Unit 2

Unit 2

US HISTORY 8 TEACHER: _____________________________ NAME: __________________________________________ PERIOD: ____________ Industry and the Gilded Age 10/2 New Technology Vocabulary Introduction Big Business 10/410/5 10/910/10 2-5 6-14 24-34 Immigration Big Cities 35-36 15-23 10/1510/17 Industrial Revolution

10/1110/12 10/1910/22 1 Review the graphic organizers. When you are done, in the appropriate spaces below, explain HOW natural resources, transportation, and technology supported the post Civil War Industrial Revolution in the United States. Make one claim each for how natural resources, transportation, and technology supported the post Civil War Industrial Revolution Support each claim with examples from the graphic organizers Transportation Natural Resources Industrialization in the United States Late 1800s - Early 1900s Technology 2 I. Rise of Industry Oil is a resource that originally was used only as a lubricant in todays world oil is a necessity A. Natural Resources = ___________ power ________ engines /

machines large coal deposits found in __________, _____, _______________ & ________ = ______ ____________ machines / ________ lamps = ________________ make __________Labor found in Minnesota and B. Increased Force ________________ = ____________________ immigrants = many Americans gave up _______________ to work in factories = large number of ___________ _____________ move to cities = increased number of _____________ Coal is a resource that is very difficult and dangerous to mine many miners died from black lung and mining accidents machinery in factories and railroads used coal as fuel C. Increased ____________ (money) = investors seek to make money by investing in companies (buying stock) result = companies have more capital ($) to spend on raw materials & labor D. Increased Transportation = growth of __________ in the US - created giant ____________ - ______ force - __________ - caused ____________

- removed _____ from ________ towns & cities grew need for ___________ set up time __________ 3 A B C 4 D E F 5 II. Free Enterprise A. free enterprise = ____________________ & private businesses are free to organize and operate for ___________($) in _________________ with others

= individuals & private businesses are free to choose what to produce B. supply and demand = __________ ___________/ ____________ ___________ C. _____________________ = people who assume the risks for success or failure of the business enterprise = leaders that organize _________ and _____________, adopt new _______________ and inventions, and raise _________________ Foundations for Growth In the 1850s researchers discovered that petroleum found in the ground in Pennsylvania was valuable. Petroleum could be burned to produce heat and smoke-free light. In 1859 Edwin L. Drake drilled a well in Titusville, Pennsylvania and discovered a pool of oil. His discovery led to the birth of a multimillion dollar industry. Companies and railroads wanted to expand, but they needed money to do so. They raised money, or capital, by becoming a corporation. A corporation is a company that sells partial ownership, or shares, of its business to public investors. The shares of partial ownership are called stock. The shareholders, or investors who buy shares of stock, hope the corporation will be successful and the value of their stock will increase. Then they can sell their shares for a profit. Some corporations also pay dividends, or a percentage of its profits, to shareholders. Special markets called stock exchanges were created to buy and sell stocks. Thousands of people bought and sold stocks in the late 1800s. Many railroads and businesses incorporated, or formed corporations. Businesses also borrowed money from banks to pay for start-up or expansion costs. Banks made profits on the loans.

CRQ: How did people raise enough money to expand their businesses? The laws of different states either encouraged or discouraged monopolies. Companies incorporated in states with laws that encouraged monopolies. Instead of buying companies, their holding companies bought enough stock in the company to control it. Corporations expanded through mergers, or combining companies. Corporate mergers enabled a few huge companies controlled by a few powerful men to have most of the economic power. Because these individuals monopolized their industries, there was no competition. These companies did not have to keep their prices low or improve their goods or services in order to win customers. Because of the lack of competition, many states passed laws restricting monopolies during the 1880s. Corporations avoided states with such restrictions. The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed by Congress in 1890. It was not very effective. 6 I. Rise of Big Business = _______, ___________, _____________ & _______________________ A. Railroads 1860 = _______________ miles of track 1900 = over ___________________ miles of track famous RRs = Union Pacific, Santa Fe, Central Pacific & Great Northern Railroad Expansion The North had many more miles of track than the South. This helped them win the Civil War. Americas economy grew along with the expansion of the railroad system. In 1869 the first railroad connecting the East and West, or transcontinental railroad, was completed. After this, many other railroads were built. Five other railroads crossed the country by 1869, and hundreds of other smaller lines linked cities and towns. The railroad system grew quickly, from 30,000 miles of track in 1860 to nearly 250,000 miles of track in 1900. Many big railroad companies bought smaller companies or forced them out of business. Consolidation, or

