BR: D15 Write down a unique fact about the Foreign Friend you are working on, summarizing their role in the American Revolution. U.S. History I Ch. 6.3 The War Moves West and South War in the West The war wasnt happening only in the NE, however. Francis Marion, a patriot in South Carolina, became infamously known as the Swamp Fox. He and his men would harass the British, surprising them with daring raids, cutting supply lines, etc., and then disappear back in the swamps and forests of the area, hence his
nickname. VID Meanwhile, other fighting was going on along the Western frontier. Much of this involved Native Americans, most of whom sided with the British, because they felt the British would protect their lands from invasion and white settlement. West of the Appalachians, the British and Native American allies raided American settlements. Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant for example was an important British ally who did just that, attacking settlements in New York and Pennsylvania. VID He was helped by Henry Hamilton, a brutal British commander stationed in Detroit. Hamiltons nickname was the hair buyer because he would pay good money for American scalps!
The Northwest Campaign Meanwhile, the Americans responded to these threats to the West. George Rogers Clark, a lieutenant colonel in the Virginia militia, led 175 soldiers west in June 1778 down the Ohio River in what became known as the Northwest Campaign. He then marched 120 miles to Kaskaskia, now in Illinois, and captured a British post there. Then, in February 1779, he captured the British town of Vincennes in what is now Indiana. Glory At Sea Meanwhile, Clark left for a bit, and Henry Hamilton and his troops recaptured Vincennes. Clark heard, and vowed to retake it. Marching
through the frozen, marshy countryside, he surprised the British, forcing Hamilton to surrender, thus solidifying the American presence in the West. VID, VID Meanwhile, the British had created a blockade to keep the American ports isolated and without help or supplies. The 2nd Continental Congress commissioned 13 new warships for the war effort, but few of them saw fighting (several were captured by the British, several destroyed to avoid capture, etc.). The majority of success for Americans came from privateers, which were privately owned merchant ships turned warships. More than 1000 of these ships helped the American war effort.
John Paul Jones John Paul Jones is probably the most famous of these privateers. He began raiding British ports in 1777, with an old French ship called the Bonhomme Richard (Good Man Richard), in honor of Benjamin Franklins Poor Richards Almanack. He then met the Serapis, a British Warship leading a fleet of British merchant ships, and they fought viciously for several hours. The result made him famous. When asked if he was ready to surrender (as his ship was ready to sink), he shouted: I have not yet begun to fight! VID He ended up capturing the Serapis, but the
Bonhomme Richard soon sunk. Still, his mark had been made, and he is forever more remembered as a pioneer of the American Navy. War in the West The early years of the American Revolution in the South went well for the Americans. They defeated Loyalists in several skirmishes, and saved Charles Town, South Carolina, from British Capture in 1776. The British changed their strategy to be more severe, realizing bringing the colonies back would not be easy. They focused on the South, in what was known as the Southern Strategy / Campaign, where there were more pockets of
Loyalists, and tried to impress the locals to realize their struggle was in vain. It worked, at first. The British (led by Gen. Henry Clinton) captured Savannah, Georgia in 1778, and most of the state, then moved south to Charles Town / Charleston, South Carolina and captured it in early 1780. +3,000 American troops surrendered, the worse loss of the war. The resistance to the British at this point in the South was left to Francis Marion and his men until the end of the war. VID, VID Help From Spain Meanwhile, Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, helped the Patriots as best as he could
(although Spain was technically neutral in the conflict). He loaned the Americans 1000s of dollars, and opened his port at New Orleans to Americans to trade. Additionally, he secretly sent tons of supplies up the Mississippi to George Rogers Clarks army, which helped him in his Northwestern Campaign to capture Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. By 1779, Spain officially declared war against Britain, and Galvez continued to help the Americans, by raising an army Patriot Victories
The British were successful at the Battle of Camden in 1780, but suffered defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain in Sept. 1780. This gave renewed support to the Patriots, whose fellow colonists just wanted the war and destruction to end. Patriot C, Camden VID, Battle of Kings Mtn Oct. 1780, Nathaniel Green became the commander of all the Continental forces in the South. VID One part of his army defeated the British at Cowpens, SC. in Jan. 1781. Patriot, VID Another part of that army joined the Swamp Fox in his attacks. Gen. Green then reunited his army to meet British Gen. Charles Cornwallis (who had replaced Henry Clinton at Charleston) at Greensboro, NC. Cornwallis retreated. As Cornwallis retreated north to Virginia, he caused
trouble all along the way, almost capturing the Virginia legislature. Cornwallis set up camp in Yorktown, and Washington sent troops under Von Steuben and Lafayette to meet him. The end was near Foreign Friends Keep working on this assignment, and prepare to present it D18. Well also wrap up Ch. 6 next time (D16), and then review and quiz for it D17, and the next day present our Foreign Friends Presentations (D18).
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