US History II

US History II

US History II 1st Six Weeks Remediation Old West Key Terms to Define Populism: The Grange: Bimetallism: Farmers Problems Rising rail prices and falling wheat prices put many farmers in a tough spot.

The high value of the dollar made it harder for farmers to pay back loans. Farmers want more silver to be added to the currency. Railroads charged farmers a lot of money. Farmers begin to unite and stand up. The Grange Formed by Oliver Kelley in 1867. Social outlet and an educational forum for isolated farm families. By the 1870s, the Grange starts to

combat railroad companies. Farmers try to get congress to regulate railroad industry. All the different farmers organizations have around 4 million members. Populist Movement Rises from the Farmers Alliances and Granges in the 1880s. Really strong out in the Midwest. Claims to be a party of the people. They demand reforms to help ease the debts

of farmers. Want to give the common people a voice. Populist Movement They want a graduated income tax to tax rich folks more than poor. They want an increase in the supply of money to create inflation. Direct election of senators. 8 hour workday Restrictions on immigration. Secret ballots elections.

Free Silver Populists supported bimetallism. They wanted nations money supply to be based on gold and silver. Silver was more plentiful than gold, but not as valuable. If silver was used to back up money, value of dollar would decrease which would cause inflation. Farmers could pay loans back quicker. Gold standard is more stable, but too

expensive. Cross of Gold Populist Party is at a crossroads. Do they field their own candidate and divide the Democratic Party which puts the Republicans in power or do they support the Democrats and potentially destroy their own cause? come to us and tell us that the great cities are in You William

Jennings Bryan makes a dramatic favor of the gold standard; we reply that the great cities rest upon our broad fertile speech at the 1896and DNC inprairies. favor Burn of free silver.

down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities Helps the party. will springto upliberalize again as if by magic; but destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by

the commercial interests, the laboring interests and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of End of the Populist Movement Bryan will lose to William McKinley in the election. Gold supporting Democrats flee to the Republicans. Big business pushes their policies forward leaving the farmers and the Populists behind.

Gold in Alaska pretty much ends silver debate. Question Time 1. How did the Grange help to support farmers? 2.What were the motives behind the Populist Movement? 3. What was free silver all about? 4. Why did the Populists fall apart? Industrialization Key Terms to

Define Social Darwinism: Monopoly/Trust: Robber Baron: Socialism: Union: Strike: New Industries In 1859, Edwin Drake uses a steam engine to drill for oil in Titusville, PA. Petroleum oil was used for kerosene.

In 1851, Henry Bessemer and William Kelly develop a process to inject air into molten iron to remove carbon particles. This will make steel stronger. The Railroad Age Most long distance travel is done on railroads. Railroads haul all industrial goods across the nation. Cities like Denver, Abilene,

Flagstaff, Kansas City, Omaha, Seattle, Fargo, Chicago, Fort Worth, and Indianapolis grow due to the influence of railroads Question Time 5. What new industries are driving America forward in the late 1800s? 6. Why are railroads so influential during this time period?

Social Darwinism Based on the Theory of Evolution. Created by British philosopher Herbert Spencer, it says that success in business and in life is natural. Those companies/individuals who can/will adapt to change will succeed. Those that will not will either suffer or cease to be. Spencer felt that government should stay out business and let what is natural

happen. Robber Barons Andrew Carnegie and his Steel Company John D. Rockefeller and his Standard Oil Company Are they captains of industry? Are they robber barons? Monopoly and Trusts

A corporation is a business that is owned by stockholders. The stockholders share in the profits of the corporation, but are not personally responsible for the debts. A monopoly is when a business dominates a market share so much, they have no competition. Monopolies spread as corporations grow. A trust is formed when several companies turn their stocks over to a group of trustees. These trustees will run all of the companies as one corporation. However, a trust is NOT a merger. The companies get special profit dividends from pooling their

resources. Many activities that trusts and monopolies do can be unethical. Question Time 7. What is the concept of social darwinism? 8. Are the major industry leaders, in your opinion, robbers barons or captains of industry? 9. What is the danger that monopolies present?

Working Issues Long hours10-16 hours a day. Low wages. No vacation time or sick leave. Poor working conditions. Preference for immigrants. Child labor and exploitation of women. Sweatshop labor. Blacklisted. Few opportunities to advance. Birth of the Unions

An association of workers that band together for protection. Unions fight for benefits such as health care, wage increases, and better working conditions. Today, unions are quite common, however in the 1800s, they were outlawed and shunned in many areas in England, Europe, and the U.S. Socialism Promotes the idea that the factors of

production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. It believes in equality and social justice for all and that the government should actively take a role in the economy and in the lives of people. To socialists, government should take care and provide for its people through social welfare programs. Modern socialists look at welfare, health care, education, etc. as their main issues.

