Uses of the Present Subjunctive

Uses of the Present Subjunctive

Uses of the Present Subjunctive The present tense of the subjunctive can be used in the following subjunctive clauses: Hortatory Subjunctive* Jussive Subjunctive* Deliberative Subjunctive* (uses imp. also) Potential Subjunctive*(uses imp. & plup. also) Optative Subjunctive* (uses Imp. & plup. also) Purpose Clauses (uses imp. also) Result Clauses (uses imp. also) Indirect Command (uses imp. also) Fearing Clauses (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Indirect Question (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Cum clauses (uses imp., perf., & plup. also) Relative Clause of Purpose (uses imp. also) *these are the new subjunctive uses for us!* Hortatory/Jussive (the LETTUCE Subjunctive. ) Hortatory: used when the speaker is ordering or encouraging himself or

one or more other people to do something. e.g. Eat Well! Let us all work command. Hortatory FORMS/TRANSLATIONS: 1st person pl. subj = LET subject verb. (we) Jussive: same use as Hortatory but with the 2nd/3rd person form of verbs (you, he,she,it,they) Jussive FORMS/TRANSLATIONS: 3rd person subjects = VERB!!! (as if it were an imperative) out! Its like a e.g. ad urbem ambulmus. - HORTATORY LET us walk to the city! e.g. statim redeat! - JUSSIVE LET him return at once! e.g. patriam tuam dfends! - JUSSIVE DEFEND your fatherland! e.g. cvs bon stis. BE good citizens! Deliberative Subjunctive Generally used with the 1st person subjects when

the speaker is trying to decide what to do or when he wishes to express doubt or disbelief; questions Uses PRESENT or IMPERFECT subjunctive tenses TRANSLATION = can use should e.g. quid faciam? What am I to do? What should I do? quid facerem? What was I to do/should I do? tradantne s? Are they to surrender? Should they surrender? unde auxilium petamus? From where should we seek help? iam ver quid eg d valvs illus templ commemorem? But now, what should I relate about the doors of that temple? Potential & Optative Subjunctive POTENTIAL: having or showing the capacity to develop into something Used as the main verb to express a possibility TRANSLATION: would

e.g. creds non d puer scriptum est sed puer. You would think it was written not about a boy but by a boy. OPTATIVE: expressive of a wish or desire Used to express wishes Often used with the word, utinam = would that, I wish that to introduce the verb Used with ne for negative wishes Present Subjunctive used for a wish for a thing that IS possible (may) E.g. utinam mox adveniat. May she arrive soon. E.g. ne discedant. May they not leave. Imperfect (might/were) & Pluperfect (had) Subjunctive used for wishes for a thing that are IMPOSSIBLE e.g. utinam Vergilius viveret. Would that Vergil were alive. e.g. utinam ne Hannibal effugisset. Would that Hannibal had not escaped. e.g. Adfuisses! I wish you had been there.

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