Unit 4 Classification of Matter

Unit 4 Classification of Matter

Unit 2 Atomic/Nuclear Theory/Periodic Patterns Unit Sequence Day Objectives Assessments Activities & Assignments 1

Hook Interest Data & Observations, Gold penny taped in notebook, 1 page story Alchemists Dream Lab, Write 1 page story of fictional discovery & consequences 2

Overview of Atomic Fireworks Poster Theory Project Rubric History, Chemistry, Spectra of Fireworks 2 Review basic Atomic Structure Previous knowledge in notes, Completed assignment,

Cooperative Quiz Use atomic mass & number to draw Bohr Models of elements 118 odd Quiz 3,4,5,6 History of Atomic Theory Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, (Emission Spectra & Photoelectric

effect) Bohr Lecture discussions, pair questions, Dalton Quiz Informal, Thomson Quiz, Rutherford quiz, Comparative Quiz Lectures, Cathode Ray Demos, Video Clips, Flame Tests Lab, Emission Spectra Unit Sequence

Da y Objectives Assessments Activities & Assignments 7 Isotopes, Avg Atomic Mass, Ions

810 RadioactivityDesigning Experiments Lab check points, Graphical sharing on doc viewerk, data & observations in NB Radioactivity Shielding Lab Practice Day 1, Collect Good Data Day 2, HW: Graph, Share Data Day 3

Lives Graphical Results Life Quiz Lives Blocks Life Problems 11 Types of Radioactivity Informal Quiz

Notes & Geiger Counter Demos Book Questions about basics & applications 12 Nuclear Equations Discuss, Review & Quiz Styrofoam balls demo, Write equations for

Uranium decay series Book questions, Worksheet Problem Solving to be developed / Quiz Unit Sequence Da y Objectives Assessments

Activities & Assignments 13 Understand Quantum Mechanics Quiz Partner Book questions, Demo Standing Waves, Video Orbitals, Slides, Orbitals. 14

Electron Configurations Discuss as show config Write configurations 1vs diagram from H Na, 35 odd 15 Periodic Patterns of Electron Configurations - Quiz configs, Noble Gas configurations &

drawing Discovery discussion & decorate patterns of periodic table, write Noble Gas configurations of 1-35 odd 16 History of Periodic Table Progress on mystery, discussion feedback,

quiz partner Cochran Periodic Table Mystery, Book questions, Notes on History 17 Patterns of Periodicity -Reactivity, bonding, ions, atomic radius, ionization energy,

Comparing Periodic Groups Laserdisc demos of radioactivity, decorate bonds & ions on blank, use data to make graphs & interpret patterns Element Samp;e Observations Unit Sequence Da y

Objectives Assessments Activities & Assignments 13 Understand Patterns of Atomic Radius & their Basis Rank atoms vertically &

horizontally small to large. Explain trend of each. Find patterns in pictures of radii. Examine Explanation 14 Understand how Periodic Table is organized 15

16 17 Periodic Card Set Old Periodic Table Fill in Blank Vocab 2A Atom Law of Definite

Proportions Law of Conservation of Mass Cathode ray Cathode ray tube Electron

Nucleus Proton Neutron Atomic mass unit Atomic number Atomic mass Ion Isotope Electromagnetic

radiation frequency Wavelength Quantum Photoelectric effect Photon Line spectrum

Ground state Excited state Quantum mechanical model Orbital Sublevel Electron configuration Vocabulary 2B Isotope nuclear reactor Radioisotope nuclear weapon Radioactivity half life

Radiation nuclear equation Fission positron Fusion radiocarbon dating Radioactive decay critical mass Alpha particle nuclear bombardment Beta particle strong nuclear force Gamma ray plasma

Nuclear chain reaction dosimeter Atom Builder Activity http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/ atom/ For each addition to the atom (Up to Stable Carbon) record the following: Element Protons Neutron s

Electron s Radioac tive? Ionized? Stable? Bohr Models of Atoms Parts (1 of 3) Part

Charge Mass Location Proton +1 1 amu Nucleus Electron -1

1/1837 amu Orbiting nucleus Neutron 0 1 amu Nucleus

Determining the Part (2 of 3) Part How to Determine Protons = atomic number (smaller whole #) from periodic table Electron = atomic number (smaller s whole #) from periodic table (assumes 0 charge, or

neutral) Neutrons = atomic mass (larger # w/ decimal, round) atomic # Drawing Bohr Models (3 of 3) Determine number of protons, electrons & neutrons in atom. Draw protons (+) & neutrons (0) in nucleus. Draw electrons in circles around nucleus: - 2 maximum on 1st level. - 8 maximum on 2nd level. - 18 maximum on 3rd level.

