Utility Work Zone Traffic Control Management and Safety Officials Module FHWA Grant No. DTFH61-06-G-00006 Developed by: Wayne State University & Bradley University 1
Disclaimer Opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this presentation are those of contractor(s) and not necessarily those of U.S.D.O.T. or F.H.W.A Was prepared in cooperation with U.S.D.O.T. and F.H.W.A Guideline document is a Living Document and may be modified and updated as needed 2
Purpose Guideline Development Training Program -train-the-trainer Safety Professionals Utility Workers Permit Granting Agencies 3
Welcome Housekeeping Please turn cell phones off or to vibrate mode Facilities 4 Instructors
Dr. Tapan Datta Dr. Peter Savolainen Dr. Kerrie Schattler 5 Participants Introduction Networking Question & Answer
6 MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY OFFICIALS MODULE Training Program Agenda 9:00-9:30 AM Welcome, Housekeeping and Introductions 9:30-9:45 AM Pre-Test 9:45-10:00 AM Why Follow the Guideline?
10:00-10:30 AM Utility Work Zone Traffic Control and Safety / Positive Guidance / Driver Expectancy 10:30-10:45 AM Break 10:45-11:15 AM Agencywide Safety Culture What? Why? How? 11:15-11:45 AM Training, Knowledge Retention and Retraining Issues 11:45-12:00 PM Question and Answer 7 Training Program Agenda
UTILITY WORKERS, FOREMAN AND SUPERVISORS MODULE 12:00-1:00 PM Lunch Break 1:00-1:15 PM Introduction to the Guideline 1:15-1:45 PM Recommended Traffic Control Devices and Why? 1:45-2:15 PM Suggested Traffic Control Plans / Pedestrian Issues 2:15-2:30 PM Break
2:30-2:45 PM How Do You Select a Proper Traffic Control Plan? 2:45-3:15 PM Case Study - In-Class Exercises 3:15-3:30 PM Demonstration of Software Program 3:30-3:45 PM Question and Answer 3:45-4:00 PM Post-Test and Course Evaluation 8 Pre-Test
9 Why Follow the Guideline? 10 Rationale for Utility Work Zone Guidelines No uniform set of guidelines or standards among utility companies currently
Significant variability in the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the utility workforce Variability is associated with a level of risk for workers and motorists 11 Rationale for Utility Work Zone Guidelines Guideline document provides uniform
treatment of temporary traffic control plans for numerous applications Guidance is provided to aid the utility workforce in recognizing the level of risk and mitigating risks 12 Guideline Dos and Donts
DO provide utility personnel with understanding of factors affecting risk in work zones. DO engage participants in systematic identification and mitigation of these risks in practical situations. DO supplement the MUTCD. DONT supersede the MUTCD. 13 Who are the Guidelines Meant For?
Management and Safety Officials - decision makers Utility Workers, Supervisors, and Foremen - those who conduct work 14 What Type of Utility Work is Included? Electrical, Gas, Telephone, Cable Traffic Signals
Water Sewer Maintenance and Cleaning Landscaping Others 15 What is Not Included? Nighttime utility work Utility work conducted on freeways
These are high risk scenarios Should follow MUTCD 16 Management Perspective
Recognition of safety and mobility Prevention/crash avoidance Uniformity of traffic control devices Uniformity of treatment 17 Plan for the Future Purchase traffic control devices
Space in vehicles to carry sufficient TCDs Maintenance of devices Worker Training Providing sufficient resources Risk Analysis 18 Utility Work Zone Traffic Control and Safety 19
Utility Work Zone Different Than Normal Work Zone Shorter duration May require more time to set-up and remove traffic control than to complete work Often unplanned Generally away from travel way Require less traffic control Smaller work crew
Same work crew attends multiple work sites 20 Short Term & Short Duration Need Standardized plans Workers realize need for traffic control Different traffic control devices than long term work 21
Passing Motorists Need Early recognition Clear recognition of potential hazard Driver expectancy maintained through the work zone 22 Purpose of Utility Work Zone Traffic
Control Safe and efficient travel of road users including motorists and motorized vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians 23 Change in Travel Environment
Increased congestion Presence of horizontal curves Narrower travel lanes Obstructions in travel path Distractions to drivers
Slower speeds 24 MUTCD Recognizes Short time spent in utility work zone Practical limitations of site specific infrastructure Normal roadway construction work zone may not be applicable
25 Five Categories of Work Duration
Long-term stationary Intermediate-term stationary Short-term stationary Short Duration Mobile 26 MUTCD Work Zone Duration Definitions
Long-term stationary is work that occupies a location more than 3 days Intermediate-term stationary is work that occupies a location more than one daylight period up to 3 days, or nighttime work lasting more than 1 hour 27 MUTCD Work Duration Definitions