combining separate companies into one larger company, helped make the railroad system more efficient. It also made the railroad owners, called railroad barons, wealthy and powerful. 1. What is the connection of the Industrial Revolution to these roads and canals? Why are they an offshoot of the Revolution? 2. Explain the thought behind making these roads and canals go through major cities such as Chicago, New York, Baltimore and Charleston? 7 Cornelius Vanderbilt owned the New York Central line and consolidated many other smaller companies. His railroads connected New York with the Great Lakes. The Great Northern line between Minnesota and Washington State was owned by James J. Hill. The Central Pacific line, which connected California and Utah, was owned by Collis P. Huntington, Leland Stanford, and two of their partners. - Cornelius ___________________

= _____________________ of RR industry = raised several million $s to ____________ RRs and ______________ RRs = hired ________________ to control sections of the RRs (large-scale operation) = use ________________ planning for spending (budget) Railroads Stimulate the Economy : The expanding national railroad system caused the economy in the United States to grow. Trains carried raw materials to factories. Trains transported manufactured goods from factories to market. Produce from agricultural regions was transported by train to cities. The expanding railroad system created a demand for iron and later steel to make railroad tracks, which stimulated the iron and steel industries. Manufacturers built locomotives. The lumber industry supplied wood for railroad ties. The coal industry provided fuel for locomotives. Manufacturers built railway cars and equipment. Thousands of workers made their living building the railroad tracks and train stations as the railway system expanded. CRQ: How did Americans grow rich from railroad construction in the 1800s? CRQ: What specific kinds of economic opportunities could the railroads have created? The early railroad lines each used their own tracks, which differed in width. As a result, trains could not share tracks. Travel was slow and inefficient. Goods and people had to be unloaded and reloaded when they traveled from one railroad line to another. The railroad barons agreed to use tracks of the same

width, or a standard gauge, during the late 1880s. It made travel and transporting goods less expensive 8 Trains because goods and materials did not have to be unloaded and reloaded every time lines changed. could share tracks and make the whole trip. What does this chart show about the effect of the transcontinental railroad on the population of western cities? Why might southern farmers have used rivers/oceans to transport their crops and not the railroad? What effect might these factors have had on industrialization in the south compared to the north? According to this map, how did the completion of the first transcontinental railroad benefit economic growth in the United States? 9 B. Oil Refining - John D. The Oil Business After Drake discovered _______________________ pools of oil underground, oil rush towns sprang up all over Pennsylvania. Others hoped to become rich by discovering oil. Oil was found in Ohio and West Virginia. The oil boom expanded. John D. Rockefeller created the most famous corporate empire of the

times. When he was 26 years old, Rockefeller and four partners set up an oil refinery to process oil in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1870 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. He bought most of the other oil refineries in Cleveland and other cities. He combined the competing companies into one corporation, a practice known as horizontal integration. The corporation produced other equipment and materials it needed, such as tank cars, pipelines, and wooden barrels. Standard Oil became wealthy and powerful developed _________________ in Cleveland formed the Standard ________ _____________ (1867) built its own _______________, ___________, ________________ received shipping deal from __________ result = cheaper to produce and ship oil = cheaper to __________ controlled ________ of the oil refining business Rockefeller used other methods to control the oil

industry. He lowered his prices so other companies would go out of business. He put pressure on his customers to keep them from using other companies. He received rebates, or secret discounts, from the railroad in exchange for his business. Rockefeller bought stock in many different oil companies. The shareholders traded their stock for stock in Standard Oil. Rockefeller formed a trust, or group of companies managed by the same board of directors, in 1882. Rockefellers trust became a monopoly, which means that a single producer had almost total control of the oil industry. According to the political cartoons, how did John D. Rockefeller become the leader of the oil industry? 10 C. Steel Industry - Andrew ________________ Carnegie was one of the first to upgrade his steel mills with the expensive, but efficient Bessemer machines this move aided in Carnegie moving from a poor Scottish immigrant to a billionaire. Carnegie developed a more efficient way to produce steel he used the latest technology and controlled every resource needed to produce steel he became the worlds first billionaire used ________________ & latest ___________________ to make steel

