# Transmitting Pressure in a fluid - RPDP

Transmitting Pressure in a fluid. 11-2 Pascals Principle In 1600 a French mathematician stated that When force is applied to a confined fluid an increase in

pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of that fluid. This is known as Pascals Principle. A force pump causes the fluid to move from one place to another by increasing the pressure in the fluid.

Force Pumps For example: tube of toothpaste, ketchup bottle, your heart Using Pascals Principle Page 356 for graphic.

What does the graphic show? That when you increase the area of the piston you are multiplying the force. Hydraulic Systems Multiplies a force by applying the force to

a small surface area. The increase in pressure is then transmitted to another part of a confined fluid, which pushes on a larger surface area. Hydraulic System

Used on fire truck ladders, brake systems in cars,and sea stars. Floating and Sinking 11-3

Buoyancy Buoyant forces act on submerged objects. The buoyant force acts in the upward

direction, against the force of gravity, so it makes the object feel lighter. Buoyancy Fluid pressure is exerted in all directions on a submerged object. Since pressure increases with depth,

the upward pressure is on the bottom of an object is greater than the downward pressure on the top. The net force acts upward and is called buoyant force. Archimedes Principle

The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Sinking

If the weight of the object is greater than the buoyant force the object sinks. It only sinks far enough to displace a volume of liquid

=to its own weight Density Density is mass/volume. An object that is more dense than the fluid in which it is immersed sinks. An object that is less dense than the fluid in which it is immersed floats. Density of water = 1.0 g/mL

Floating If the weight of the object is less than the buoyant force, Applying Bernoullis

Principle Figure 7.3: Lift of an aircraft wing Bernoullis Principle The pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than

the pressure of the surrounding fluid. Objects in flight Apply Bernoullis Principle by their

shapes. Different shapes cause the air to move at different speeds above and below them. Airplane wings?

They are shaped so that the air moves faster over the top of the wing and pressure pushes the object upward.

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