Asmt: Draw elements 1-18 odd (even XC) Alchemists Dream Review (1 of 2) Q: How do you tell if it is really gold? Archimedes Principle: Determine the volume by displacement and then confirm the density. Q: What did the salty vinegar do? Dark pennies have black CuO oxidation. Acid in vinegar & salt reduce the Cu+2 back to Cu0 to reshine the penny. Q: How did the pennies turn silver? Zinc plates on the outside of the copper. Q: How did they turn to gold in the flame?

Heating melts the zinc into the copper to form brass! Alchemists Dream Review (2 of 2) Q: Was the removal of black CuO a chemical or physical change? A: It chemically changed from black copper salt to metallic copper. Q: Is brass a mixture or a compound? A: Brass is a mixture and an alloy. Q: Is the mixture homogeneous or heterogeneous? A: Ours varied by depth and color. So they were

heterogeneous. Manufacturers produce homogeneous brass. Development of Atomic Theory History of the atom Not the history of atom, but the idea of the atom. Original idea Ancient Greece (400 B.C.) Democritus and Leucippus- Greek philosophers. John Dalton

British A small town school teacher at the age of 12. Introduced his atomic theory in 1803. Previous Findings 1. Law of Conservation of Mass Matter is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. (Antoine Lavoisier) 2. Law of Definite Proportions

The percentage by mass of elements in a compound is constant for any sample. Ex: H2O 3. Law of Multiple Proportions Compounds composed of the same two elements differ in one element by simple ratios. Ex: CO vs CO2; H2O vs H2O2 Law of Definite Proportions Each compound has a specific ratio of elements. It is a ratio by mass. Water has a mass of 18 grams

hydrogen 2 atoms x 1.0 grams oxygen 1 atom x 16 grams The ratio is always 8 grams of oxygen for each gram of hydrogen (2 g H to 16 g O or 1 g H to 8 g O). Law of Multiple Proportions Two elements or more elements may form more than one compound if they have different whole number ratio of each element. H2O Example: water hydrogen peroxide H2O2

Daltons Atomic Theory 1. All matter is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of the same element are identical 3. Different elements have different types of atoms 4. Compounds are formed from simple combinations of atoms of different elements. 5. In a chemical reaction atoms are simply rearranged. *Activity: Ball & Stick Reactions Picture Daltons Atomic Theory

Updates to Daltons Theory 1a. Atoms are divisible into protons, neutrons & electrons (& even smaller!). 1b. In nuclear decay they actually fall apart! 2. All atoms of a single element have the same number of protons, but not neutrons. (isotopes) 4. Compounds may be very complex! Daltons Atomic Theory Quiz 1. What year was his theory published? 2. Which previous finding defined compounds as having consistent

percent compositions? 3. How did Dalton describe chemical reactions? 4. How can atoms of the same element be different? Cathode Rays Tape Lab Static electricity attractions & repulsions. Where do the charges originate? An evacuated glass tube when placed in an electric field

Crookes observed a glowing inside. Thomson repeated Crookes experiment and did additional experiments. (-) (+) Thomsons Experiment #1 Setup: A cross was placed in the path

of the glowing beam. (D?) Observation: A shadow appeared on the anode (+) side. (D?) Interpretation: The rays come from the cathode (-) side. Cathode (-) Anode (+) Thomsons Experiment

- Voltage source Vacuum tube Metal Disks + Thomsons Experiment - Voltage source

+ Thomsons Experiment - Voltage source + Thomsons Experiment -

Voltage source + Thomsons Experiment Voltage source + Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end

Thomsons Experiment Voltage source + Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end Thomsons Experiment

Voltage source + Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end Thomsons Experiment Voltage source

+ Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end Thomsons Experiment #2 Setup: The cathode ray tube was placed in an electric field: (-) electrode on top, (+) electrode on bottom. (DPath?)

Observation: The cathode rays were attracted towards the (+) electrode. (D?) Interpretation: Cathode rays must be negative (-). Thomsons Experiment #3 Setup: Cathode rays were placed in a magnetic field. Observation: Cathode rays are

bent perpendicular to the magnetic field. Interpretation: Cathode rays are not a form of light. Thomsons Experiment #4 Setup: A glass wheel was placed on a level track inside the cathode ray tube. Observation: Cathode rays can rotate the glass wheel. Interpretation: Cathode rays are particles with mass.