bought iron ore _______, ________ & ________ for shipping results = cheaper to produce and ship steel cheaper to ______ steel controlled the US _____________ became the first __________ $ Howcompany did Andrew Carnegie become so successful in the steel industry? The Steel Business : New manufacturing techniques, such as the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, made manufacturing steel affordable. The steel industry grew into a huge business in the late 1800s. Steel was used for railroad tracks, bridges, and other products because it was strong and durable. Steel is made from iron treated with carbon. Steel mills were built near sources of iron ore, such as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Cleveland, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; and Birmingham, Alabama. Andrew Carnegie dominated the steel industry by 1890. By 1900 he produced onethird of the nations steel. He built a steel mill near Pittsburgh that used the Bessemer process. He named his company after his biggest customer, the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, J. Edgar Thompson. Carnegie utilized an approach known as vertical integration. He bought companies that offered services and manufactured equipment his company needed. In this way, he was able to control all phases of the business. His companies were combined into the Carnegie Steel Company in 1900. He sold the steel company to J.Pierpont Morgan. Morgan combined Carnegie Steel with his other businesses to create the first billion-dollar corporation in the world, United States Steel. D. Meat-Packing Industry - prior to 1860, cattle shipped

to _________ _________________ __________ - Gustavus _________ results = cheaper to produce and ship meat = cheaper to ________meat developed the _________________ RR car meat was now__________________ then _______________________ 11 E. Business Organization ______________________ = groups of investors who buy shares of ____________ in a company ________________ = ____ stock holders receive based on the number of stock they ________ _______________________ = corporations ______ together to ______________________ with other companies F. Philosophy of Business ___________________ = __________________ does not make rules or control business (stays out of business) gospel of wealth =

_________________ owners use part of their wealth for the good of society (philanthropist) social _________________ism = ________________________________ _______________ 1. According to Carnegie, what does the man of wealth have, that his poorer brethren dont (besides money)? 2. Does this quote indicate that Carnegie is a Captain of Industry, or a Robber Baron? Why? 12 13 14 15 A. Mostly from _____________ Europe = Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden mostly __________________ B. Push / Pull Factors Old Immigrant s (pre1870s)

1. Reasons for ____________ (push factors) Irish __________ ___________ (fungus destroyed potato crops in Ireland) large ________________ (too many people) not enough (scarce) ________ in countries not enough _____________ jobs available 2. Reasons for _____________ (pull factors) need for cheap factory labor (many settled in cities) some moved west to be farmers (Homestead Act) C. Restrictions = ________ ______ D. Immigrants Journey to America European Immigrants (arrive on east coast) most were crammed in _____________ (airless rooms below deck) most arrived in New York City (_________ Island) screened for ___________ many immigrants ________ were changed Statue of ___________ became a symbol of American _____________________ 16 17 A. Mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe ________, Greece, __________, Poland - mostly Catholic and Jewish New

Immigrant (post1870s) B. Reasons for leaving (push factors) fleeing ______________ persecution (pogroms in Russia) (Armenian Christians in Turkey) not enough factory jobs available A Flood of Immigrants : Before 1865 most immigrants came to America from northern and western Europe or as enslaved African Americans. The European immigrants spoke English, were Protestant, and fit easily into the American culture. In the mid-1880s, immigrants came to the United States from Greece, Hungary, Russia, Italy, Turkey, and Poland. These countries are located in eastern and southern Europe. Many of these newer immigrants were Catholics or Jews. Most did not speak English. They settled in urban neighborhoods with others who shared their languages, religions, customs, and traditions. Chinese, Japanese, and Mexican immigrants came to America after 1900. They, too, brought new religious beliefs, customs, and languages. These immigrants faced difficulties blending into the American culture. Their languages, customs, and religious beliefs were not familiar to most Americans.

