Uses of the Present Subjunctive

Uses of the Present Subjunctive

Uses of the Present Subjunctive The present tense of the subjunctive can be used in the following subjunctive clauses: Hortatory Subjunctive* Jussive Subjunctive* Deliberative Subjunctive* (uses imp. also) Potential Subjunctive*(uses imp. & plup. also) Optative Subjunctive* (uses Imp. & plup. also) Purpose Clauses (uses imp. also) Result Clauses (uses imp. also) Indirect Command (uses imp. also) Fearing Clauses (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Indirect Question (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Cum clauses (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Relative Clause of Purpose (uses imp. also) *these are the new subjunctive uses for us!* Hortatory/Jussive (the LETTUCE Subjunctive. ) Hortatory: used when the speaker is ordering or encouraging himself or

one or more other people to do something. e.g. Eat Well! Let us all work command. Hortatory FORMS/TRANSLATIONS: 1st person pl. subj = LET subject verb. (we) Jussive: same use as Hortatory but with the 2nd/3rd person form of verbs (you, he,she,it,they) Jussive FORMS/TRANSLATIONS: 3rd person subjects = VERB!!! (as if it were an imperative) out! Its like a e.g. ad urbem ambulmus. - HORTATORY LET us walk to the city! e.g. statim redeat! - JUSSIVE LET him return at once! e.g. patriam tuam dfends! - JUSSIVE DEFEND your fatherland! e.g. cvs bon stis. BE good citizens! Deliberative Subjunctive Generally used with the 1st person subjects when

the speaker is trying to decide what to do or when he wishes to express doubt or disbelief; questions Uses PRESENT or IMPERFECT subjunctive tenses TRANSLATION = can use should e.g. quid faciam? What am I to do? What should I do? quid facerem? What was I to do/should I do? tradantne s? Are they to surrender? Should they surrender? unde auxilium petamus? From where should we seek help? iam ver quid eg d valvs illus templ commemorem? But now, what should I relate about the doors of that temple? Potential & Optative Subjunctive POTENTIAL: having or showing the capacity to develop into something Used as the main verb to express a possibility TRANSLATION: would

e.g. creds non d puer scriptum est sed puer. You would think it was written not about a boy but by a boy. OPTATIVE: expressive of a wish or desire Used to express wishes Often used with the word, utinam = would that, I wish that to introduce the verb Used with ne for negative wishes Present Subjunctive used for a wish for a thing that IS possible (may) E.g. utinam mox adveniat. May she arrive soon. E.g. ne discedant. May they not leave. Imperfect (might/were) & Pluperfect (had) Subjunctive used for wishes for a thing that are IMPOSSIBLE e.g. utinam Vergilius viveret. Would that Vergil were alive. e.g. utinam ne Hannibal effugisset. Would that Hannibal had not escaped. e.g. Adfuisses! I wish you had been there.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Core technologies for games

    Core technologies for games

    Windows Runtime for games. Best language for game genres. High-performance graphics. Threading and processors. Persistent storage. Networking. Input/controls vs. form factors
  • Neftegazstandart-2009 Kazan 9 September 2009

    Neftegazstandart-2009 Kazan 9 September 2009

    Sept 2010, Salekhard. Neftegazstandardt - 2010Salekhard21-23 Sept 2010Neil Reeve, ISO/TC67 Chair. Trends and developments - International Standards for the Oil and Gas Industry
  • Introduction to Java programming

    Introduction to Java programming

    A language feature that allows a subclass or child class to provide a method of the same signature as one in a super/parent class, so that a different more appropriate implementation of a inherited method can be used. ... Introduction...
  • Intro to java

    Intro to java

    To select the correct version of JDK or IDE, students will need to know their operating system and whether it is 64 bit (x64) or 32 bit (x86). I spend 1 - 2 class periods teaching them how to find...
  • A Troublesome Path Leads Back to War -

    A Troublesome Path Leads Back to War -

    A Troublesome Path Leads Back to War Descent to War
  • "A story can reassure a reader that he or she is not alone in ...

    "A story can reassure a reader that he or she is not alone in ...

    Bibliotherapy "A story can reassure a reader that he or she is not alone in the world nor the first to experience a problem." (Philpot, 1997)
  • FORENSIC SCIENCE Trace Evidence

    FORENSIC SCIENCE Trace Evidence

    FORENSIC SCIENCE Trace Evidence * ... pass under each other alternately Create even patterns of 1/1 and 2/2 Design resembles a checkerboard * Woven Fabric TWILL Create by passing the warp yearn over one to three weft yearns before going...
  • 投影片 1 -

    投影片 1 -

    One may also puff on the inhaler for several times (e.g. 3 to 4 times a minute) Nicotine inhaler Tips for using the nicotine inhaler No difference between shallow puffing and deep inhalation Works best at room temperature One may...