UNITED STATES HISTORY CHAPTER 9 THE FIRST WORLD WAR WORLD WAR I BEGINS There are four long term causes and one immediate cause to the start of WWI. They can be remembered by the acronym MANIA: Militarism
Alliance systems Nationalism Imperialism Assassination (1) Alliances By 1914, two major alliance systems had formed in Europe: Central Powers (AKA Triple-Alliance) - Germany, (2) AustriaHungary, and the (3) Ottoman Empire (now known as Turkey) Allied Powers- (4) France, Great Britain, and Russia (U.S. joined in 1917)
These alliances pledged military help if needed. Militarism (5) Militarism- build-up of armed strength and its use as a tool of diplomacy (or intimidation) European countries stockpiled weapons. This led to an all out arms (weapons) race (buildup) throughout Europe. Two factors contributing to the rise of militarism: imperialism
nationalism Alliances As Germany grew more powerful (6)Great Britain established closer relations with France and Russia to balance the power of Germany. So France, Russia, and Germany became known as the: (7) Allied Powers- France, Great Britain, and Russia (U.S. joined in 1917) Nationalism
Another long term cause of World War I was the growth of (8) Nationalism which is intense pride in ones homeland (language, culture, and beliefs. It often led to competitive rivalries among nations. The Balkans Nationalism As people became increasingly nationalistic in Europe, many people looked to break away from the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
and Ottoman Empire in the (9) Balkans, in south-eastern Europe. The Balkans Imperialism (10) Imperialism played a role in starting World War I as European nations competed for colonies and colonies attempted to break free from their colonial rulers. France Great Britain
Germany United States Assassination The effects of these four long term causes came to a head in 1914 in the Balkans, also known as the powder keg of Europe. Many of these places that Servia wanted to unite were under the control of the Austrian Empire, including a small country, Bosnia Assassination
Consequently, in June, 1914, ,a Servian nationalist group called the black-hand encouraged a young Bosnian nationalist to assassinate the Arch-duke of the Austro Hungarian Empire, (11) Franz Ferdinand while in Sarajevo, Bosnia. This assassination sparked outrage in Austria who called for war, and soon the alliance system kicked in. That it was nicknamed the powder keg of Europe. . . BOOM! Opposing Sides On one side of the war were the (12) Central Powers. Powers
made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria. On the other side were the (13) Allies. Powers made up of France, Great Britain, Russia, and later Italy. Meanwhile the United States decided to remain (14) neutral. By early August 1914, the alliance system had kicked in and Europe was engulfed in war. WWI will usher in a new style of fighting called trench warfarefighting, in some cases, over mere yards of land from a series of snaking, dug out positions in the ground.
No mans land- barren expanse of muddy, shell cratered land between trenches covered in barbed wire and landmines Machine guns- the introduction of the machine gun made trenches necessary, as exposed soldiers were ripped to shreds by machine gun fire AERIAL VIEW OF TRENCHES The Face of World War I changes with Technology
The new, advanced weapons introduced in WWI included: Machine guns Tanks Airplanes Poisonous gas/gas masks Blimp/zeppelin Submarine/U-boat *** All of these led to greater death, destruction, and damage than history had previously seen.
United States (1) Enters the War Before World War I, the United States largely believed in a policy known as (2) Neutrality. This means the U.S. did not want to get involved in the affairs of other countries. Therefore, at the beginning of World War I, the US decided to remain (3) neutral, meaning they did not pick a side. United States (1) Enters the War
The president during WWI was (4) Woodrow Wilson. He believed that the US has a special role to play in the war. He believed the US should mediate a solution between the Allied and Central Powers. United States (1) Enters the War However, the US neutrality was hypocritical. They still traded with European countries. The US was trading more with (5) Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, and Russia
US rarely traded with (6)Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empires II. WAR AT SEA Allied Powers advantage was (7) that prevented their enemy from getting good and weapons. So the Central Powers used (8)U Boats, AKA submarine. This policy was condemned by the US as (9) a violation of the freedom of the seas. United States (1) Enters the War
May 1915 German U Boats (submarines) sank the passenger ship (10) Lusitania killing 128 Americans. US protested acts claiming it violated the concept of (11) freedom of the seas . United States (1) Enters the War III. US Is Pulled into the War President Wilson tried to negotiate peace between warring
nations. Did not work. After sinking the Lusitania, Germany signed a (12) Sussex Pledge saying they would not bomb US ships. January 1917 Germany sank 4 more US merchant ships. In 1917 Germany sent the (13) Zimmerman Note Events that forced the U.S. to enter World War I: 1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. In January, 1917, Germany sank 4 U.S. trade ships 2. Communist Russian (Allies) exited World War I(14) Russian Monarchy overthrown. All
Allie nations were democratic. US could now spin the war as a fight for (15) democracy. Events that forced the U.S. to enter World War I: 3. Zimmerman Note German foreign minister Alfred Zimmermann sent a note to the Mexico stating: Proposed an alliance between
Germany and Mexico Mexico was to attack the U.S. to keep us out of Europe Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. U.S. Enters the War: U.S. declared war on Germany and the Central Powers (16) April, 1917.
