Towards Proto-Mande - LLACAN

Towards Proto-Mande - LLACAN

Towards Proto-Mande Valentin Vydrin INALCO-LLACAN Paris Mande languages 60 to 75 languages, two branches Western: Manding, Mokole, Vai-Kono, JogoJeri, Susu-Southwestern, Soninke-Bozo, Samogho, Bobo groups; South-Eastern: Southern, Eastern groups. Genetic depth

About 5300 years ago, separation of Western and Southeastern branches (17-20% between the most distant groups, Southwestern and Eastern, which corresponds to about 6000 years) Daughter groups, 1000 to 3500 years: Manding 1200; Mokole 1500; Jogo-Jeri 1700; Southwestern 2000; Sononke-Bozo 3100; Southern 2600; Eastern 3100. Proto-Mande phonological system Some crucial features: - Nasal and ATR harmony;

- No nasal consonants; - Implosive / sonants; - Highly probably, metric foot. 9 oral and 5 nasal vowels; ATR and nasal harmony (domain: metric foot) Syllabic types: *CV, *CV (*CVN) + ATR ATR *i

*u * *e *o * *a

* * * Nasal series *N *i

* u * o * e * Consonants: No phonemic nasal consonants (implosives and sonants have nasal allophones) Opposition implosive : explosive consonants

Phoneme // // /y/ /w/ Oral allophone []

[] [y] [w] Nasal allophone [m] [n]

[] [] The main argument for this system: Quasi-absence of sequences nasal consonant + semi-closed vowel in Western Mande (ex.: Bamana) PM *be

*b *be *be *b *be > > > > > >

Bamana PM be b b be b b *e *

*me *e * *me Bamana > > > > > >

be b m be b m All Mande languages are tonal Western Mande: 2 level tones (exceptions: S. Kpelle, 3 tones; Samogho group, 3 to 4 tones; Bobo, 3 tones) Southeastern Mande: 3 to 5 level tones

Proto-Mande: presumably, 2 level tones. Tonal split in daughter languages through tone-depressor consonants (ex.: Guro; probably, Boko) and foot compression. Noun morphology reconstructon Noun morphology in modern Mande languages is scanty and/ or innovative. No noun classes. Some remnants of classificatory morphology (not necessarily noun classes): Nasal prefix *N- (small objects,

dangerous objects... etc.), reflexes: 1) prenasalization of certain nouns in Bamana, Mandinka; 2) perturbaton of initial consonant alternation in Southwestern Mande 3) no article/noun morpheme in numerous Western Mande languages 4) irregular correspondences in Southern Mande. Nouns for elder relatives: strong unalterable initial consonants in Southwestern Mande;

special plural marker -NI in SWM; no article/noun morpheme added in numerous Western Mande languages. Reconstruction: prefix *N-, pl. suffix *-ni (?). Opposition alienable : inalianable (free noun : relational noun) Is to be reconstructed for the Proto-Mande The alienable possession markers are variable in the Mande languages and stem from different locative postpositions. Cf. Dan where different possessive markers encode opposition of cases (a common case vs. g

locative case), an evident innovation. An intriguing evidence: Proto-Southwestern Mande agent noun suffix: Sg. *m, Pl. *bela. Are these forms to be traced back to the NC 1 and 2 class markers? Pronominal morphology Single paradigms in the Central Mande (Manding, Mokole, Vai-Kono, Jogo-Jeri, Soninke-Bozo);

Multiple paradigms (different syntactic functions, pragmatic and TAM semantics) in Southwestern Mande, Southern and Eastern Mande, Bobo. Probably, more than one series in Proto-Mande. Verbal morphology Very little derivational morphology in modern Mande languages: - -ndi causative suffix in Mandinka, -ndi in Soninke, -ni in Bozo - Antipassive ndi in Soninke, -ri in Mandinka. Creissels hypothesis: from the verb *ti do.