Strikes Many early strikes end in violence as government backs the companies over the striking workers. Haymarket Riot in Chicago. Pullman Strike in Chicago Homestead Strike against Carnegie in PA. Strikers seen as socialist/anarchist/communist agitators. Question Time

10. What problems do workers face? 11 What rights are workers trying to fight for? 12. Why do you think the government was not helping the workers? 13. What are the ideals behind socialism? 14. What examples of socialism do you see today in our country? Immigration Key Terms to Define Chinese Exclusion Act:

Nativism: Quotas: Hull House: How the Other Half Lives: Political Machine: Plessy vs Ferguson: Segregation: Immigration Around 20 million people will immigrate from 1850-1920 Starting in the 1870s, the immigrants moving

from Europe come first from Southern Europe. Many are Jewish and Catholic. 200,000 each of Chinese and Japanese will move to America too as well as thousands from Latin America. They come for jobs in the factories and cities of America. Quotas are placed to limit immigrants from certain countries. Question Time 15. Why were so many immigrants coming to

America? 16. What made these immigrants different from previous immigrants? 17. What was the immigrant experience like in America? 18. Why were some people prejudiced against immigrants? Urban Life Most immigrants join many Americans in

moving to the cities. Biggest cities are New York, Philly, Chicago, St. Louis, Boston, Cleveland, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Buffalo. Many people leaving farms for factories and jobs. Blacks leave the South and begin moving to the cities for better opportunities. Urban crowding will lead to many opportunities and many problems Urban Problems

Overcrowding Tenements and row houses Transportation issues Fire Poor sanitation Disease Crime Water issues Pollution Reform Movements

Jane Addams established Hull House in 1889. Hull House was a settlement house. Settlement houses were built as community centers and were found in many cities. Settlement houses provided assistance for women, children, and immigrants in low income districts. The settlements helped give education to people who needed it. Jacob Riis took photos in his book, How the Other Half Lives. Depicts what life is like for the urban poor.

Political Machine Political machines would be run by a boss. The boss wouldnt have a high political office, but control things behind the scenes. Bosses often sought out immigrants who would later on support the party. The Tweed Tammany Hall. Ring

Democratic Ring Stole as much as $200 million in kickbacks and payoffs. NY County Courthouse cost taxpayers $11 million, but only cost 3 to make it Led by Boss William Tweed. Thomas Nast, a political cartoonist, led the attack against Tammany Hall. Tweed arrested in 1871 and sentenced to 12 years in jail.

He would escape to Spain, and then recaptured. Civil Service System In 1883, Arthur signed the Pendleton Act after President Garfields Death. The act authorized a bipartisan commission to overview a civil service commission. To receive a federal job, you would have to take a civil service test. In 1901, 40% of federal jobs had a test. In 2005, 90% of them would. The civil service test would give federal jobs

only to those who were qualified and NOT to those who were friends or contributors. Helps to end Spoils System. Question Time 19. What is a political machine? 20. How does a machine stay in power? 21. Describe the actions of Tammany Hall? Segregation Jim Crow Laws: Related to Black Codes. They denied Blacks civil

rights like voting and allowed for segregation. Poll tax: Had to pay a tax to vote. Literacy test: Have to read to be able to vote. Also have to pass a test. Grandfather clause: If your grandfather could vote, you could, If he couldnt, you cant. Blacks were segregated in society. Couldnt use same bathrooms, restaurants, public transportations, schools, etc. as Whites could. Segregation was common all across the nation, but more prominent in the South. Kept Blacks as a lower class citizen.

Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case about segregation. Plessy, a wealthy 1/8 Black man, was asked to leave his seat in a train and go to the Black section. Plessy sued because he felt his civil rights were violated. Case gets to the Supreme Court. Supreme Court rules 7-1 in favor of the railroad company. Separate but Equal facilities are not unconstitutional.

Black Reformers NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) formed in 1909 by W. E. B. Du Bois. Du Bois believed that education would help Blacks achieve equality with Whites. Get good jobs like doctor or engineers. Fight for rights. Booker T. Washington set up the Tuskegee

Institute to help train Blacks to become Question Time 22. Why do you think there were so many differences of opinion by Black leaders on how to achieve equality? 23. Which Black leader do you agree most with? Why? Progressive Era Key Terms to Define Square Deal:

The Jungle: Muckraker: Child Labor: 17th Amendment: 18th Amendment: 19th Amendment: Origins of Progressivism Roots in Populism. Reaction to wealth of the industrialists. Reaction to the political machines like Tammany Hall.