US joined the Allies. Reasons: 1. German submarine warfare. 2. Germany stripped away our rights as a neutral nation. America During the War I. Total War One the US joined the Allies, it had to quickly enlarge its army and prepare for the war. World War I was the first (1) total war where everyone and
everything was geared towards the war effort. II. The Army In order to create a large fighting force, Congress passed the (2) Selective Service Act- required men to register for military service. The U.S. force sent to Europe was called the (3)American Expeditionary Force (AEF) and was led by General John J. Pershing. The AEF, U.S. soldiers ,were fresh and helped the Allis win. convoy system- a heavy guard of navy vessels escorted ships back and forth across the Atlantic.
THE WAR AT HOME III. The Homefront During the war, the government played a big role in directing the economy (telling businesses what to make, how much to make, and what to sell it for.) The U.S. government also created wartime agencies: (4)War Industries Board (WIB)- contracted with factories to produce war material (5)Committee on Public Information (CPI)- artists and advertising
agencies were persuaded to create posters, paintings, cartoons, speeches, etc. that promoted the war effort (This was a form of (6)propaganda- biased communication designed to influence peoples thoughts and actions.) III. The Homefront: The government directed the economy A. (7)Food Administration The government financed the war largely through the sale of - this was an effort to help produce and conserve food by: 1.
Voluntary reductions. Example: Meatless Mondays & Wheatless Wednesdays 2. Encouraging growing victory/liberty gardens III. The Homefront: The government directed the economy Fuel Administration-this agency was responsible for ensuring an adequate supply of oil and coal. It encouraged Americans to conserve fuel.
A. 8)Victory/liberty bonds The government sold Americans these savings bonds to pay for the war. IV. Rights during War A. During the war, Congress passed the (9)Espionage and Sedition Acts. It became illegal to speak out against the war or harmed the war effort. B. The Espionage and Sedition Acts were not well accepted by many citizens Many claimed these laws violated the (10) First amendment (freedom of speech)
IV. Rights during War C. A man named (11) Charles Schenck challenged these laws by passing out pamphlets encouraging young men to avoid the draft. D. He was arrested, but challenged his arrest and took it to the (12) Supreme Court. E. The Supreme Court denied his appeal and the court case (13) Schenck v. the United States. F U.S. Supreme Court ruled: the government CAN restrict
your rights when at war if it causes a clear and present danger to the US. V. Big take away about the US at Home During World War I: 1. The government plays a larger role in the economy during times of war 2. The government helped
guide the economy by rationing, telling businesses what to make and setting quotas. 3. During times of war, certain rights are often taken away (freedom of speech, due process, etc.) I.
Social changes in America during WWI: a. As US men left to fight the war in Europe, other groups had to fill the factory jobs that they left behind. b. Great Migrationi. Starting in 1917, thousands of African-Americans left the South and moved to the North. This was known as the (1) Great Migration ii. They did this for two reasons: 1. There were job opportunities in factories in northern cities because many men were off fighting the war.