Immigrants came to America in search of a better life. Many people emigrated, or left their countries, because of economic or political conditions in their homelands. Hunger, poverty, lack of jobs, discrimination, and unfair laws were problems people wanted to leave behind. Many ethnic groups left their homelands to escape persecution, or unfair treatment by the government. Ethnic minorities were often treated unfairly because they spoke different languages and practiced different customs and religions than most people of the country. C. Reasons for coming (pull factors) _____________ of industrial (factory) jobs in America most settle in cities ______________ (religious) in America D. Restrictions = convicts, insane, people on charity **New immigrants were not received well by many Americans because of their different language and culture many new immigrants faced discrimination in America this led new immigrants to develop their own neighborhoods w/ common cultures (examples:

Little Italy, Little Russia) 18 19 20 A. Mostly from ________ and _________ - most settle in the _______ - brought Buddhism and Daoism Asian Immigratio n 18811920 B. Reasons for leaving (push factors) most live in __________ (poor) C. Reasons for coming (pull factors) opportunity for a better life (higher pay) cheap labor needed to build ______ in American west On the West Coast, immigrants from China and Japan were processed on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. At the reception centers, immigrants gave their names, country of origin, job skills, and where they planned to live. Long or difficult names were often shortened at the reception centers. Immigrants had to pass health examinations. They were not allowed to enter the country with contagious diseases.

D. Restrictions - could not own ________ Chinese _______________ Act 1882 = said that no Chinese worker could enter the US for ______ years. Result = stopped almost all Chinese from coming to the US Gentlemens Agreement = current Japanese Americans would get more _________ if Japan did not send anymore immigrants **Because of their physical appearance, different language, and religion, Asian immigrants were discriminated against the most this led to a difficult life in America and many restrictions placed on Asian immigrants.** E. Asian Immigrants (arrive on west coast) - most were crammed in steerage (airless rooms below deck) most arrived in San Francisco (___________ Island) screened for disease _______ Asian immigrants were turned away 21 Americans Against Immigration _______________ = Americans Against Immigration A. Resented Immigrants working for __________ wages use ________________ against immigrants work to ___________ immigration in

America Nativist Movement : American-born workers did not welcome the new immigrants. They were afraid immigrants would compete for their jobs. They worried that immigrants would be willing to accept low wages, which would pull all wages down. American-born workers were not used to the unfamiliar languages, customs, and traditions. They felt threatened. As a result, they blamed many social problems, including crime and unemployment, on the immigrants. New laws passed by Congress resulted from anti-immigration feelings. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882. Chinese workers were not allowed to enter the United States for 10 years. In reality, the law lasted much longer. It was extended in 1892 and 1902. In 1907 Japan and the United States agreed to limit the number of Japanese immigrants to the United States. The United States agreed to treat Japanese Americans fairly. All immigrants were required to pay a tax before entering the country under a law passed in 1882. Criminals were not allowed to enter the country. Immigrants had to prove they could read and write in any language. President Cleveland opposed the literacy requirement and vetoed it. Congress responded by passing the Immigration Act of 1917 that included a literacy requirement. Some Americans were intolerant of the new immigrants. Others supported immigration and recognized the contributions immigrants made to American life. Supporters founded the Immigrants Protective League. Immigrant workers provided the labor needed in the nations expanding industries. Their customs and cultures, languages, religions, and literature enriched American society. American cities were changed by the wave of immigration that occurred in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Why did Congress pass laws limiting immigration? 22 US History Creative Writing Assignment: An Immigrants Letter to Home Pretend that you are a twelve-year-old who has sailed to America. It has been one year since you left home, one year since you saw your parents. Write a letter to your parents describing your life the last year. Your letter should include the following: (1) Describe your voyage.

You should describe the conditions on your ship. Include details about the food, sleeping, weather, other people and groups on board, etc. Include how your feelings about the voyage. (2) Describe what life has been like during your first year there. You can use conditions in factories, settlement houses, and tenements as the basis of your letter. To make your letter sound real, put yourself in the mind of a child writing home to his/her parents who have not seen or heard from him in over one year. Your parents will want to know details about the many challenges you have faced, and how you have survived them. Use your imagination, but be sure not to contradict historical facts. Your letter should be detailed and should be a minimum of two paragraphs in length. Remember that most immigrants came for political, economic, or religious reasons why did you and your group come? At least one paragraph should describe the voyage and at least one paragraph should describe the life of the life you have lead sine arriving. You are not required to type your letter, but it must be legible

