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Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Virtual Constellations Report from the SIT Chair Steve Volz, 2018-2019 CEOS SIT Chair National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) CEOS Plenary 2019 Agenda Item #5.7 Ha Noi, Viet Nam 14 16 October 2019 Overview 1. Productivity, Activities, and Accomplishments o o o o Year in (short) Review Leadership Changes Summary of Virtual Constellation Key Highlights Close-out of LEO-GEO 2. Approach for CEOS Coastal Observations and Applications Study Team (COAST) FOR DECISION 3. Virtual Constellation Leadership Succession FOR ENDORSEMENT CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 2 SIT Chair 2018-2019 Priorities 4 3 TSIT Chair 2018-2019 Priorities I

S d n a , 3as described in the 1. Ensure the efficient execution of existing SIT responsibilities 3 - and Virtual SIT Terms of Reference, including addressing Working Group T Iincluding: S Constellation (VC) continuity, sustainability, and outputs, , y o Undertaking gap analyses for each VC, to support ongoing and likely upcoming r a strategic Agency observatory decisions; en practices and possible modifications l o Seeking observations from VCs and WGs on best P to existing practices. S O next generation of geostationary 2. Enhance the utility of new observationsEfrom C LEO/GEO combination products and data satellites and exploring development of 7 processing capabilities. 1 0 3. Improve and clarify CEOS relationships with CGMS, GEO, and to a lesser degree 2 , activities and, where appropriate, holistic

WMO, by identifying coordinated W GEO, and WMO, emphasizing the unique values of interaction among CEOS, T CGMS, each. T I S areas of appropriate and productive collaboration. o Identify and focus on 7 o Take stock of trends 1 and future directions so that CEOS can best serve the needs of its 0 Agencies and execute its role most productively alongside CGMS, GEO, and WMO 2 , o Identify appropriate and productive engagement approaches with commercial sector in 2 3 the process. TI 4. Support S initiatives undertaken by CEOS Chairs in 2018 and 2019. t a d e 4 CEOStPlenary 2019, 14-16 October Strategic Directions and Partnerships for CEOS Discussion Paper 21 March 2018

4 3 Ensuring tangible outcomes from, and sustainable T- commitment to, I S our VCs and WGs d n afor CEOS objectives (e.g., Maximizing the value of VC and WG output , y Agency objectives r ECVs and SDGs) and for individual CEOS a n e Ensuring the necessary support for our Pl existing thematic teams to flourish S and to deliver O E C Clearer overall CEOS observing system assessment and desired 8 1 observing strategies and known contribution from each CEOS 0 2 Entity , 3

3 AHTs to reflect andITreport on group trajectory and lifecycle, taking into S and evolution of long-term sustained operations and account the outlook t a on CEOS and Member Agency participation. expectations dlevied e t n e s e Pr CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 5 Concept Paper for Restructuring CEOS Virtual Constellations and Creation of New Working Group March 2019 1. Propose for discussion and consideration: a restructure of the CEOS Virtual Constellations: TW Merge the four current ocean-related VCs into a single Ocean VC focused on creating an integrated and coordinated multi-variable picture of oceans. To be discussed in 5.8 Merge AC-VC and P-VC into an Atmosphere VC. LSI-VC already follows this model, looking at a family of variables for integrated picture of the land, and is proposed to become the Land VC. T

I S 9 1 0 2 2. Propose a VC leadership rotation cycle. d an 3. Propose a two-year initiation4cycle for standing up new AHTs. The two-3 defining the objective, evaluating the merit year initial cycle will allow Tfor I and determining the appropriate path forward S and value of the objectives, t To be discussed in 5.9 for continued supportawithin CEOS. All other aspects of the AHT reporting dincluding annual reporting at Plenary. process will remain, e t n 4. Propose for ediscussion and consideration: Establish a new Working se Group focused Information Provision, to coordinate all activities related Pr onTo be discussed in 5.8 to user outreach and applications (e.g., forests, agriculture, freshwater, land degradation, urban, biodiversity, and more in the future). CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 6 Productivity, Activities, and Accomplishments for 2019

7 Year in Review SIT Chair-VC/WG/AHT Tag-ups (15 = 100%) o February/March 2019 SIT-34 o April 2019 SIT Chair-VC/WG/AHT Tag-ups (17* = 100%) o July/August 2019 2019 SIT Technical Workshop and VC/WG/AHT Working Day o September 2019 *Plus COVERAGE and SEO CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 8 SIT-34 Objective Virtual Constellations Critical assessment results of the Virtual Constellations (VCs), including: Ongoing activities, tangible outputs, Constellation management, continuity, and VC proposals around leadership rotation (Plenary Action CEOS-32-12). The results may lead to recommended changes to how CEOS structures its VC activities, engagement of CEOS through the VCs with partners such as GEO and CGMS, and how to evolve and take the next step towards greater interoperability between datasets from multiple satellites and agencies.

