Hamrick , C. Ruman (Eds.), Called to Serve: A Handbook on Student Veterans and Higher Education. Manuscript submitted for publication. Leland, A., Oboroceanu, M-J. (2010). American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics (CRS Report for Congress). Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL32492.pdf Mayo Clinic, PTSD (2011): http:// www.mayoclinic.com/health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/ds00246/dsection=symptoms National Guard Bureau Posture Statement (2012): http:// www.arng.army.mil/News/publications/ApostureStatements/2012_ngps.pdf Spelman, J.F., Hunt, S.C., Seal, K.H. & Burgo-Black, A.L. (2012). Post deployment Care for Returning Combat Veterans. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27 (9), 1200-1209. Retrieved from: http:// www.springerlink.com/content/507463m555185p7l/fulltext.pdf Statistical and Accounting Branch Office of the Adjutant General (1953). Army Battle Casualties and Nonbattle Deaths in World War II: Final Report 7 December 1941 31 December 1946. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/ref/Casualties/index.html#contents

Tanelian, T., Jaycox, L. H. (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: Center for Military Health Policy Research. References, Cont Thorsen Gonzalez, M., Hartig, T., Grindal Patil, G., Martinsen, E.W. & Kirkevold, M. (2011) A prospective study of group cohesiveness in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 20, 119-129. Todays Military (August 2012): http://www.todaysmilitary.com/service-branches US Department of Defense Active Duty Military Personnel by Rank/Grade (March 2012): http:// siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/MILITARY/rg1203.pdf US Department of Defense, Casualty Statistics (August 2012): http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf US Department of Defense, Global War on Terrorism Casualty by Reason (May 2012): http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/gwot_reason.pdf US Department of Veterans Affairs, Annual Benefits Report 2011 (2012): http://www.vba.va.gov/REPORTS/abr/2011_abr.pdf US Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Medical Article Discusses Specialized Iraq and Afghanistan Veteran

Health Care Needs (June 2012): http://www.va.gov/opa/pressrel/pressrelease.cfm?id=2327 US Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA Office of Rural Health. (April 2012). Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http:// www.ruralhealth.va.gov/docs/ORH_GeneralFactSheet_April2012.pdf Acknowledgements Lilly Endowment Inc. Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth, Ph.D. Stacie Hitt, Ph.D. Lynn Hegewald

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