Types of Joints Articular System series of joints that allow movement Arthrology study of joints Joint Articulation the connecting point of two
bones Two functions: allow motion and provide stability Articulation can be: Freely movable such as knee or hip AKA: Synovial Joints and Diarthrosis
Slightly movable such as ribs to sternum AKA: Cartilaginous Joints and Amphiarthroses Immovable such as the skull AKA: Fibrous Joints and synarthroses
Name of the joints typically are a combination of the bones connected Ex. Sternoclavicular jont (sternum and clavicle) Fibrous Joints Immobile Held closely together and only separated by
fibrous connective tissue Bones very close contact 3 Types of Fibrous Joints Sutures * thin layer of fibrous tissue unites bones
* fuse completely by adulthood * only found in skull Syndesmosis * slightly movable, connected by ligaments Ex: radius and ulna move as one
Gomphosis * fits in a socket, held by ligaments Ex: tooth in the alveolus socket Cartilaginous Joints Slightly movable Bones are connected
by fibrocartilage (specialized connective tissue with thick fibers) Example: Ribs to the sternum
Synovial Joints Move freely Ends of bones are covered by articular cartilage Separated by a joint cavity Most frequently injured Grouped in how they work
Components of joint enclosed in a joint capsule Outer layer ligaments holds bones together Inner layer synovial membrane produces synovial fluid
Synovial fluid: colorless, contains salts, fats, and other substances Provides lubrication Acts as a shock absorber and cushion between bones
Bursa sac full of synovial fluid, reduces the friction between tendons, ligaments, & bones Meniscus cartilaginous disc surrounded with fluid to reduce friction during movement and adds stability Pivot Joint
Bones that move around a central axis Creates a rotational movement Gliding Joint Bones make a sliding motion Move back & forth or side to side
Hinge Joint One bone has a convex surface which fits into a concave surface on the other bone Ellipsoidal (Condyloid) Joint Bones can move in many directions but can not rotate
Ball & Socket Joint One bone has rounded end that ends into a concave (socket) of another bone Widest range of movement Saddle Joint
Two bones with complementary shape, both have concave and convex regions
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