Thomson Experiment #5 Setup: Thomson made cathode ray tubes with a variety of different gases & metal electrodes in the tube. Observation: Every tube produced the same cathode rays. Interpretation: Cathode rays are fundamental to matter. He called cathode rays electrons! Discovered in 1897. Thomsons Plum Pudding Model Thomson concluded

that all atoms must have negative charges and positive charges to balance them. Thomson assumed that (+) & (-) charges would be evenly distributed. Thomsons Atomic Model Thomson believed that the electrons were like

plums embedded in a positively charged pudding, thus it was called the plum pudding model. Uses of cathode rays 1. A cathode ray tube (CRT) is widely used in research laboratories to convert any signal (electrical, sound, etc) into visual signals. These are called CRT or oscilloscopes. 2. CRT is the basic component in all television and computer screens. The signals are sent to the vertical and horizontal deflecting plates, which produce a pattern on the fluorescent screen. High energy cathode rays when stopped suddenly produce Xrays. The X-rays have many medical and research applications.

Thomsons Atomic Theory Quiz 1. How did Thomson know that the rays came from the cathode? 2. What did Thomson conclude from cathode rays being bent by a magnet? 3. How did Thomson know cathode rays were fundamental to matter? 4. In Thomsons model of the atom where is the positive charge? Millikans Oil Drop Experiment the charge of an

electron with this oil-drop experiment. 1.6 x 10-19 coulomb Thomson and Millikan calculated the mass of the electron to be 9.1 x 10-28 g. This is 1/1837

the mass of a Hydrogen atom. Becquerel/Curries Becquerel - Radioactivity Curie Discovered radioactive elements of radium and polonium Radioactivity 1. Alpha particle is two protons and two 2. 3.

neutrons bound together and is emitted from the nucleus, 2+ charge, 4.0 grams, least dangerous. Beta particle an electron emitted from the nucleus 1- charge Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic waves emitted from the nucleus, most dangerous. Radioactivity Alpha large Relatively slow Beta much smaller Relative fast

Gamma no mass Pure energy Travels at the Speed of light Ernest Rutherford New Zealander Discoverer of alpha, beta & gamma radiation. Discovered nucleus of atom in 1912. Laserdisc demo

Side 2, Chapter 20 Rutherfords Experimental Design Uranium alpha emitter. Slits to focus radiation Gold foil target. Scintillation screen of zinc sulfide to flash when hit. Rutherfords Prediction

Positive alpha particles would go straight through or have minor deflections due to the electrons embedded in a sea of positively charged matter. Rutherfords Observations Interpreting the Results Most positive alpha particles went straight through or were slightly deflected.

Therefore the atom is mostly empty space. A few positive alpha particles bounced back radically! Thus the atom must have a large concentration of positive charge! Rutherfords Atomic Model Development of the Bohr Model In 1913 Danish physicist Neils Bohr proposed a new model of the atom. Bohrs Model explained the

emission and absorption patterns of light discovered by Bunsen in flames & lamps. Emission Lamps Emission Spectra Each element emits a unique set of bright line wavelengths. Emission Spectra of All the Elements

http://chemistry.beloit.edu/bluelight/ moviepages/em_el.htm http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/ elements/Elements.html http://www.webelements.com/ 4 Principles of the Bohr Model 1)Electrons assume only certain orbits around the nucleus. These orbits are stable and called "stationary" orbits. 2)Each orbit has an energy associated with it. The lowest energy levels are close to the nucleus. The farther from the nucleus

corresponds to higher energy levels. Electrons tend to occupy the lowest energy levels available. 3)Light is emitted when an electron jumps from a higher orbit to a lower orbit. Light is absorbed when it jumps from a lower to higher orbit. 4)The quantity of energy and wavelength of light emitted or absorbed is given by the difference between the two orbit energies. (Quantum Leaps!) With these conditions Bohr was able to explain the stability of

atoms as well as the emission spectrum of hydrogen. Line spectra correspond to quantum leaps between levels of specific energies. Violet light corresponds to high energy quantum leaps while red light corresponds to low energy. ROYGBIV Excited State

Ground State Green light emitted Red light emitted Excited State Semi-Excited State Excited vs Ground States Light is absorbed when electrons jump up

to higher excited energy levels. Light is emitted when electrons jump back down to their lowest energy ground state energy levels. Animated Absorption & Emission Fluorescent lights are constantly exciting gas atoms to emit light by passing a stream of electrons through the interior gas. The Suns Spectra Many elements can be identified by their unique

lines. Helium was 1st discovered in the Suns (Helios) spectrum Emission vs Absorption Colors Lab A. Flame Tests NO DOUBLE DIPPING! Asthmatics may be excused Test 10 known compounds & 3 unlabeled to identify. Make data table:

# Salt Formula Salt Flame Color & Appearance Effects Colors Lab B. Spectral Emissions Lam # of Colors of Line Pattern p # Line ROYGBIV s

ID Elemen t Comparing Atomic Models Dalton Picture of Atomic Model Evidenc e Thomson Rutherfor Bohr d