I will not give a passing grade to a letter I cannot read. 23 I. Development of cities Growth of Cities Cities experienced rapid growth in the late 1800s. Immigrants, farm workers, and African Americans migrated to cities in search of work. Expanding railroads, new methods of transportation, and the availability of natural resources contributed to the growth of cities. Almost half of the population lived in American cities by 1910. In 1870 only one-fourth of the population lived in American cities. Eighty percent of the population in 1890 was made up of immigrants. New York, Chicago, and Detroit became major urban centers. A. Geography largest cities grew along the _____________ ocean ports = Hoping to find jobs, many American-born citizens moved from rural to urban areas. New ________________________ farm machinery performed much of the work previously done by farm workers. Items that were previously made by women on farms, such as clothing and household goods, could be purchased in _ B. Industries ______________________ brought people to cities stores or from catalogs. Women left farms to find jobs in cities. Most African Americans lived in poverty in the South. Many moved to Southern cities looking for work to pay off debts. They also hoped to find less discrimination and injustice in large cities.

Transportation enabled many middle-class families to move to residential areas outside of the cities called suburbs. Middle-class families had houses with hot water and indoor toilets. By 1900 electricity was available. Some families had enough leisure time to enjoy music, art, and literature. Some families had one or two servants. C. Technology ____________________ Process = skyscrapers, The late 1800s became known as The Gilded Age. Gilded means coated with a thin layer of gold. elevators, mass transit The thin layer of gold represents the wealthy. The material underneath represents the poor. (street cars) _________________ Line = created by Henry Ford greatly increased production 24 10 graphs that describe the United States population and economy during the Gilded Age (between 1870 and 1910). Using these graphs, make 5 claims in total (two about population and three about the economy) describing how the United States changed between 1870 and 1910. Each claim should connect ideas from at least two graphs. Use the table below to document your claims and provide evidence for these claims. Review the example below. Topic Claims Population population increased in the United States during the Gilded

Age, especially in the ___________________ and ________________________ Population Population increased in the United States during the Gilded Age, contributing to ______________________________________ Economy The United States saw an increase in steel output and manufacturing, probably due to the increase in Railroad Track Mileage and manifest destiny. Economy ____________________ was no longer the most profitable business in American society and economy. Economy the number of Americans working in _________________________ increased as there were more jobs in __________________________ Economy ___________________ expanded as the population increased and the demand for manufactured goods rose and America expanded to the west. Evidence

Graphs 6 & Graphs 4a / 4b - steel manufacturing increases, graph 7 more railroad track miles 25 Jobs, stores, and entertainment could be found in cities. Run-down housing and poverty were also present. There was a huge gap between the rich and the poor. The population of cities grew faster than housing could be built. Cities were crowded. Many poor people lived together in apartment buildings called tenements. Tenements were located in poor, run-down neighborhoods called slums. Tenements had many small, dark rooms. Several families shared rooms. They also shared cold running water and a toilet. Crime, public health issues, and overcrowding were serious problems in the cities. The sewers could not handle the amount of human waste in crowded cities. Garbage and horse manure filled the streets. The filthy cities were unsanitary. Diseases spread quickly. In 1900 many babies died before their first birthday. Whooping cough, tuberculosis, and other contagious diseases were common. New York City established public health clinics, screened schoolchildren, and provided visiting nurses. Poverty led to crime. Children who were homeless or orphaned became pickpockets. They stole wallets and money from peoples pockets. Gangs committed more serious crimes. Religious groups worked to help the poor. Orphanages, prisons, hospitals, soup kitchens, and homeless shelters

were created. The Salvation Army was founded in 1879. The YMCA (Young Mens Christian Association) and YWCA (Young Womens Christian Association) were established. They provided places where city children could meet and play. Settlement houses were established in poor neighborhoods. Many services, such as medical care, playgrounds, nurseries, and libraries, for the poor were provided at settlement houses. Most settlement workers were women. They worked to get police protection, garbage removal, and public parks for the poor areas. Jane Addams founded Chicagos Hull House in 1889. I. Problems Caused by Industrial Expansion Due to industrialization and a large influx of immigrants, American cities boomed below the streets of NYC are bustling with people overcrowding become a problem Disease Crime The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 buildings were built so close to one another the fire spread rapidly also there wasnt an adequate fire department for the city Pollution Tenements What urban problems