Belief that science and education can change society. The Four Goals of Progressivism Protecting Social Welfare Promoting Moral Improvement Creating Economic Reform Fostering Efficiency Progressive Reforms Ending Child Labor

Women get the right to vote Prohibition: banning of alcohol Safer working conditions Passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act Preserving land for future as parks Busting up monopolies and trusts Federal Reserve System will regulate money supply Question Time 24. How is Progressivism similar to

Populism? 25. What are the goals of Progressivism? 26. What major reforms did Progressives achieve? Imperialism Era Key Terms to Define Open Door Policy: Imperialism: Yellow Journalism: The Maine Incident: Roosevelt Corollary:

Dollar Diplomacy: Panama Canal: Good Neighbor Policy: What is Imperialism? The industrialized nations of Europe and the US, hungry for resources, seek out colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific to exploit them. They dominate the political, economic, and social lives of the countries that they take over (whether by peace or by force). The colonies are exploited as markets for

manufactured goods as well as to drain the resources they have. Americas Interests Abroad US wants to make money. US wants to open up markets to other nations to sell goods. US also wants to get coal stations to refuel commercial and military ships. Cant expand locally.

Chinas Open Door Policy created by Sec. of State John Hay. The policy states that the Europeans will not carve China into colonies. Also, the spheres of influence will not be closed off to merchants of other nations. Instead, China will be an open door for everyone.

It keeps American trading interests in China and keeps China independent. It also helps prevent a war from breaking out of Chinese territory amongst European rivals. Hawaii Island chain in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Great natural harbor at Oahu. Desired by France, Britain, and US (see flag) as a

coal refueling station. Great climate for growing pineapple and sugar cane. American planters who lived in Hawaii wanted to compete with American sugar in Louisiana. Led by Sanford Dole, they overthrew Queen Liliuokalani in 1893 and demanded to be annexed to the US. In 1898, President McKinley annexed the islands. Question Time 27. Why did the Europeans and Americans seek to

dominate other lands? 28. Do you think that the Open Door policy helped or hurt China? Why? 29. Why did we take over Hawaii? 30. Many people, including President Cleveland, felt that our handling of Hawaii was wrong. How do you feel? 31. Overall, what is our overseas interests? Yellow Journalism and the There will be no war. Frederick

Remington Spanish American War You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war --Hearst Part of a newspaper feud between William Randolph Hearsts New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzers New York World. They would fabricate or sensationalize stories to make them more exciting so they could sell more papers. Yellow journalism appealed to peoples emotions.

On Feb. 16, 1898, the USS Maine mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor. Recent historians believe a coal fire destroyed the ship. Spanish agents were blamed, thanks to yellow journalism. A quick war against Spain is won. We win control of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba becomes independent. Roosevelt Corollary Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.African proverb

Addition to the Monroe Doctrine. Europe is not allowed to interfere in the affairs of the Americas. The US is allowed to interfere to protect its interests Latin American disorder would make the US an international policeman. President Taft tries to further US foreign policy aims in Latin America through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Taft would send troops to South and Central America to help collect foreign debts. Dollar Diplomacy We would invade

to collect debts so Europeans wouldnt Panama Canal For years, sailors would have to sail for months around South America to get from NY to California/ Atlantic to Pacific. French tried to build a canal in the late 1800s, but couldnt because of malaria. Hay-Pauncefote TreatyBritain recognized US rights to build canal. Two routes, Nicaragua or Panama. Colombia owned Panama.

Panama Canal United States offered Columbia a renewable 99-year lease on a 6-mile wide strip across Panama for $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000 . Columbia refused and wanted more money. Roosevelt was really upset and took advantage of Panamanian politics.

He sent a US warship off the coast of Panama with 300 marines while Panamanians rebelled. Roosevelt recognized Panama as an independent nation. Roosevelt gives Panama same offer as I took the Canal Zone and let Congress debate; and while the

debate goes on, the canal does also. -Roosevelt Great White Fleet Roosevelt wanted to show the world that the US is a great power. He commissioned the construction of a new battleship fleet to rival anybody in the world. In 1907, he sent the US navy on a 2 year tour of the world. It was a tour of goodwill, but demonstrated our

strength to Japan, Britain, and Germany. Good Neighbor Policy Started in 1933 by President Franklin Roosevelt. US would shift away from military intervention in Latin America. Goal was to help soothe bad feelings towards the US. Question Time 32. How did Teddy Roosevelt treat Latin America

when he was president? 33. How was the Panama Canal built? 34. How would the Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy make our neighbors hate us? 35. How did Franklin Roosevelt treat Latin America when he was president?

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