2. They were looking to escape (2) Jim Crow laws and segregation in the South. iii. However, African Americans still faced discrimination in the North, and after the solders returned home from war they retook jobs leaving many African Americans unemployed. c. Social changes in America during WWI: Women in the War i. Women also began working into factories to fill the jobs that men had left behind. ii. This helped them gain more independence and generated
support for (3) womens suffrage (right to vote) iii. As a result, the (4) 19th Amendment to the Constitution was passed after the war, giving women the right to vote. iv. The presidential election of 1920 showed womens impact on the election process. Eight million more voters were cast than in the 1916 Presidential election. Democracy expanded! WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE II. Before WWI had even ended, President Wilson presented his plan for peace called the (5) Fourteen Points which he felt would usher in a fair
and lasting peace for all nations. Key proposals of the Fourteen Points: 1. No secret treaties among nations 2. Freedom of the seas 3. (6) Arms reduction (to levels necessary for domestic safety) 4. Self-determination-Distinct ethnic groups should be allowed to form their own nations/states or be allowed to decide to which nation they belong 5. Creation of the (7)League of Nations- international peacekeeping organization whose main goals were promoting and maintaining peace
b. President Wilsons Fourteen Points gave hope to many nations, especially his idea for the League of Nations. Countries worldwide had hopes of political freedom and an end to warfare. Finally, on November 11, 1918 the war did end with the signing of an (8) armistice or truce c. On June 28, the (9) BIG FOUR (leaders of the victorious nations) attended a peace conference together. George Clemenceau- French Premier David Lloyd George- British Prime Minister
Vittorio Orlando- Italian Prime Minister Woodrow Wilson- President of the United States d. Here they made the (10) Treaty of Versailles, in which Wilson had to concede (give up or relinquish) most of his Fourteen points, but only in return for the establishment of the League of Nations. E . Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles: 1.(11) Germany had to accept full
blame/responsibility for the war (aka War Guilt clause) 2.Germany had to pay (12)reparations (war damages) of $33B to Allies 3.Establishment of the League of Nations
III. Wilsons Downfall After getting the League of Nations put into the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson had to convince Congress to ratify the Treaty. However, the American people and Congress did not like the (13) League of
Nations. American citizens- did not want to be dragged into another war. Congress- was afraid that joining the League of Nations would cause a loss of (14) sovereignty (independence)
c. Although Wilson went all over the US to get support for the Treaty and the League, he failed. d. The Treaty was NOT ratified by Congress and the US did not join the League of Nations e. This crushed Wilson. He had a stroke and was incapacitated for the rest of his term. f. In the election of 1920, Americans rejected Wilsons idea of internationalism and instead chose to return to a policy of (15) isolationism.
Did World War I lead to World War II? CHANGING WAYS OF LIFE Remember, after the war, the United States returned to a policy of (1) isolationism. The United States decided to stay of European and World affairs. However, Americans were not just scared of what was going on outside of the country, but they were
concerned about threats within the country. The Rise of Communism Communism is the belief that the government should own everything (businesses, land, etc) and individuals should own nothing. The Rise of Communism Communist governments are not democracies and are run by dictators. This goes against American ideas of freedom, private ownership of business (laissez-faire),
capitalism and democracy. The idea of communism is very closely related to the ideas of socialism and anarchy. During the war, (2)the Soviet Union had become a communist country. This frightened many Americans as Russia declared a world-wide revolution that would spread across the globe. Communism quickly grew throughout Europe and even inside of the United States
Red Scare Immediately after the war, there was a fear that (3)Communism and (4)Socialism were spreading within the United States. This was known as the (5)Communist Revolution. The primary group targeted were (6)Immigrants. During this time, there was a resurgence of (7) nativist sentiments as many Americans believed that most foreigners were communist and wanted to change our country.
Soon, Attorney General (8)Mitchell Palmer Soon, Attorney General (8)Mitchell Palmer began rounding up large numbers of immigrants who were believed to be communist, socialists, and anarchists and deporting them or
putting them in prison. These raids became known as (9)Palmer Raids. Furthermore, in 1920, two Italian immigrants were arrested. Nicola (10) Sacco and Bartolomeo (11) Vanzetti. They were charged with armed robbery and murder, but the evidence was not very good. Many believed that these two men were charged simply
because they were immigrants and anarchists. This fear of communism continued for much of the 1920s and many more immigrants and American citizens were arrested. U.S. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Immigrant
anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti Emergency Quota Acts Even with the Palmer Raids, however, many continued to fear immigrants. In 1921 and again in 1924, the government passed the (12)National Origins Act. This law restricted the number of immigrants that could
enter the United States each year. The Quotas were set based on which country the immigrants were coming from. They allowed more immigrants from Western Europe, and less from Eastern Europe.
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