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Library services to distance learners: is it time to recast the model? Off-Campus Library Services 2008 Lynn Copeland Simon Fraser University Library Questions

Who are our users? Who are our partners? What is our institution? Are the guidelines suitable? Do they limit thinking? Are the guidelines consistent with practice? What might be some benchmarks? The Library and DE departments Other library and university DE models: what is actually happening and is it good?

Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Types of Distance Ed delivery User-defined content (eg professional development) Extension of on-campus courses, delivery Separate operation with name branding Delivery attached to branch posts Distributed learning Overwhelmingly online Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

"Guess what, we had our first meaningful dialogue today." content Len Norris, Sept. 21, 1968 "... all in favor of moving the campus to the Rocky Mountain Trench say aye ..." content Len Norris, Feb. 26, 1957

"It's got nothing to do with your childhood." content Graham Harrop, Nov. 1, 2003 SFU Library 2002 Do we know who our users are? The above cartoon by Peter Steiner has been reproduced from page 61 of July 5, 1993 issue of The New Yorker, (Vol.69 (LXIX) no. 20)only for academic discussion, evaluation, research and complies with the copyright law of the United States as defined and stipulated under Title 17 U. S. Code.

Who are are users? (Blakelock) Actual records (1 respondent): 85% women; most between 2040 years old, with kids Impressionistically (29): characterized students as nontraditional, older, returning students who were sometimes in remote locations and were often more motivated than traditional students Impressionistically (7): described their students as traditional and living on campus, mirroring their f2f sections Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

Do we know who our users are? Primary Research Group report on Distance Higher Ed 60% female 51% over 30; 15% over 50 57% with 75 miles of institution (76% expanding progs) 72% trad and DE virtually interchangeable

Virtually all used some online LMS but wanted more to handle greater enrolments; 62% have course/instructor web sites Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Who are our users? As DE increasingly becomes online, how should we design courses to meet user capabilities, needs, comfort level and expectations? Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

Who are our users? 68% female

21% under 24; 75% age 25-54 74% Caucasian/White 58% full-time 19% first year; 21% second year; 30% graduate/professional 78% primarily online; 22% primarily on campus 70% employed full-time 61% online degree; 21% degree on campus 25% no previous online course exp. 33% bachelors degree; 61% postgrad degree Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Who are our users?

How can we really serve the needs of online students if we do not know who they are? How can we be truly effective as online educators without complete student demographic knowledge? As DE increasingly becomes online, how should we design courses to meet user capabilities, needs, comfort level and expectations? Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Who are our users? Online learners also report relatively high

satisfaction across all categories, with small performance gaps. This indicates that institutions are meeting online student expectations in most areas of the educational experience. Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Who are our users? Millennials are telling us, "Get us what we want, only what we want, in the format we want it, and do it now!" Physical and virtual libraries must be inseparable. Rethink and modify organizational structures and policies

designed mostly for delivering physical documents to existing users in traditional ways, and rethink these in light of digital library environments Existing library organizational structures and policies are part of bureaucracies that resist change and therefore improvement. In the online environment are all students Millennials? Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Who are our users? 64% female 75% employed 25% had children

47% 20-24 years old 83% did not find library research difficult BUT need for better communicaiton about library resources strongly indicated in comments Help: email (90), phone (63), web (57), in-person(39) Leddy library help requested 13.9% of responses [highest among academic support by far excluding instructors]

Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 title title Librarians and online learning Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Library elearning importance (1) ... the average essay grade is a whole

2 grade points improved over last year. I suspect this is in no small part due to you and your excellent orientation. 330,000 students at CARL institutions receive instruction Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Library elearning importance (2) College students self-efficacy in electronic information searching was significantly higher after library instruction. Frequent use of library electronic

databases correlated with self-efficacy, and posttraining self-efficacy correlated with grade points. Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Librarians involvement in online learning Has not been sought / low Traditional librarian role not course-specific Librarians as a whole havent made their case Administrators and educators havent bought in Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

Campus Learning and Libraries CARL Univ . online le arning/library collaboration factors 2005 Services to fac include Library Services to online students Online guides Online tutorials

Yes No Interactive Online tutorial Institution Library as resource Teaching Online WebCT/Blackberry etc. 0%

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 70% 80% 90% 100% Service Delivery Instruction (eg Plagiarism tutorial, subject guides) can be embedded into DE courses

and help pages Virtual reference services RSS feeds, meebo, newsletters, blogs, etc. Elluminate etc. Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 OCLC Best Practices Technical and Cultural Requirements Embed library resources in course management systems Integrate commercial information services

Customize personal preferences Provide virtual reference at point of need Embed information seeking training modules Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 CARL e-learning Recommendations continually demonstrate libraries added value in e-learning to benefit instructors and learners directly. be proactive in the selection of learning management systems and e-learning tools. seek representation on LMS selection, management, and governance committees on campus.

seek representation on pan-Canadian policy and standards bodies concerned with e-learning, including interoperability standards, information management practices, and information resources such as ejournals, ereserves, ILL delivery (including to the desktop). [Demonstrate and] advocate for the importance of information literacy to student success. Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Precept

1375 A general command or injunction; a rule for action or conduct, esp. a rule for moral conduct, a maxim; spec. a divine command. 1552 A rule or instruction on the practical aspects of a subject; any of the guidelines relating to the performance of a technical operation. 1684 A written order, usually from a sheriff to a returning officer, to make arrangements for an election. 1877 An order issued by one local authority to another specifying the rate of tax to be charged on its behalf Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

ACRL "Guidelines" assume the following precepts: Access to library resources and services essential; entitlement to

equivalent services and resources for distance learners. Instilling of lifelong learning skills through library instruction in academic libraries is a primary outcome of higher education for DE and campus. Special funding needed; service must be more personalized. Institution must pay separately from Library budget. Institution recognizes the need for linkages among support services Institution responsible for attaining standards. Institution responsible for ensuring library involvement. Library responsible for resources and services. Librarianadministrator responsible for ensuring and demonstrating success. Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

Do the guidelines reflect current/emerging best practice? We fail! But screw your courage to the sticking-post and well not fail. Lady MacBeth Damn the torpedos, go ahead Admiral Farragut Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008 Do the guidelines reflect current/emerging best practice? Primary Research Group report

Virtual reference: ubiquitous and equally used Information literacy lacking Relations w. DE instructors Orientation Physical facilities Assessment Collection development Physical delivery Courseware Database licence restrictions Staffing Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

Conclusions Never retract, never explain, never apologize get the thing done and let them howl Nellie McClung If its a good idea go ahead and do it. Its much easier to apologize than to get permission. Grace Hopper US Admiral, 3d programmer on 1st US computer Off-campus library services conference XIII Lynn Copeland April 23, 2008

Thanks: [email protected] "Pop, you say you want to have a father-son talk with me ... what d'you want to know?" Len Norris, Feb 21, 1958

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