Hospital Pharmacy Title slide without an image Tutorial Series Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Tutorial series learning objectives To understand the roles of hospital pharmacists, including in the continuum of patient care.
To recognise the key role of hospital pharmacists in multidisciplinary healthcare teams. To further develop communication and clinical skills in preparation to undertake hospital placements and hospital pharmacist roles. Learning outcomes To increase readiness for Hospital placements (PEPs) Pharmacist internship, and
Post-registration employment Tutorial overview 3 x 2-hour tutorials supported by video case vignettes, group discussions and inter-active activities Tutorial Topics #1
Performing Medication Reconciliation Providing Medicines Information Problem solving IV/enteral access device implications Communicating with other health professionals #2 Contributing to prescribing decisions Educating patients about medications
Supporting continuum of care Communicating with other health professionals #3 Monitoring drug therapy Problem solving IV/enteral access device implications Communicating with other health professionals Assessment
2-hour Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) during the official examination period 40% of unit mark Five-station OSCE covering: Medication reconciliation Communication Medicines information Extemporaneous preparation Documenting information on Medication chart Will test application of clinical and practical knowledge, and
communication skills Practice OSCE in the last tutorial (# 4) Hospital tutorial # 1 Specific learning objectives: To understand the process of medication reconciliation Taking medication histories Reviewing in-patient medication charts/medical records Documenting information on medication charts
To understand the implications of IV/enteral access devices on medicine administration To understand how to provide evidence-based medicines information to patients and other health professionals To understand how to communicate with other health professionals and optimise medicine use and safety Learning outcomes At the end of this tutorial you should be able to: perform medication reconciliation in a hospital setting
take a medication history review a medication chart and locate information in medical records record information on patients medication charts identify medication administration issues with IV/enteral devices understand the pharmacists role in contributing to quality use of medicines in multidisciplinary teams Clinical
Pharmacy Medication Reconciliation Patients hospital journey Medication Reconciliation Transition points of admission or entry, discharge or exit, and transfer between units are weak links in the health care chain
Medication Reconciliation process aims to: address communication breakdowns and system vulnerabilities at these weak links Medication Reconciliation is: A formal, standardised process for compiling, recording and sharing medication data between and among care providers and the patient 11
Medication Reconciliation Aims to: Prevent medicine-related safety issues e.g. inadvertent omission of regular medicines taken prior to hospital admission Ensure Quality and Safe Use of Medicines as patients transition between the community and hospital e.g. opportunity to review whether all medications are still needed and doses are optimised
Improve healthcare of patients e.g. ensure that changes made to the medication regimen in hospital are appropriate Medication reconciliation is a 3-step process: 1. Obtain medication history - review multiple sources of information 2. Review medication charts
- compare medication history, medical record and medication chart 3. Resolve discrepancies through review of medical record and discussion with healthcare team - document in the patients medical record Medication Reconciliation: On Admission The process of comparing the patients pre-admission medicines to those prescribed on the hospital medication chart
Medicine Reconciliation: On Discharge The process of comparing the patients medication chart. .with the discharge prescription Activity: 5 mins Getting to know some different hospital
forms (medical records) commonly used in hospitals Familiarise yourself with the charts and forms in the folder Consider what a pharmacist would write, and where Medication Reconciliation is a 3-step process: 1. Obtain medication history 2. Review medication charts and medical record 3. Identify and reconcile discrepancies between the medication history and medication chart
- discuss with healthcare team - document in the patients medical record Medication History Taking Pharmacists have in-depth medication knowledge, and are trained to take more accurate and comprehensive medication histories than other health care professionals Preferably within one day following admission Preferably face-face interview Other sources as appropriate
Scenario 1: A 66-year-old male in Emergency Department (ED) complaining of leftsided stroke symptoms The ED pharmacist begins the medicine reconciliation process to find out what the patient was taking before coming into hospital Play video Medication History Interview Activity:
Discuss strategies to use if the patient is unavailable or unable to be interviewed? (5 minutes) Each group can offer suggestions in turn until all ideas are exhausted Medication History Interview If patient is unavailable for interview Patients own medicine list Patients own medicine labels Carer/other family members
Community pharmacy records Other healthcare professionals Webster packs/ Dosette boxes GP letter Hospital records from previous admission/discharge Use at least two sources of information for all medication histories Medication History Interview
Group Activity: Perform a medication history interview (15 mins) Form 5 groups In each group one student will role play patient, another one will be the pharmacist and others will be observers Patient/Observers to provide feedback to the pharmacist at the end of the interview Medicine Reconciliation is a 3-step process:
1. obtain medication history 2. review medication charts and medical record 3.