- Decausative suffix E in Soninke, Bozo (in a fossilized form, also in Bobo). Further derivational morphology: -be causative suffix in Bobo, -ke causative suffix in Gban (Southern Mande); Verbal locative suffix *-La in Southern Mande, *-L in Busa-Bokobaru (Eastern Mande) < from adverb *ta there (Idiatov 2008). Verbal prefixes in Manding, SWM, SM, Susu, etc. are innovations. We may relax: The scanty verbal derivative

morphology in Mande languages is innovative, there is hardly anything that can be reconstructed for the Proto-Mande level. TAM morphology Basic word order: S Aux DO V-mrph Two major slots form auxiliary morphemes: Aux, -mrph. Majour sources for Aux: copulae, motion verbs, verb do. Sources for mrph: locative postpositions, converb suffixes.

Some candidates for the PM-level reconstruction, position Aux: TE, negative copula BE, affirmative locative copula MU, presentative/ identification copula Candidates for the PM level, slot mrph Gerund marker *- Perfect marker DA. Everything else is presumably innovative (to be verified!).

A preliminary conclusion: The main bulk of evidence pro or contra NC origin of Mande lies in the field of the lexical + phonological reconstruction. The morphology reconstructable for the ProtoMande language is too scarce to serve a proof of anything (which does not mean that a reconstruction of the Mande morphology is useless!). Phonological reconstruction: mainly initial consonants Reliable reconstructions: - Proto-Southwestern

- Proto-Southern - Proto-Manding (to be updated in certain fragments), initial + internal consonants + vowels Less reliable: - Proto-Western (in fact, SWM + Susu + Manding + Vai-Kono) by R.Kastenholz; - Proto-Eastern by H.Schreiber (rather unreliable). Lexical reconstruction Comparative database, about 3070 comparative series by now (of various degree of elaboration), of these presumably 500-600 represent more or less probable candidates

for the Proto-Mande level. Their children will certainly see a reliable Proto-Mande reconstruction!

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Increasing Access to Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid ...

    Increasing Access to Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid ...

    2016- 21st Century Cures Act. October 26, 2017 RAND Drug Policy Research Center. 2002 - Federal Drug Agency (FDA) approved prescribing of buprenorphine by DEA waivered doctors for the treatment of opioid addiction. In 2007 DEA expanded the number of...
  • Short Presentation Title - USF

    Short Presentation Title - USF

    Push Down ListPlanned with SAP BW 7.4, SP5 and future SPs on HANA. In Memory Database. Calculation and Planning Engine. Row & Column Storage. BW / BEX Query
  • GHB - Pennsylvania State University

    GHB - Pennsylvania State University

    Sydney, Australia National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Populations Office EEO Office of Extramural Affairs Teresa Levitin, PhD Office of Planning & Resource Management Laura Rosenthal Office of Science Policy & Communications Timothy Condon, PhD Center for the Clinical Trials...
  • SPM 200 Skills Lab 1 - School of Medicine

    SPM 200 Skills Lab 1 - School of Medicine

    Systolic MurmurMid-Systolic Murmurs. Aortic Stenosis . Radiates to carotid arteries; harsh or barking. Pulmonic Stenosis. Note: blood flow in a normal direction across a valve that is narrowed or calcified. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Flow murmur. Note: valve is normal but the...
  • Phase II clinical trial safety and efficacy of

    Phase II clinical trial safety and efficacy of

    Time Line of Approvals Hypothesis PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) Reasons for studying PTSD PowerPoint Presentation The Protocol Exclusion Criteria Study Design Study Design Study design continued Study design continued Therapeutic Approach Therapeutic Approach Outcome Measures Preliminary Data Mean CAPS...
  • Analysis of Algorithms

    Analysis of Algorithms

    Priority Queue Priority Queue ADT (§ 7.1.3) A priority queue stores a collection of entries Each entry is a pair (key, value) Main methods of the Priority Queue ADT insert(k, x) inserts an entry with key k and value x...
  • TYPES OF HAZARD - Rawlins A-level Geography

    TYPES OF HAZARD - Rawlins A-level Geography

    Natural hazard. A natural hazard is a naturally occurring process or event which affects people, e.g. causing loss of life or injury, economic damage, disruption to people's lives or environmental degradation.. Without people it is just a natural event ....
  • Whos First Quiz Show - Training Games, Inc.

    Whos First Quiz Show - Training Games, Inc.

    He gained worldwide fame and became a cultural icon for his portrayal of James T. Kirk, captain of the starship USS Enterprise, in the television series Star Trek. Who lived at 1313 Mockingbird Lane? Herman, like many husbands of 1960s,...