Identify areas of concern for further attention, action, and follow-up at SIT Technical Workshop and CEOS Plenary 2019, and into the next CEOS SIT Chair Term. CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 9 SIT-34 Objective CEOS Governance, Processes, and Organization Drafting language to support potential changes to CEOS Governance, Processes, and organization resulting from discussions on VCs and AHTs and the formal processes CEOS will mandate for them. Perform a health update on assessment of what is working well within CEOS and reflect upon CEOS internal issues such as structure, efficiency, number of entities and activities, resource allocation; CEOS external issues such as communication, interaction with key stakeholders; Strategy for global priorities like caring for our planet, SDGs, carbon, etc. Consider proposals for further discussion at 2019 SIT TW, and possible recommendation for decision(s) at 33rd CEOS Plenary (Plenary Action CEOS-32-15). CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 10 Virtual Constellations Current Leadership and Changes Atmospheric Composition Virtual Constellation (AC-VC) Ben Veihelmann/ESA Jay Al-Saadi/NASA Land Surface Imaging Virtual Constellation (LSI-VC)

Steve Labahn/USGS Adam Lewis/GA Susanne Mecklenburg/ESA Zoltan Szantoi/EC Ocean Colour Radiometry Virtual Constellation (OCR-VC) Ewa Kwiatkowska/EUMETSAT Marie-Helene Rio/ESA Ocean Surface Topography Virtual Constellation (OST-VC) Remko Scharroo/EUMETSATAnnick Sylvestre-Baron/CNES Ocean Surface Vector Wind Virtual Constellation (OSVW-VC) Stefanie Linow/EUMETSAT Rashmi Sharma/ISRO Paul Chang/NOAA Raj Kumar/ISRO Precipitation Virtual Constellation (P-VC) Gail Jackson-Skofronick/NASA Riko Oki/JAXA Sea Surface Temperature Virtual Constellation (SST-VC) Anne OCarroll/EUMETSAT Ken Casey/NOAA CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October Ed Armstrong/NASA Red Text = Co-Lead Departure Green Text = New Co-Lead 11 Atmospheric Composition Virtual Constellation (AC-VC)

CEOS Architecture for Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Concentrations is now published! ISBN, ISSN, and DOI numbers registered. Greenhouse Gases Roadmap White Paper discussed previously under 2.4 Air Quality Constellation Validation Needs and Recommendations discussed previously under 5.6 o Focus on bringing new missions into Constellations (GEMS, TEMPO, Senintell-4) o Forward-looking by including aerosols Submitted peer-reviewed White Papers on intercomparisons of satellite total column zone Propose a new deliverable on satellite-informed products for air quality associated with aerosol o Motivated by SDG 3.4 Human Health Mortality Goal o White Paper or peer-reviewed journal article (Q4 2021) AC-VC has the most diversity of measurements and is showing good progress in harmonizing the products and information Work Plan Deliverables from this diversity Planned: 2 On-track: 1 Completed: 1 CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 12 Land Surface Imaging Virtual Constellation (LSI-VC) CEOS Analysis Ready Data for Land (CARD4L) discussed previously under 4.2

Key Outcomes from LSI-VC-8/SDCG-16/GEOGLAM Joint Meeting o Initiated discussions around LSI-VC contributions to SIT Chair 2020-2021 CEOS ARD priorities CEOS-Industry ARD Workshop Connecting with WGCV and WGISS on various topics including CEOS Interoperability Terminology Report o Joint session with WGClimate with goal of rebooting LSI-VC requirements and gap analysis LSI-VC plans to undertake two actions from the WGClimate Coordinated Action Plan -> LST CDRs and continuity Discussed biomass measurements as a priority across CEOS (SDCG, GHG, etc.) -> CARD4Lidar concept o Planned integration of SDCG for GFOI and GEOGLAM AHWG as subgroups of LSI-VC CEOS-32-13 LSI-VC to draft a plan forward for the proposed merger of SDCG for GFOI and the CEOS Ad Hoc Working Group on GEOGLAM into LSI-VC. This plan would address the discussions and concerns raised at the CEOS Plenary meeting. Work Plan Deliverables Planned: 7 On-track: 5 Completed: 2 New Technologies LSI-VC is working to merge new technologies and measurements into established datasets, including CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October