Atomic & Nuclear Chemistry Geiger Counter Demos Sample Humans NaCl vs KCl Smoke Detector Old Fashioned Lantern Mantle Old Glow in the Dark Clock Uranium Ore

Counts per Minute Reason Radioactivity (PS1 Ch26, ) Types of Radiation Symbol Alpha Beta

Gamma Mass 4 amu 0 amu Charge

+2 1/1837 amu -1 0 (movie) Compositio 2 1 electron High energy n protons, photon

2 Penetratio Blocked Sheet Blocked by 1ft neutrons n by paper metal of concrete or few inches of Alpha Emission 263 Sg

4 He 2 + 259 Rf http://www.remm.nlm.gov/ alpha_animation.htm The unstable nucleus simultaneously ejects two neutrons and two protons,

which correspond to a helium nucleus. The emission of gamma photons is a secondary reaction that occurs a few thousandths of a second after the disintegration. Beta Emission 14 0 C 6

e -1 + 14 7 N + Gamma Radiation

Radioactivity Shielding Lab Essential Question: There are a variety of medical diagnostic equipment which use radioactive materials inside. What is the most efficient way for manufacturers to cut down exposure for patients & medical staff? Materials: Geiger Counter, Lead box, Uranium Ore Sample, Ruler, Stop Watch, Shielding Material Options: water, paper, plastic, cardboard, glass, ceramic tiles, aluminum foil,

sheet copper Radioactivity Shielding Lab What variables can we change? Distance? Material? Thickness? Distance vs Radioactivity 1st Trial Backgroun d 1cm 2cm 3cm

4cm 5cm 2nd Trial Average Shielding Material vs Radioactivity Select 5 Materials 1st Trial 2nd Trial

Average Radioactivity Lab Directions (1 of 2) As a lab group: Part A: Investigate the effect of distance on radioactivity over at least 5 different levels. 1. Write an if, then hypothesis. 2. Write a reason for your hypothesis. Part B: Investigate the effect of a shielding material on radioactivity. 1. Choose your unique material to vary over at

least 5 different levels. 2. Write an If, then hypothesis. 3. Write a reason for your hypothesis. 4. Use distances that produce as large of counts as countable. Safety Guidelines: 1. Always keep sample in lead box. 2. Always face opening towards the wall. 3. Rotate counters to minimize exposure. Lab Requirements Determine the background radiation

Use as our baselines the highest countable radioactivity possible. At least 5 different levels for each experiment. Controlled Variables Distance same equipment, distance increments, time, Positions & angles Shielding same shielding

material, distance, material additions, time How Organize your Data Table? Required Elements: Level distance or shielding Trial 1st, 2nd, or 3rd repetition Counts per minute (or variation) Observations things you notice and record verbally like sources of error. Finish Geiger Lab Due

Friday Pick Your Roles & Rock & Roll: Safety officer Set up experiments Control distance? Count clicks Time experiments. Record data Calculate averages Make Excel graph Powerpoint lab report start now. Presentation Recommendations for Minimizing Radiation Exposure Based on the findings of the class, what do you

recommend that manufacturers use to most efficiently and effectively protect patients and employees from unnecessary exposure to radioactive diagnostic equipment? Write your recommendation in full sentences. Mention at least 2 factors. XC How could we test to see if radioactivity reflects off of the material used. Diagram the set up. Side 10 - Chapter 2 Ancient Cultures Archaeology C14 Dating Side 10 PET Scan Positrons lives Gamma rays

Geiger Lab Rubric Presentatio n Skills Points made Summarizing clearly & information concisely clearly. Summarizin g, but lacking clarity.

Reading to audience, lacking eye contact or loud voices. Experiment All external al Design influences controlled as well. Internal variables of

experiment controlled Lacking controls on internal variables. Clear independent & dependent variable. Data &

Observatio ns Complete set of multiple (>2) trials. Complete set of 2 trials for each experiment. One complete

set of trials. Data missing from report. Conclusions Accurately interprets results & applies to Uses experimental evidence

Compares results. Revisits hypothesis Isotopes Atoms of a single element have the same number of protons but may differ in neutrons. Example 1: Carbon-12 vs Carbon-14 Example 2: Uranium-238 vs Uranium-235 Some isotopes are stable while others are unstable and radioactive.

The STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE acts between protons & neutrons to hold them together. However protons will repel each other with their mutual positive charge. Carbon Isotopes Isotope Carbon 9 Carbon 10 Carbon 11 Carbon 12 Carbon

13 Carbon Half life 0.1265 s 19.2 s 20.38 min Stable Stable 5715 y How long does it take 400 g of each

isotope to decay to less than 1 mg? Beanium Average Atomic Mass Activity 7. Find the average mass of each of the 3 beanium isotopes. Average mass of ___ beans = subtotal mass/#of beans 8. % Abundance of each type = # of beans/total beans (x100 to make a %) 10. Average beanium atomic mass = (%white x avg mass white) + (%black x avg black mass) + (%red x avg red mass)

*Convert the %s back into decimals to do #10. Uranium Decay Series U238 alpha - HL Po218 alpha HL 3.10m 4.468e9y Pb214 beta HL 26.8m Th234 beta HL 24.10d Bi214 beta HL 19.9m Pa234 beta HL 6.70h Po214 alpha HL 164.3 s U234 alpha HL 245,500y Pb210 beta HL 22.6y

Th230 alpha HL Bi210 beta HL 138d 75,380y Po210 alpha HL Ra226 alpha HL1600y 4.199m Rn222 alpha HL Pb206 Stable! 3.8325d Nuclear Reactions Radioactivity results from changes in atomic nuclei. Fission splitting of a large nucleus into

smaller pieces releases energy. Fusion small nuclei join to make a larger nucleus and release energy. (PS1, Ch25) Energy is released when a small amount of mass converts to energy as E = mc2. Fusion of Hydrogen Isotopes At high temperatures and pressures, 2 nuclei may collide and form

a bigger nucleus. This example produces helium and a stray neutron. Stars are fueled by the energy released by fusion which also builds atoms of increasing sizes in their cores. Fission of Uranium A neutron splits the

nucleus. The fragments include: 2 different smaller atoms, 3 more neutrons. The 3 neutrons can split more atoms. If every fission splits 3 more atoms, the reaction will multiply out of control!

Nuclear Chain Reaction Nuclear Equations Styrofoam Demos Alpha Decay releases a helium nucleus. Beta Decay a neutron converts to a proton and releases an electron. Assignment: Uranium Decay Series Nuclear Warheads

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Nuclear Equations Problems 1. U238 does alpha decay in nuclear reactors. 2. Am-241 does alpha decay in smoke alarms. 3. Tc-98 does beta decay in medical exams. 4. C14 does beta decay in carbon dating. 5. The Curies used Ra-226 which does alpha decay. 6. Co60 does beta decay in food irradiation. 7. Th-232 does alpha decay in camp lanterns. 8. P-35 does beta decay in DNA studies

(Place isotopes activity in Outbox) Nuclear Equations Quiz 1.Write the nuclear equation for the alpha decay of Iodine 131. 2.Write the nuclear equation for the beta decay of cobalt 60. Lives Activity Obtain a set of radioactive blocks. Notice that each one

has a mark on one side either a, b or g. Roll the collection of blocks onto your table. Each time you roll, remove any blocks that come up , or . Count and record the remaining blocks. Roll the remaining blocks repeatedly 20 times and complete the chart below. Enter your group data into the excel file. Make graphs of Time(minutes) Remaining Atoms for both individual & class averages. **Use exponential rather than linear trendlines. Roll (minutes)

Remaining Atoms Class Average Lives Activity Questions 1. How do your lab pair results compare 2. 3. with the class average results? Use the class average results and compute the 1st life, 2nd life,

average life. What importance do lives have to society? (dating, medical uses, wastes) Lives Each radio-isotope decays at a characteristic rate. The decay rate is determined by the time that it takes for of the radio-isotope nuclei to break down by fission. Each life reduces the remaining number of radioactive atoms by . The number remaining approaches but never

reaches zero. Example: Iodine 131 has a life of 8 days. How much of 1.00 gram sample would remain after 24 days? Solving Life Problems Masses: STARTING MASS Divided in the # of half lives. ending mass # of half

lives Times: Time for 1 half life (HL) Total time elapsed (T) T = HL*(#) HL = T/# # = T/HL Life Problems 1. If you have $1 million dollars and every 2

seconds it decreases by 1/2, how long will it take until you are penniless? 2. If a sample of a fossil mammoth has 1/8th the amount of carbon 14 as it would today, how old must the fossil be? (1/2L C14 = 5715 years. 3. If a rock contained 1.2 g of potassium 40 when it formed, how many grams remain after 4 billion years. (1/2L K40 = 1.33E9 y) Asmt: P780 #1&2, P803 #24&25 More Life Problems 4. If a sample of radioactive isotope has a half-life of 1 year, how much of the original sample will be left at the end of the second year? The third year?