Short-term stationary is daytime work that occupies a location for more than 1 hour within a single daylight period Short duration is work that occupies a location up to 1 hour Mobile is work that moves intermittently or continuously 28 Short Duration Work
Appropriately colored or marked vehicles with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights may be used in place of signs and channelizing devices for short-duration or mobile operations. Source: MUTCD Section 6G.02 29
Short Duration Work Simplified control procedures may be warranted for short-duration work. A reduction in the number of devices may be offset by the use of other more dominant devices such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on work vehicles. Source: MUTCD Section 6G.02
30 Other Studies Safety concerns for crew Time road users are affected is increased when additional devices are installed and removed Simplified control procedures are warranted Shortcomings may be offset by the use of other more dominant devices
Source: Oregon Department of Transportation 31 Other Studies Workers are reluctant to utilize extensive traffic control Set up and removal of traffic control devices increases the workers exposure to traffic
Short Duration vs. Mobile Operation definitions not consistent Desire for guidelines on optional devices based on traffic volume/speed Source: Ullman M.D. Finley and N.D. Trout 32 Work Zone Crash Fatalities
Annual average approximately 942 fatalities More than half occur during daytime hours Twice as high during the week than weekend
Mostly occur during the summertime Over half involve single motor vehicles Utility work zone fatalities are 14/year 10% underreporting of national work zone fatalities (Ullman & Scribe). Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1996-2005) 33
Risk Factors of Utility Work Zone Crash Traffic volume on the roadway Travel speed Lateral distance from travel lanes Work duration time to complete the work Sight distance and work area visibility Others 34 Prevention of Work Zone Crashes
Analyze the work site including traffic patterns and plan the work zone before you begin working Position work vehicles to create an obstacle to prevent oncoming traffic from hitting you 35 Prevention of Work Zone Crashes
Minimize exposure to moving traffic Drivers should not engage in activities that distract them from driving or hinder driving performance 36 Early Recognition of Utility Work Zone by Motorists
Evasive action taken to avoid a traffic crash if motorist recognizes work zone Temporary traffic control provides information about potential hazard Information is provided through signs, cones, drums, barriers, etc. 37 Early Recognition of Utility Work Zone by Motorists
Uniformity of treatment Making utility work zones conspicuous to the passing motoristorange color Treatments must consider driver expectancy 38 Positive Guidance Positive guidance information increases the drivers probability of selecting the
speed and path most appropriate to the operating conditions of the highway Source: A Users Guide to Positive Guidance - FHWA 39 Positive Guidance Positive Guidance is based on the premise that competent drivers can be
given appropriate information about hazards and inefficiencies to avoid errors. Source: A Users Guide to Positive Guidance - FHWA 40 Basic Driving Task Control drivers interaction with vehicle
Guidance drivers ability to maintain safe path on highway Navigation drivers ability to plan and execute trip from point of origin to destination Source: Alexander, G.J., Some Factors Affecting Reception and Use of Information by Drivers, Public Road, Vol. 37, No. 1 41
Primacy of Information Guidance Information Less Important More Important Control
Information Navigation Information Source: Federal Highway Administration, A Users Guide to Positive Guidance 42 Process of Information Handling
Detect a Hazard Recognize a Hazard as Such Decide on an Appropriate Speed and Path Act on the Speed Path Decision Source: Federal Highway Administration, A Users Guide to Positive Guidance 43
Driver Expectancy Driver expectancy relates to the readiness of the driver to respond to events, situations, or the presentation of information. Source: A Users Guide to Positive Guidance - FHWA 44
Driver Expectancy Gained through experience and training Guided by traffic control devices Occurs during repeated situations Drivers respond quickly and correctly Information must be clear Consistency in devices decreases reaction time Uniformity in devices simplifies driving tasks 45
Driver Expectancy Violated Occurs when uncommon/unique situations arise Drivers require longer response times Greater chance of error Work zones violate drivers expectancy 46
15-Minute Break 47 Agencywide Safety Culture What? Why? How? 48 What is a Safety Culture? The safety culture of an organization is
the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organizations health and safety management. Source: HSC, 2003
49 What is a Safety Culture? An organizations values and behaviors, modeled by its leaders and internalized by its members, that serve to make safety the overriding priority.