resulted from the growth of cities in the late 1800s? 26 I. Problems Caused by Industrial Expansion Sweatshops Child Labor The Immigrant Exprience : Some immigrants had relatives to live with while they got settled. Others knew no one. The first thing they had to do was find a job. Many immigrants performed unskilled labor for long hours and low pay. Women and children found jobs, too. Many worked in sweatshops, which were hot, crowded workshops where workers made clothing. It was not unusual for men, women, and children to work 12 hours a day, 7 days a week. Most immigrants wanted to fit in, or assimilate into American culture. They did not want to forget the customs and traditions of their homelands, however. Children learned English in school. Parents often spoke their original language at home. Immigrants from rural areas had to adjust to city life. Most had little or no education, so they worked at jobs that required no skill. Various ethnic communities were formed in large cities. Ethnic groups wanted to live near others with whom they shared a common language, religion, and traditions. Churches and synagogues became the center of the communities. Newspapers in different languages were published. New businesses, shops, and cultural activities were established. European women were not used to the freedoms American women enjoyed. These new freedoms often caused problems in families. CRQ: What kind of life did immigrants have in the United States?

27 I. Factory Workers during Industrialization the number of people in ______________________________ factory workers needed little or no _______ to work workers could be ____________________________________ workers had little ___________________________ with their employer number of __________________ 28 What is the biggest difference between Mary Pauls first letter to her father and her second? Imagine that you are Marys sister in 1848 and you have just talked with your father about the letter Mary just sent . Explain whether you would consider working at your sisters mill if you found out that your father would no longer be able to work and your family needed money. Working Conditions : In the late 1800s, many

companies were formed. Factories became larger. New jobs were created. Workers were able to afford the goods they needed and even a few luxuries. Laborers worked long hours for little pay, however. They often worked six days a week for 10 or 12 hours. Employers could fire them for any reason at any time. When business was bad, workers were fired to save money. Many were replaced by immigrants who were willing to work for less pay. Factories were not safe or healthy places to be. Workers were often injured or became ill. Garment workers worked in sweatshops, or crowded factories in cities. Women were paid about half of what men were paid for the same work. Children also worked long hours for little pay in factories or sweatshops. Child labor laws, passed by many states, were ignored by employers. The laws stated that children must be at least 12 years old and could work no more than 10 hours each day. These laws did not apply to children who worked on farms. What were the working conditions in factories? 29 Labor Labor Unions Form : Workers organized labor organizations to fight for better pay and working conditions. Trade unions represented skilled workers Union in a trade, such as carpentry. They were not very successful because they only

represented one trade. Labor leaders expanded their unions in the mid-1800s. The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, a garment cutters union in Philadelphia, was formed in 1869. They met secretively and had secret handshakes to keep their union membership hidden. Employers fired workers who joined unions. This union became a national organization that allowed women, African Americans, immigrants, and unskilled laborers to join. In the 1890s, the group lost power and members because of a series of strikes, where workers refused to work until their working conditions and pay were Knights of improved. Labor The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was created in 1886. Different national trade unions came together to form this federation. The AFL represented skilled workers in different trades. The AFL fought for better pay, shorter hours, better working conditions, and the right of the union to represent workers in bargaining with company management personnel, known as collective bargaining. Despite many violent strikes, the AFL continued to grow. CRQ: Why were labor unions formed? American Federation of Labor (AFL) Industry and Activity - an organization of

___________________ ___________________________________ _____ _________________________Leader _____________________ should set up own mines, factories, and RRs believed in solving worker / owner disputes with ______________________ against strikes (______________________ __________________________________ ____) 1886 over ____________________ members The_______________________________ _______ (AFL) 1886 founded by Samuel ______________ made up of _________________ workers who had belonged to national trade unions gain better _____________________ for workers

higher ______ & shorter _________ favored the use of ______________ 1900 AFL = ______________ in the US 30 Labor in the Gilded Age - Directions: You have been assigned to read about four major labor related events in US History from the Gilded Age. Read about your event, and fill out the table below based on your reading. Event Industry People Involved What happened: Cause, Effect, Impact Haymarket Riot 1886 Homestead Strike 1892 Pullman Stri ke 1894 31 The Unions Act : Many workers were fired during economic depressions in the 1870s and 1890s. Those who were not fired earned less pay.