SIT-34 13 Precipitation Virtual Constellation (P-VC) Precipitation is a key Earth system component and is cross-cutting to several VCs and WGs including, for example: Atmospheric Composition-VC; Disasters WG; Agriculture WG; and Freshwater activities. o Because precipitation is a global variable and linked to many Earth systems, P-VC encourages discussions among the various VCs, WGs, Ad Hoc Teams, etc. Other groups, mainly CGMS, also have a focus on precipitation, specifically the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) o During the CEOS P-VC meeting in November we are inviting relevant IPWG co-chairs (past and present) to discuss potential synergies, recommendations, and joint activities. P-VC is keeping aware of potential future precipitation observations such as NASAs Decadal Surveys Aerosols, Cloud, Convection and Precipitation (ACCP) Designated Observable P-VC can help with identifying drought and flood land areas in support of SDG Target 15.3 Work Plan Deliverables Planned: 3 On-track: 1 Completed: 2 CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 14 Ocean Colour Radiometry Virtual Constellation (OCR-VC) OCR-VC Climate OCR-VC Deliverable VC-09 OCR is Essential Climate Variable defined by GCOS

OCR Climate Data Records contribution to the WGClimate INSITU-OCR ECV inventory Implementation of White Paper recommendations Aquatic Carbon is a major component of the Earth system with respect to carbon cycling and carbon sequestration Aquatic Carbon From Space planning for IOCCG activities and a journal special issue (carbon stocks, New Technologies sources/sinks, fluxes; methods and uncertainties) Water Quality Hyperspectral OCR OCR provides major EO variables for Water Quality applications Geostationary OCR IOCCG report Earth Observations in Support of Global Water Quality Monitoring coordinated with CEOS Feasibility Study on Satellite Polarimetry, Lidar Carbon Missions/Instruments Focused on Water Quality Measurements in the frame of CEOS Strategy for Water Observations from Space Implementation of INSITU-OCR White Paper is advancing and following a modular approach coordinated across the space agencies Work Plan Deliverables Advancements in vicarious calibration coordination and algorithm coordination Planned: 1 On-track: 1 Planning for IOCCG/OCR-VC Aquatic Carbon from Space Completed: 0 journal special issue o

New Technologies Looking forward to integrate new technologies and measurements including LiDARs, hyperspectral, polar imagery and combined LEO/GEO observations CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 15 Ocean Surface Topography Virtual Constellation (OST-VC) OST-VC contribution to the OceanObs 19 White Paper: Requirements for a Coastal Zone Observing System, Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 348, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00348, 2019 Update of OST-VC User Requirements Document (URD) in 2020 o Next 15 years of altimetry, 2009: Constellation User Requirement Documents @ Assmanhausen OST-VC meeting Reference mission + complementing missions: nadir altimetry only (swath altimetry mentioned), structured the current constellation (reference mission Jason + SARAL/ Sentinel-3/Hy-2A/Cryosat) o Will include: Analysis of user needs (systematic + exploratory) Swath altimetry + nadir altimetry (combined) Multiple applications (mesoscale monitoring, polar oceans, long-term record for sea level rise) Links with other observables (e.g., SST and OC) o Planned update of full CDR from TOPEX through Jason-3 Jason-2 retired in October 2019 CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October

Work Plan Deliverables Planned: 1 On-track: 1 Completed: 0 16 Ocean Surface Vector Wind Virtual Constellation (OSVW-VC) Spaceborne scatterometers (C-, Ku-band) become standard to provide global ocean surface wind vector data o Primarily ISRO, EUMETSAT, and CMA (although CMA data are not as available) Other remote sensing techniques have demonstrated potential for retrieving ocean surface winds: o o o o New Technologies Microwave radiometers Multi-frequency, Polarimetric, L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) GNSS-R HF radars (regional coverage but frequent temporal refresh) OSVW looking at how to integrate these new measurement techniques with established data record Future Plans