Source: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 2004 50 Why is a Safety Culture Important? To mitigate the potential for accidents or incidents 51 Utility Work Zone Safety Culture
Safety culture has the potential to prevent utility work zone crashes. As well as resultant injuries and fatalities. 52 One Fatality IS ONE TOO MANY!!
53 Crash Causal Factors Work zone crashes have several potential causes Driver, Environment, Vehicle Organizational, Worker Understanding of causes leads to prevention Establishment of policies and procedures
54 Crash Causal Factors Crashes are not a result of any one factor Failure of individuals to perform duties Breakdown in safety-related policies and procedures Managerial failure 55
Some of the Causal Factors are Beyond Our Control 56 But Some Are Not! 57 Improving Workplace Safety
To date, most programs have focused on technical aspects (e.g., temporary traffic control) and human behavior (e.g., worker training, protective equipment) Both are aspects of a safety culture but there is more! 58
Consider Safety in All Aspects of Business Planning Operations Resource Allocation Performance Evaluation Human Resource Projects and Programs 59
Factors Related to Improved Worker Safety Amount of training received Good relations between management and workers Monitoring of unsafe work behaviors Low turnover of staff 60 Ways for Management to Improve Safety Prioritization of safety over production
Communication about safety issues Feedback from workers Monitoring system Job descriptions that include safety 61 What a Utility Work Zone Safety Culture Should Do 1. Stress the importance of safety at all levels
2. Provide appropriate training for the work force 3. Provide adequate warning to drivers 4. Prevent the occurrence of crashes 62 What Constitutes a Good Utility Work Zone Safety Culture?
Commitment to safety by management Commitment to safety by workers Realistic rules and regulations Continual monitoring of performance 63
What Constitutes a Good Utility Work Zone Safety Culture? Good two-way relationships Management Supervisors
Workers 64 Steps to Develop a Safety Culture 1. Make everyone personally responsible for safety of themselves and others 2. Make leaders demonstrate their commitment to safety Stress safety in day-to-day activities
Provide incentives for safe behavior 65 Steps to Develop a Safety Culture (Cont) 3. Have trust permeate throughout the company 4. Make decision-making reflect safety first
Focus on safety in all aspects of planning and operations 66 Steps to Develop a Safety Culture (Cont) 5. Develop a questioning attitude How can safety be improved? 6. Embrace organizational learning Training
Certification 67 Steps to Develop a Safety Culture (Cont) 7.
Constantly examine the companys safety Track crashes, accidents, incidents On-site inspections Worker retraining 68 How to Motivate Workers Adopt guidelines and inform workers
Continuous training Worker certification Unannounced on-site investigations Incentives and Reprimands 69 Additional Resources American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Device (MUTCD) National Highway Institute (NHI) National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) 70 ATSSA Training Temporary Traffic Control for Utility
Operations Visit: www.atssa.com for more info 71 Training, Knowledge Retention and Retraining Issues 72
How do We Ensure That Knowledge is Retained? Knowledge is only beneficial if maintained Not forgotten! Participants must see importance of information and be able to interpret and apply information Several factors affect these abilities 73 Knowledge Retention
Retention rates decrease linearly The University level education retention rate (85% after 4 months, 75% after 24 months) 4560% of students fail after 3 months 74 Factors Affecting Knowledge Retention/Retrieval Degree of Original Learning
Task Characteristics Retention Interval Conditions of Learning and Retrieval Difference in Retention Capabilities of Individuals 75 Strengthen the Degree of Original Learning Provide extensive learning during initial training
(information overload) Material must be learned well initially This can be done through practice and repetition!!! 76 Task Characteristics Control tasks better retained than procedural tasks Tasks must be applied:
In proper (realistic) contexts Under various scenarios Knowledge decays if tasks are not repeated 77 Task Characteristics Make some tasks hands-on Provide challenging tasks
Force workers to think hard Encourage workers to participate 78 Knowledge Retention Interval Shorten the time interval between trainings Provide training frequently
Stress importance of safety during daily activities 79 Conditions of Learning and Retrieval Topics must be applicable to everyday work Application in proper context must be understood Provide tasks for participants to demonstrate their ability to properly perform tasks
Vary learning conditions 80 Personal Characteristics Long-term retention is impacted by abilities, prior knowledge, and Motivation Each of these elements can be impacted through a safety culture.
81 Retraining Issues Participants forget over time Continuous learning needed Training should be frequent Safety issues should be stressed during everyday tasks 82
Types of Training Initial training On-the-job training Periodic training Specialty training 83
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