The fourth year? 5. The isotope cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years, is a product of nuclear power plants. How long will it take for this isotope to decay to about one-sixteenth its original amount? 6. Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8 days. What fraction of the original sample would remain at the end of 32 days? 7. The half-life of chromium-51 is 28 days. If the sample contained 510 grams, how much chromium would remain after 56 days? How much would remain after 1 year? Lives Quiz 1. A sample of a radioactive isotope with an

original mass of 8.00g is observed for 30 days. After that time, 0.25g of the isotope remains. What is its half-life? 2. The starting mass of a radioactive isotope is 20.0g. The half-life period of this isotope is 2 days. The sample is observed for 14 days. What PERCENTAGE of the original amount remains after 14 days? Health Physics Society http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/q754.html Q:What are some health effects of the element uranium? A:The toxicity of uranium has been under study for over 50 years, including life-span studies in small animals. Depleted uranium and

natural uranium both consist primarily of the uranium isotope 238U. They are only very weakly radioactive and are not hazardous radioactive toxicants, but uranium is a weak chemical poison that can seriously damage the kidneys at high blood concentrations. Virtually all of the observed or expected effects are from nephrotoxicity associated with deposition in the kidney tubules and glomeruli damage at high blood concentrations of uranium. The ionizing radiation doses from depleted and natural uranium are very small compared to potential toxic effects from uranium ions in the body (primarily damage to kidney tubules). Modern Atomic Theory Quantum Mechanical Model (Electron Cloud Model)

Electrons & Standing Waves 1. Electrons dont move in straight lines; 2. 3. 4. they move as waves. Electron microscopes allow us to see flies eyes since electron wavelengths are shorter than visible light waves. Electrons orbiting a positive nucleus settle into low energy standing waves Demo Standing waves Orbitals

1. Electron wave orbits are too complicated to track. 2. Chemists describe their probable location as clouds. 3. Orbitals are defined as the space they occupy 90% of the time. 4. Demo: Electrons occupy orbitals like fan blades Orbital Demos 1. Electrons move so fast they occupy

space like fan blades! 2. The most stable patterns for electron wave motions are standing waves! 3. *Electrons move fastest passing the nucleus and spend little time there. http:// galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu /more_stuff/flashlets/Slingshot.htm 1. Orbital Diagrams 2. Video CheMedia Side 2, Chapter 23 F orbitals Start at the fourth energy level Have seven different shapes

2 electrons per shape for a total of 14 electrons. F orbitals Electron Orbitals Type Shape Set 1st Occur S

Spherical 1 Level 1 P Dumb-bell 3 Level 2 D

Cloverleaf 5 Level 3 F 8 Lobed Level 4 7 Electron Configurations Orbitals can hold 2 electrons each. Lowest energy orbitals fill first.

Electrons repel and occupy separate orbitals on the same energy level if possible. Orbital Packing Key: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6. Animated Electron Configurations Orbital filling table Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s1

- + Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s1 2 He 1s2 - ++

- Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s1 2 He 1s2 3 Li 1s22s1 - +++ -

Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s1 2 He 1s2 3 Li 1s22s1 4 Be 1s 2s 2 - 2 -

+++ + - Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s1 2 He 1s2 - 3 Li 1s22s1

4 Be 1s 2s 2 - ++ + ++ - 2 5 B 1s22s22p1 - Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H

1s1 2 He 1s2 - 3 Li 1s22s1 - +++ ++ + - 4 Be 1s22s2 5 B 1s22s22p1

6 C 1s22s22p2 - - Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s 7N 1s22s22p3 1

2 He 1s2 - 3 Li 1s22s1 - +++ ++ + + - 4 Be 1s22s2 5 B 1s22s22p1 6 C 1s22s22p2

- - - Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s 7N 1s22s22p3

1 2 He 1s2 3 Li 1s22s1 4 Be 1s22s2 5 B 1s22s22p1 6 C 1s22s22p2 8O 1s22s22p4 - + +++ ++ + + -

- - - Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s 7N 1s22s22p3 1

2 He 1s2 3 Li 1s22s1 4 Be 1s22s2 5 B 1s22s22p1 6 C 1s22s22p2 8O 1s22s22p4 - 9F 1s22s22p5 -

- - + +++ ++ + + - - Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s

7N 1s22s22p3 1 2 He 1s2 3 Li 1s 2s 2 8O 1s22s22p4 - 1 4 Be 1s22s2

5 B 1s22s22p1 6 C 1s22s22p2 - - - + +++ ++ + ++ - - 9F 1s22s22p5

- 10Ne 1s22s22p6 Electron Configurations vs Pictures 1H 1s 7N 1s22s22p3 1 2 He 1s2

3 Li 1s 2s 2 - 1 - 4 Be 1s22s2 5 B 1s22s22p1 6 C 1s 2s 2p 2 8O 1s22s22p4

- 2 2 - - + +++ ++ + ++ - -

9F 1s22s22p5 - 10Ne 1s22s22p6 - 11Na 1s22s22p63s1 Electron Configurations vs Pictures -