Identify and reconcile discrepancies between the medication history and medication chart - discuss with healthcare team - document in the patients medical record Inpatient Medication Chart Important, yet complex multipage document Provides information on:
Patients demographics including age and possibly weight All medicines prescribed by the hospital doctors Administration times of medicines by nursing staff, and their initials
Reasons for medicine nonadministration Allergies Used by many members of the health care team, including pharmacists Inpatient Medication Chart Pharmacists role: Daily (Mon-Fri) review to ensure correct medicines are
prescribed (reconcile medication history information with medication chart) Consider appropriateness of prescribed drugs Check doses, administration routes and timing, drug-drug and drug-disease interactions Play video Medication Reconciliation is a 3-step process: 1.
Obtain medication history 2. Review medication charts and medical record 3. Identify and reconcile discrepancies between the medication
history and medication chart - discuss with healthcare team - document in the patients medical record Use of Medical Records Access them for comprehensive patient information AND Document Medication Reconciliation activities in them
If no discrepancies identified, eg: All meds prescribed correctly OR If discrepancies identified and action taken, eg: Regular meds omitted - Xalatan eye drops 1 bd Contacted [resident] & recommended to prescribe Xalatan Annotate with your name, signature, profession (pharmacy) and contact details such as a pager number
Medicines Information Medicines Information: Role of Clinical Pharmacists Steps in providing medicines information: Determine primary question and required timeframe for response Develop search strategy Access relevant information Critically appraise information
Respond within agreed timeframe Access relevant information Which references to use and when? Standard Texts: dosing, indications, drug interactions, compatibility, common ADRs Literature search: investigational drugs, off-label use for marketed drugs, rare ADRs
Time may be limited on the wards May need to enlist assistance from Medicines Information Centre/Pharmacist Play Video Activity: 15 mins You are reviewing a medication chart for Mr John Brown on your ward. The nurse asks for your advice about how to
give the regimen via a nasogastric tube. Diltiazem CD 240mg capsule Asasantin capsules (Aspirin 25 mg tablet inside a capsule containing 200 mg SR dipyridamole beads) MS Contin (morphine SR) tablets 30 mg Efexor XR (venlafaxine) capsules Omeprazole 20mg tablet Activity: 15 mins
Form 5 groups Access the relevant information and formulate a response For medications that can be given as prescribed, endorse the orders so as to ensure the doses are given correctly For medication orders that need to be changed, determine what you would recommend the doctor prescribe so that the regimen can be given via the NG tube In each group one student will role play nurse, another one will be the pharmacist and others will be observers Nurse/Observers to provide feedback to the pharmacist at the end of
the medicines information session 35 Answers None of them should be crushed to administer via the NG tube Diltiazem CD, MS Contin (morphine SR), Efexor XR (venlafaxine) capsules and Asasantin capsules are slow release products. Diltiazem should be switched to 60mg tablets and given qid MS Contin could be switched to morphine solution (and given 4 hourly) or MS Contin granules could be used, as long as they were not crushed.
Efexor capsules can be opened and the beads can be administered down the NG tube, but might stick to plastic tube. The beads should not be crushed. Preferable to switch to alternative SSRI or with-hold in the short-term. 36 Answers (contd) Asasantin capsules can be opened and the 25mg aspirin tablet crushed and the granules carefully mixed with water, but not crushed, then administered down the tube. Alternatively, aspirin could be given
as a dispersible tablet, then the standard release dipyridamole tablets can be crushed and made into a slurry. In this case an equivalent daily dose would need to be administered four times daily. Omeprazole should not be crushed due to the enteric coating. The tablets (not capsules) can be dispersed in water, but not crushed. Remember to use oral syringes, not intravenous syringes, to deliver the medications via the tube. 37 Play Video
Compulsory Homework: National Inpatient Medication Chart online training course Go to: http://nps.lamsinternational.com/moodle/course/category.ph p?id=40 Takes 1.5 - 2 hours Print a record of your course completion certificate
and scores Bring completion certificate to Tutorial 2 or 3 References SHPA Standards of Practice for Clinical Pharmacy Clinical Skills for Pharmacists, A Patient-Focused Approach (Tietze, J, ed 3) Pharmacy Practice Experiences A Students Handbook (Setlak, P) Hospital Pharmacy (Stephens, M ed 2)
Medication Review: A Process Guide for Pharmacists (Chen, T et al, ed 2) Australian Medicines Information Training Workbook (ed 1)
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