o Refreshed constellation assessment with a focus on users and applications o A workshop to be planned by early 2020; include experts from the measurement and applications communities o Expected outcome is a report coordinated with the IOVWST assessing observing system capabilities of ocean surface wind retrievals from the Work Plan Deliverables measurement and downstream applications perspectives Planned: 1 On-track: 1 Completed: 0 CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 17 Sea Surface Temperature Virtual Constellation (SST-VC) SST-VC continues to focus on narrow group of objectives, completing activities of the last few years and transitioning to new focus area. Membership is strong, with active participation and leadership rotations in place. SST-VC contributions to the global observing architecture and national planning purposes o Community White paper for OceanObs 19, Observational needs of Sea Surface Temperature, recently published: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00420/ o Constellation White paper (action VC-19) o 98 standardized GHRSST products, spanning 7.48 million CF/ACDD netCDF data files, 167 TB, from Sep 1981 Aug 2019 White Paper on Next Generation SST Constellation o Likely ready for distribution end of October/early November o Virtual endorsement by Plenary (or SIT) requested for November

Increasing concern from SST community regarding increasing impact of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and 5G networks on the quality of Sea Surface Temperature retrievals and therefore downstream Work Plan Deliverables applications Planned: 1 o SST-VC/GHRSST are compiling an inventory On-track: 1 of RFI impacts on SST products and applications Completed: 0 CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 18 GEO-LEO Pilot Recent example Hagabis flooding - Japan Himawari and JPSS Integrated Flood Map October 12, 2019 - Sunday Sentinel-1 Flood Map GEO LEO Flood Pilot demonstrated the use of operational weather satellites for rapid large areal flood mapping (clear conditions) and will be extended to include other critical assets, for example higher resolution Sentinel 1 SAR as part of a Flood Constellation Scenario pilot to be developed within WGDisasters. CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October Trajectory for GEO-LEO Initiative NOAA SIT Chair Team activity demonstrated utility and significant interest. SIT Chair does not recommend continuation of a focused activity for LEOGEO coordination. Continuing work will be done within existing CEOS Structures and Processes. 1) WGDisasters is working on next steps toward implementing the need for a GEO-LEO-SAR Flood-Risk Pilot Project targeting flood risk areas such as in coastal and urban areas. o Seeks to demonstrate the potential of new products made possible by (1) sharing data, (2) integrating operational capabilities, and (3) transitioning research quickly to application while building the capacity for sustainable resilience.

o NASA and NOAA are taking the lead to scope a proposal with support expressed by CNES, ISRO, ASI, EU, ESA, DLR and others to prepare a plan for review at the next SIT and welcomes broad CEOS and CGMS community collaboration. 2) WGCapD, WGISS, WGCV, and LSI-VC may have future applications, and we will work with them through relevant SMEs in those groups CEOS Approach for Coastal Observations and Applications Study Team (COAST) A Proposal Refer to CEOS_COAST_Proposal_October_2019_v2 FOR DECISION 21 Previous Coastal/Ocean Observing Plans Coastal GTOS, 2005 e.g., deltaic systems; urbanization and changes in coastal land use/cover IGOS Coastal Theme, 2006 Coastal GOOS, 2012 e.g., land-sea interface; eutrophication/hypoxia; coastal populations & pathogens; HABs; benthic ecosystems at risk habitats; flooding; acidification, fisheries; integration CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October GEO Blue Planet, 2019 e.g., island flooding, hazards, marine debris, aquatic diseases,

coral reefs, fisheries 22 How Should CEOS Engage and Coordinate on Coastal Theme? Internal CEOS Activities and Initiatives o Ocean/coasts still an emerging area for CEOS; mostly VCs to date o Increasing interest and work across CEOS entities GEO/LEO/SAR Integration flooding, water quality/hazards WGDisasters; potential WGCV, WGCapD, WGISS engagement CEOS ARD potential coastal pilot to complement existing work COVERAGE; SDGs (SDG 6 and 14 potential); role of VCs External Partner Activities and Initiatives (Many international groups, initiatives dealing with coastal and ocean observations applications) o o o o GEO Initiatives: Blue Planet, AquaWatch, Wetlands Sustainable Development Goals: SDG 6, SDG 14 OceanObs19 Follow-up: IOC/GOOS et al. United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 24 2019 SIT Technical Workshop Oceans and Coastal Outcomes Suggestion to form a Study Team to do a scoping assessment of CEOS contributions to Coastal observations Need to define a specific objective or regional scope from multiple VCs Key CEOS objectives: moving from multi-sensor observations