- - - + +++ ++ + ++ - - - Electron Configurations vs Pictures

- - - - + +++ ++ + ++ - - -

Electron Configurations vs Pictures - - - - + +++ ++ + ++ - -

- Examples: 1. Write the electron configuration & draw an atom of fluorine. Asmt: Write electron configurations of elements 1,5,9,13,17,21,25,29. Photoelectric Effect & Solar Energy http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/ photoeffect.htm http://phet.colorado.edu/new/

simulations/sims.php? sim=Photoelectric_Effect http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/ photoelectric_effect.html http://www.electronsolarenergy.com/ resources.htm Tuesday 11/27/07 Prep: 1. See Neil about Periodic Table Activities 2. Determine Periodic Table book assignment Class: Periods 1 & 3 DMA: What element corresponds to the configuration [Kr]5s24d105p5?

1. Take & correct quiz 2. Periodic Table Activity Asmt: Page 163 #1-4, page 173 #1,3, page 185 #2 Plan: Meet with POD Periods 4-6 Library Utopia Project Afterschool: 1. Grade Poster Projects 2. Contact National Boards about appeal of Active Inquiry 3. Go to Wells Fargo 1. 2. Deposit checks, get new registers! Provide mortgage documents

Orbital Animations Chemedia Laserdisc Demo Side 2, Chapter 23 http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/ OChem/DEMOS/Orbitals.html Electron Configurations Quiz 1 1. Write the full electron configuration & 2. 3. draw the atom for nitrogen, N atomic number 7, atomic mass 14.01.

Write the full & Noble Gas electron configurations for nickel, Ni atomic number 28. Identify the element with the Noble Gas electron configuration of [Ar]4s23d6. Explain how you know. Electron Configurations Quiz 2 1. Write the electron configuration & draw an atom of oxygen. 2. Write the complete and Noble Gas configurations for arsenic, As. 3. Identify the element that

approximately matches [Xe]6s25d104f146p2 & explain how you know. Periodic Table Activity Thursday 11/29/07 Prep: 1. Grade fireworks posters. Class: P1-3 DMA: What principle determines which elements are in the same vertical column? Due: Page 163,173,185, Fill in blanks? 1. Fill in blanks Periodic Table, 1 part at a time

2. Notes on Development of Periodic Table Asmt: Shade sections of 9 overlapping sections of Periodic Table (pages 164-7) Plan: 1. Finalize POD meeting plans & Sliding Scenario pieces. 2. Grade Fireworks posters. P4-6 DMA: Electron Configurations Quiz 2 1. Grade Quiz 2. Periodic Table Card Puzzle Asmt: Asmt: Shade sections of 9 overlapping sections of Periodic Table (pages 1647)

After School: 1. Grade fireworks posters 2. Thursday chores at home plus piano practicing. 3. Left overs, chips to Mens group. Development of the Periodic Table (1 of 2) Periodic Law When elements are arranged in increasing atomic number, their chemical & physical properties show a periodic pattern. Dobereiner grouped the elements

into triads with similar chemical properties. Newlands arranged the elements by increasing atomic mass and observed the Law of Octaves where elements of similar properties occurred every 8th element. Development of the Periodic Table (2 of 2) Mendeleev arranged the elements by increasing mass & similar properties in 1872. Mendeleev suggested that atomic masses that were out of line with the similar

properties needed to be remeasured. Mendeleev accurately predicted the existence and properties of elements yet to be discovered. Moseley discovered a pattern in the spectral lines of elements which corresponded to the atomic number and number of protons. Periodic Table Patterns http://www.sciencebyjones.com/ periodic_table1.htm http://environmentalchemistry.com/ yogi/periodic/#Chemical %20elements%20sorted%20by

Can use the one above to find the patterns & then explain them. Observing Element Samples 1. Use your blank periodic table with trends of electron configurations. 2. Observe 2 samples from each of the 9 sets around the room. 3. For each sample, record the symbol in the correct box plus 2 words to describe the appearance of the sample. Monday 12/2/07 Periodic trends atomic radius,

ionization energy, electronegativity Analyze data & graphs, Explain trends Patterns of Electron Configurations Vertical Patterns Same number and type of valence electrons. Energy level rises for each row. Horizontal Patterns

Same kernel across The kernel is the previous noble gas Highest energy level is the same across a row. Patterns of Electron Configurations Vertical Patterns Same number and type of valence electrons. Energy level rises

for each row. Horizontal Patterns Same kernel across The kernel is the previous noble gas Highest energy level is the same across a row. Periodic Patterns +4 -4

