Uremia: Effects on Body Systems - Health Vista, Inc.

Uremia: Effects on Body Systems - Health Vista, Inc.

Uremia: Effects on Body Systems By Mary Knutson, RN What is Uremia? Renal failure can progress from mild to severe Uremia is the most severe, also known as End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) The body is unable to maintain homeostasis or maintain electrolyte balance No wastes are excreted by the kidneys

Renal function is < 5% Many body systems are affected and the patient is symptomatic Causes of Uremia

Diabetes mellitus * Hypertension * Glomerulonephritis Polycystic disease Obstruction or infection in kidney Analgesic nephropathy * denotes most common causes of uremia Causes of Acute Kidney Failure

Complicated surgery, severe burns or trauma Renal ischemia Drugs, contrast dyes, or other toxins Heat stroke

Multiple organ failure or sepsis Obstructed urine flow, nephritis or Hemolytic uremic syndrome Genitourinary Effects Loss of nephrons and increased burden on those remaining nephrons Hypertrophy of renal tubules and possibly damage to basement membrane Early stage involves compensation by increased glomerular filtration rate and hyperfiltration

Oliguria or anuria in later stages Albuminuria and increased creatinine and BUN in urine Nocturia Effects on Musculoskeletal System Disordered Vitamin D metabolism causes poor absorption of dietary calcium Overproduction of parathyroid hormone leaches calcium from bone.

Hypocalcemia and osteoporosis weakens bone Hyperuricemia seldom causes gout, but can cause pericarditis in heart muscle Effects on Cardiovascular System Fluid retention leads to edema, CHF and pulmonary edema Hypertension is aggravated by vessel wall remodeling from renin/angiotensin effects Aldosterone increases vascular volume and

pressure by promoting osmotic resorption of water and sodium Cardiac arrest risk from sudden rise in potassium Accelerated atherosclerosis from disordered calcium/phosphate balance causes increased risk of cardiovascular disease Respiratory Effects Shortness of breath and tachypnea related to CHF or pulmonary edema May develop uremic fetor when urea is

converted to ammonia in saliva, causing urine-like odor of the breath Increased respiratory rate and depth due to acidosis Sensory Effects Peripheral neuropathy- usually in upper extremities, but may include restless leg syndrome Weakness and dizziness Irritability with risk of developing convulsions, and mental confusion from cerebral edema

May notice a characteristic smell from uremia Hyperkalemia may cause tingling around the mouth Damage to retina from longstanding diabetes or HTN may cause visual deficits Effects on Endocrine System Decreased estrogen due to effects of uremic toxins Decreased testosterone Increased half-life of insulin, causing it to

be active for longer time, and increased risk of hypoglycemia Gastrointestinal Effects Peptic Ulcer Disease is common, which should not be treated with typical antacids Gastroenteritis Anorexia Nausea/vomiting Diverticulosis

Hematologic Effects Anemia related to bone marrow suppression and toxic effects of aluminum Elevated Parathyroid hormone causes bone marrow fibrosis May have blood loss and induced folate deficiency from dialysis and abnormal homeostasis due to prolonged bleeding time Leukocyte suppression Dermatologic Effects

Skin color changes to increased pallor, gray, or increased pigment excreted through skin causing a sickly tan color Skin thicker and leathery Increased ecchymosis and hematoma Pruritis and excoriation from itching or from calcium deposits Uremic frost similar to sand on skin Dry skin and mucus membranes Metabolic Effects

Unable to excrete medications or waste products Medications and chemotherapy may cause severe toxicity problems Unable to maintain electrolyte balance Increased rate of catabolism, especially with fever, trauma, or infection Neurological Effects Sleep disorders Impaired concentration and memory, sometimes

mental confusion due to cerebral edema, and sometimes coma Irritabilities- hiccups, cramps, twitching, asterixis (hands flapping during uremic coma) Peripheral neuropathies Apprehension and irritability Reproductive Effects of Uremia Increased risk for hypertension and severe complications during pregnancy due to extra fluids and waste products

High risk of pre-eclampsia Chronic high blood pressure and waste products in mothers bloodstream can seriously affect growth and cause harm to the babys health How is Uremia Treated? By treating the illness or injury that caused acute kidney failure, it may be reversible. Prevent excess fluids and wastes from accumulating while the kidneys heal by limiting dietary fluids and

salt, and following high-carbohydrate, low-protein and low-potassium diet Control diabetes or hypertension, may need to also restrict dietary potassium and phosphorous. Take medications as prescribed, usually catonic exchange resins to decrease hypercalemia, and antihypertensive medications Types of Dialysis Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) Kidney transplant may be needed References Anderson, J. (2002) . Renal problems: Pathophysiology of aging adults. Unpublished lecture notes, Viterbo University at LaCrosse, WI Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (2002). What is kidney failure?, retrieved 9-7-02 from Mayo Clinic Web site,

http://www.mayoClinic.com/findinformation/conditioncenters Groer, M.W. (2001). Advanced pathophysiology: Application to practice. In D. Schiff, (Ed.), Philadelphia: Lippincott nursing Miller, B. & Keane, C. (Eds.), (1978), Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health. (2nd ed.), Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders This presentation was created in 2002 and revised slightly on 5-8-15.

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