through the value chain to extract information which users can exploit Engaging end users to articulate needs that EO could address is key, even if initially limited to targeted examples Current interface with Oceans end users is complicated and scattered across multiple international science organizations and VCs Land, atmosphere, and precipitation could also be key contributors to the coastal zone focus CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 25 Requests of Plenary 1. Decision by Plenary for the creation of the CEOS Coastal Observations and Applications Study Team (CEOS-COAST) (not a formal AHT) o Initial term of 12 months o Initial work plan for 2019-2020 to be submitted by Dec 2019 for virtual endorsement by SIT o Progress report at SIT-35 2. Interested Agencies to identify participants with appropriate expertise and interest to participate in CEOS-COAST o NOAA will lead, with others, and will draft the initial work plan (P. DiGiacomo) CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 26 CEOS Virtual Constellation Leadership Succession Proposal and Language Changes Refer to CEOS Governance and Processes rev1 2019 and Virtual Constellations Process Paper rev 1 2019 FOR ENDORSEMENT

27 Actions VC Leadership (Rotation) Succession Virtual Constellation Co-Leads to propose at SIT-34: a documented approach to VC leadership that includes a CEOS-32-12 leadership rotation cycle. Each VC has the liberty to propose different time cycles. SIT-34-12 SIT Chair Team Draft and distribute the proposed language for the proposed VC leadership rotation, which will identify at least 2, no more than 3 Co-Leads, with Co-Leads from any interested CEOS Member or Associate for a two-year, staggered term. CoLeads can reapply for position. SIT-TW-2019-12 SIT Chair Finalize and circulate the changes to the VC Leadership Team Succession Text that will be presented for endorsement at the 2019 CEOS Plenary. SIT Chair to develop agenda items for discussion at SIT-34, proposal at SIT TW, and recommendation(s) for decision at CEOS-32-15 CEOS Plenary 33 on: various CEOS governance, processes, and organizational issues. CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October SIT-34 CLOSED Circulated: 30 June 2019 For discussion: 2019 SIT Technical Workshop

CLOSED 30 September 2019 CLOSED CEOS-33 28 Virtual Constellations A Little History and Current Situation VCs were created to address gaps in missions and inform agencies on how to plan for future missions, maintain continuity of measurements and climate records, and avoid duplication and overlap in EO missions. Four Prototype VCs created at SIT-19 (Sep 2006) to give balance across different domains and geographies with an eye on leverage of international linkages to support continuity of funding for missions at the time which were under some threat Ocean Surface Topography (NOAA and EUMETSAT) Land Surface Imaging (USGS) Atmospheric Composition (NASA) Precipitation (JAXA and NASA) VCs circa 2019 The interim goal of a Constellation is to demonstrate the value of a collaborative partnership in addressing a key observational gap; the end goal is to sustain the routine collection of critical observations. Implementation of Constellation activities is ultimately dependent on the coordination of formal agreements among participating agencies. - Virtual Constellations Process Paper 2013 CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 29

VC Leadership: 2006-2013 VC Timeline 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 SIT Chair Agency ESA ESA NOAA NOAA JAXA JAXA NASA NASA AC-VC

LSI-VC NASA USGS ? ? ESA NASA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA USGS USGS ISRO INPE* USGS ISRO USGS

INPE USGS ISRO INPE USGS ISRO INPE EC JAXA EC NASA JAXA ESA ISRO NASA ESA ISRO NASA NASA NOAA ESA OCR-VC OST-VC NOAA ? EUMETSAT NOAA NOAA

NOAA NOAA EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT NASA NASA NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT ISRO ISRO ISRO ISRO OSVW-VC P-VC NASA JAXA SST-VC CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October NASA JAXA NASA JAXA NASA JAXA NASA JAXA

NASA JAXA NASA JAXA NASA JAXA ESA NOAA ESA NOAA ESA NOAA 30 VC Leadership: 2014-2020 VC Timeline 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 SIT Chair Agency

CNES CNES ESA ESA NOAA NOAA CSIRO/GA AC-VC NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA NASA ESA LSI-VC

USGS ISRO INPE USGS GA ESA USGS GA ESA USGS GA ESA USGS GA ESA USGS GA ESA USGS GA EC OCR-VC NASA NOAA ESA NASA NOAA ESA

NASA NOAA ESA NOAA EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT ESA ESA ESA ESA EUMETSAT OST-VC EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT CNES CNES CNES CNES CNES CNES CNES NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA OSVW-VC EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT ISRO ISRO ISRO ISRO ISRO ISRO ISRO P-VC