Workers went on strike. Employers hired nonunion workers, called strikebreakers, to replace the striking workers. Violence and riots often erupted. People were sometimes killed. Federal troops were often called in to restore order. Why did the labor movement have little success? Women were not allowed to join many unions. They formed unions of their own. The International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) pushed for a safer working environment after a disastrous fire in 1911. When a fire broke out in a crowded sweatshop in New York City at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, almost 150 workers died. They could not escape the fire because the doors were locked to prevent them from leaving early. 32 The Farmers Organize Farmers were successful in producing crops in the West. Unfortunately, the demand was not there for all the crops grown. The price a farmer could get for his produce dropped significantly. The farmer still had to pay high prices for his equipment, the seed, and transportation of his harvest to market. There were three groups the farmers blamed for their problems. The railroad companies charged the farmers more than the manufacturing company to ship their goods. The Eastern manufacturers kept their prices high for their products. The bankers charged high interest rates on borrowed money. Farmers could lose their land if they had a poor crop one year and could not repay the loan. In order to solve these problems, the farmers organized. The first farmers organization was known as the National Grange. It was a network of local self-help organizations that provided the farmers with education, social support, and encouragement. They promoted financial independence. Cash-only cooperatives

were created where farmers bought products from one another. The cooperatives were able to keep lower prices than other stores. It was also a local place where the farmers could sell some of their crops. The cash-only policy was a way to eliminate the pressure of repaying loans. The cooperatives failed because farmers had little cash until they sold their next crop. Loans were necessary in the life of farmers. The National Grange faded by the late 1870s. New organizations would follow. In the 1880s farming organizations developed in the West and South. They were called the Farmers Alliances. There was a successful Southern Alliance, a Colored Farmers National Alliance for African American farmers, and an Alliance group in the Plains. The Alliances supported education and cooperative buying. They developed a plan with the federal government to assist the farmers. The government would offer loans to farmers. The crops would be stored in warehouses. The loans would be repaid when the crops in storage were sold. This plan eased the burdens put on the farmer from the banks, railroads, and manufacturers. The Alliances could have been more powerful, but the three groups would not work together as one force. How did the federal government help the farmers? 33 A Party of the People The leaders of the Alliance wanted to create a new political party. It would be a party that supported the common people, called the Populist Party. The goals of the Party were made to help the farmers and the general public. 1. The Party believed that the government should own the railroads and telegraph lines. 2. 2. The Populists wanted to change the form of money in the country. The country was using gold as currency. The Populists supported free silver. Free silver was the unlimited production of silver coins. More silver money in circulation gave farmers more money to repay loans. 3. The Populists wanted to limit the term of the president and the vice president to one term in office. 4. They wanted to directly elect senators.

5. The Populists introduced the idea of using secret ballots for voting. 6. They wanted shorter hours for workers. 7. The Party also called for the formation of an income tax on a national level. The Populist Party nominated James B. Weaver for president in 1892. Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, won the election. The Populists later won many state and local elections, however. In the following election, the Populist Party had strong candidates, but little money and organization. The Democrats did not nominate Grover Cleveland again. He was against free silver. Instead they chose William Jennings Bryan. Bryan strongly supported free silver and other Populist goals that helped the farmer. The Populists backed the Democratic choice for president. The Republicans selected William McKinley for their candidate. He was against free silver. By the time of the election, the economic tone of the country had turned. The goals for financial help no longer seemed so necessary. McKinley won the election. Although the Populist Party had lost another election, many of its goals eventually passed through Congress. Gold was no longer the base of money. An eight-hour workday and the national income tax became laws. The secret ballot was introduced. Senators were elected directly by the voters, not through representatives. These Populist goals are still in effect today. The Populist Party struggled to join the Northern and Southern regions of the c country together. African American Populists were a growing group. Many Southerners would

not be a part of the same political party. The South also created laws that limited the voting rights for African Americans. Many African Americans would have voted for the Populist candidate, but they were not allowed to vote. The Populists continued to push for free silver. The banks and businesses claimed that free silver would ruin the economy. Silver-mining companies and people with debt joined the fight for free silver under the Democratic Party. What did the Populist Party hope to accomplish with free silver? 34 35 36

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