U.S HISTORY VOCABULARY- The American Republic Since 1877 ...
U.S HISTORY VOCABULARY THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC SINCE 1877: UNIT 6, CHAPTER 21 The Cold War Begins 1945-1960 DIVIDING UP THE GLOBE AFTER WWII: Yalta Conference 1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war. Where the Cold War started.
Potsdam Conference (Tensions in Allied War Time Conferences) (JulyAugust 1945) Truman, new British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, and Stalin met in Potsdam, Germany and agreed to issue a warning to Japan to surrender unconditionally and to hold war-crime trials of Nazi leaders. Marshall Plan massive aid program (22 billion) to speed economy recovery of European nations. help war torn countries rebuild. economic co-operation and removal of trade barriers was a requirement to receive aid
Truman Doctrine 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries. *THIS IS THE SYMBOL FOR N.A.T.O --
BASIC COLD WAR TERMS Cold War Period of conflict and tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union that lasted from 1945 until 1991 when communism collapsed in the Soviet Union. satellite nation A country dominated politically and economically by another nation, especially by the Soviet Union during the Cold War (i.e. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria)
iron curtain term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War Containment American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world. Limited war a war fought to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
*JUST A PORTION OF THE IRON CURTAIN: *ASPECTS OF THE RED SCARE - Subversion the effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government Loyalty Review Program A policy established by Truman that authorized the screening of all federal employees to determine their loyalty to the American government.
The Long Telegram Delivered in 1946 by Geroge Kennan. Explained Soviet objectives and foreign policy to the American executive. His ideas formed the basis for the containment policy. Perjury Lying under oath (a popular charge against suspected communists or communist sympathizers) McCarran Act 1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman
described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war. *THE 1ST RED SCARE WAS DURING THE 1920S *INDIVIDUAL FIGURES OF THE COLD WAR: George Kennan US ambassador to Russia; sends the Long telegram to Truman warning that the Soviets are expanding rapidly and need to be stopped, father of containment policy Joseph McCarthy 1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of
communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists Igor Gouzenko A man working as a clerk at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa. In 1945 he revealed 109 documents that proved that there were Soviet spy-rings in Canada, Britain and the US. The spy rings were looking for political activities, troop movements and scientific secrets. This increased tensions between the East and the West.
Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976. Chiang Kai-shek Defeated by communists, he established the democratic Republic of China in Taiwan. *THE FEAR OF THE BOMB - Hydrogen Bomb One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
fallout shelter a shelter to protect occupants from the fallout from an atomic bomb massive retaliation The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
1949 The Soviets develop Atomic Bomb and the Largest populated country is communist. Sputnik First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race *WHEN RUSSIA GOT THIS SPUTNIK SATELLITE INTO SPACE, MANY AMERICANS FEARED THAT THE NEXT STEP WAS THEM DROPPING SPACE NUKES ONTO US!
*SPY VS. SPY + 2 MORE RED SCARE TERMS Central Intelligence Agency an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest covert secret or hidden
military-industrial complex Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending. McCarthyism became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence. HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee - accused people of being communists and "blacklisted" them.
*A FEW MORE WORLDWIDE SITUATIONS - The Warsaw Pact The Soviet Union responded to NATO by forming the Warsaw Pact. The alliance linked the Soviet Union with seven Eastern European countries: Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. Berlin Airlift Joint effort by the US and Britain to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.
Berlin Crisis In June 1948 when Soviet troops stopped all road and railroad traffic to West Berlin in hope to force Americans to renegotiate Germany's status and give up Berlin. Korean War A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th *MISCELLANEOUS (RANDOM) COLD WAR
TERMS: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. The United Nations An organization of nations that was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security, and international cooperation.
developing nation A nation only beginning to develop industrially brinkmanship A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
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