NASA JAXA NASA JAXA SST-VC ESA NOAA EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT EUMETSAT NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA NOAA NASA CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October NASA JAXA NASA JAXA NASA JAXA NASA JAXA NASA JAXA 31

CEOS-32-12 and SIT-34-12 VC Leadership Rotation Proposal # of CoLeads Term At least two (2) and no more than three (3) CoLeads for each VC 2 years with no term limits; CoLeads can renominate for another 2-year term CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October Process Other Minimum biennial Agency review, with commitm leadership open to ent to all interested and support active, engaged, Co-Leads and relevant VC contributors; offset leadership change

to ensure continuity 32 Proposed Language Changes Two CEOS governing documents require changes per SIT 34 Actions: o The CEOS Governance and Processes document provides guidelines on the structure, operations, and processes CEOS employs to achieve its goals. o Virtual Constellations Process Paper defines the roles, responsibilities, and plans of the Virtual Constellations Changes are not required to the: o The CEOS Terms of Reference (defines the mission and scope of CEOS activities). o The CEOS Strategic Guidance document (articulates the overarching long-term [7-10 years] purpose and goals of CEOS). o New Initiatives Process Paper (Ad Hoc Teams are referenced twice in the Process Paper but changes are not required in the paper) o Terms of Reference CEOS Chair, Strategic Implementation Team (SIT) Chair, CEOS Executive Officer (CEO), CEOS Secretariat, and Systems Engineering Office (SEO) CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 33 CEOS Governance and Processes Changes ADD to section on Virtual Constellations: Each Virtual Constellation will have at least two and no more than three Co-Leads. Co-Leads shall be from any interested CEOS Member or Associate Agency and should be an active, engaged, and relevant contributor to the VC. Every two

years, the Co-Leads will be reviewed by the Constellation membership with a decision to either maintain current leadership or transition to new leadership, as outlined in the CEOS Virtual Constellation Process Paper. CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 34 Additional Governance and Processes Changes ADD to section on Working Groups: Each Working Group is led by a Chair and a Vice Chair, with a two-year term for each position, served consecutively in the case of Vice Chair. Additional information on leadership requirements for the Working Groups is detailed in the Working Group Process Paper. For parity, propose to add this clause about Working Groups (taken essentially verbatim from the Working Group Process Paper) Annex 1 was updated to reflect ad hoc teams in existence from 2014-2019 and Annex 2 was updated to reflect CEOS Member and Associate Agencies have as of October 2019. CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 35 CEOS Virtual Constellations Process Paper Changes ADD to Section 2 - Goals: Leadership Selection and Criteria Each Constellation will have at least two and no more than three Co-Leads. Co-Leads shall be from any interested CEOS Member or Associate Agency and should be active, engaged, and relevant contributors to the VC. At a minimum, Co-Lead positions will be reviewed every two years by the Constellation membership to ensure appropriate Constellation leadership is maintained and to allow for interested individuals to be considered for Constellation leadership (some Constellations have a set rotation and turnover of Co-Leads detailed in existing Terms of Reference). The expectation is that any Constellation leadership changes will be staggered to ensure leadership continuity and expertise are optimized. There are no limits on how long an individual may serve as a Co-Lead as long as they are reviewed every two years and have their agencys endorsement to continue in the role. The decision of Constellation leadership resides with the Constellation but

leadership changes must be reported within two weeks to CEOS leadership (CEOS Chair, SIT Chair, SEO, and Permanent Secretariat) following any decision. For reference, full updated text provided to CEOS Members Co-Leads will be responsible for the implementation of Constellations goals, identification of agency support and commitments, and working with the CEOS SIT Chair in addressing CEOS and SIT priorities. Co-Leads should adhere to these basic requirements: 1. Nominated on an ad hominem basis; the existing Co-Leads agency is not obligated to provide a replacement Co-Lead if its respective Co-Lead rotates out. The Co-Lead can make inquiries to identify another Co-Lead but it is not required. 2. Endorsed every two years from their respective agencies (verbally or in writing). 3. Affiliated with a CEOS Member or Associate Agency. CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 36 Requests of Plenary 1. Approval of the proposed language changes to the Virtual Constellations Section of the Governance and Processes Document. Endorsement of the CEOS Governance and Processes_rev1 2019 will be requested in 5.9, after AHT Life Cycle language is presented. 2. Endorsement of the Virtual Constellations Process Paper rev1 2019, which includes proposed language changes, as presented.

CEOS Plenary 2019, 14-16 October 37

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