-3 -2 : :: : : : [x] : +3 :

[x] [x] : +2 : +1 : :

X : . X :Be -1 [:x:] [:x:] [:x:] : : s2 : :

H. s2p6 2 1 2 2 s2p3 s2p4 s2p5 :He sp sp . . :X. :C. :N. . :O. . :F. : :Ne: . . . . Al X . X. . . X: : X. : X : : :

s1 Ion formation: Loss (oxidation) or gain (reduction) of electrons Periodic Trends Trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, & electronegativity are determined by: The number of energy levels present. The attraction between the positive nucleus and the outer shell electrons. Interfering shielding by electrons on inner shells. How close an atom is to completing the stable octet of outer valence electrons.

Atomic Radius (1 of 3) Alkali metals are the largest atoms. Noble gases are the smallest atoms. Atomic Radius (2 of 3) Atomic radius trends: 1) Atomic radius increases down a group or column. 2) Atomic radius decreases

across a period or row. Atomic Radius (3 of 3) How do we explain the trends? 1. Atomic radius increases down a group: Each row adds an energy level. Interior electrons interfere with attraction of valence electrons toward the nucleus shielding effect 2. Atomic radius decreases across a row even while the atomic number increases: While in the same energy level, the nucleus

becomes more positive & attractive. Ionization Removal of electrons produces + charges & shrinks radius. http://hogan.chem.lsu.edu/matter/chap26/ animate2/an26_017.mov Animated Ionizations Change Radii Across periodic table. http://www.chem.iastate.edu/group/ Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/ flashfiles/matters/periodicTbl2.html Ionization Energy (1 of 4) Ionization energy

is the energy required to remove a negative electron and leave an atom with a positive charge as an ion. Occurs in solar cells, geiger counters & smoke detectors with Amerecium 241

Ionization Energy (2 of 4) Alkali metals lose their electrons most easily. Noble gases hold their electrons most tightly. Ionization Energy (3 of 4) Removing an electron becomes more difficult across a row. Removing electrons

becomes easier down a column. Ionization Energy (4 of 4) Removing electrons is more difficult across a row as the nuclear attractions become stronger. Removing electrons is easier down a column as each additional energy level increases the distance from the nucleus and weakens the nuclear attraction. Repulsive shielding by interior electrons also decreases the attraction for each added level.

Electronegativity (1 of 3) Electro- negativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons that are shared in a covalent bond.

Electronegativity (2 of 3) What are the trends in electronegativity? Electronegativity (3 of 3) Electronegativity increases up & to the right. This trend corresponds to stronger attractions to the

nucleus. Less shielding effect strengthens attractions to the nucleus in upper rows. Periodic Patterns Quiz Atomic Radius Question What is the size surprise? Why does it occur? Ionization Energy Why are the lowest ionization energies in the bottom left? Electronegativity Arrange each set of atoms in order from least to greatest

electronegativity: Mg, Ba, Sr; Cl, F, I; Fe, K, Br Periodic Patterns of Reactivity Choose an element from the periodic table. Predict how you think it will react with air, water, acids or bases. Observe the laserdisc video. Record the reactivity on a 1R-10R scale. Examine no more than 3 per group. Identify patterns of reactivity.

Comparing Periodic Groups Group Alkali Alkaline Earth Transition Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Halogens Noble Gases

Commo n Valence Electron S1 s Common Ionic Charges Properties Sources of 2 How obtained

Uses of 2 elements of Group +1 Soft metals, Explode in H2O Electrolyze salts Na table salt K - gatorade

Comparing Periodic Groups Group Valence s Ions, # of Bonds Properties Sources of 2 How obtained

Uses of 2 elements min Alkali S1 +1, ionic Soft metals, explosive Electrolyze salts

Na table salt K gatorade Alkaline Earth S2 +2, ionic Soft, highly reactive Electrolyze

salts Ca bones, Mg flash bulbs Transition S2d1 s2d10 Various charges +2,+3, +4 Hard metals, w/ varying

resistance Mined & extracted from ores Iron in steel, Gold jewelry Boron S2p1 +3, (or 3 bonds)

Nonmetals & metals Extracted from bauxite ore Al - cans Carbon S2p2 + or 4, 4 bonds

Nonmetals to metals Common in life, C pencils, Si rocks & ores chips, Pb wts Nitrogen s2p3 -3, 3 bonds Non-metals,

semi-metals N from air, P from phosphates Fertilizers Oxygen S2p4 -2, 2 bonds Non-metals

to metals O from air, S mined Breathing, make sulfuric acid Halogens S2p5 -1, 1 bond

Reactive Nonmetals Electrolyze salts Cl bactericide F - toothpaste

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