Titanium in Chlorine/Pulp and Paper - Ellett

Titanium in Chlorine/Pulp and Paper - Ellett

TITANIUM in PULP Mills today Bob Gill ELLETT Industries Ltd. Brief History of Paper

The history of paper begins in the Nile valley of Egypt. AD 105 The Real

birth place of Paper, as we know it, was in China. AD 610

This new Technology spread throughout Asia, then westward to Arabia, North Africa and on to Europe. 14th CENTURY In the course of the rapid

expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages, more and more merchants dealt in the commodity called paper. Gods Hand

However the greatest change in the demand for paper came when Johann Gutenburg perfected movable type and printed his famous Bible in 1456.

19th & 20th CENTURIES The history of the paper production in the 19th and 20th centuries can be broken down into

five partly overlapping periods, each marked by definite trends. First Stage (approx. 1800 to 1860)

all work sequences previously performed by hand were mechanized Second Stage (approx.1840 to 1880) efforts were made to obtain rag substitutes on an industrial scale

Third Stage (approx.1860 to 1950) Marked by the enlargement of the web width, an increase in working speeds, the introduction of electric drive and further improvements to various machine parts.

Fourth Stage (approx.1950 to 1980) Still dependent on the old methods as far as the mechanics were concerned, however this era brought unprecedented changes in papermaking.

Today & the Future The fifth stage leads us into the future. The evolution of new sheet-forming principles and chemical pulp processes are continually being improved.

Paper Making As we know it Today Paper Making - A 3 Step process Identify source of cellulose fibre Produce usable cellulose fibres

Make paper Making Paper The majority of material used in the pulp mill process is Stainless Steel HOWEVER in the PULP BLEACHING process more corrosive resistant

material choices are required Paper Bleaching WHY BLEACH Very simply we like white paper Methods of Bleaching

Chlorine bleaching has given way to three new, often combined, methods: Ozone (O3) Peroxide Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Ozone (O3) and Peroxide

Both are more costly methods than ClO2 and are thus best used in combination with ClO2. Chlorine Dioxide To produce ClO2, Sodium Chlorate must

first be produced This process requires Titanium Reactors and Titanium Piping Integrated ClO2 plants Much of the integrated technology requires Titanium

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) The closed system of Chlorine Dioxide bleaching, while improving environmental impact, leads to more Chlorides in the system and therefore more potential for corrosion.

ClO2 & Titanium The corrosion resistance of Titanium comes from its thin, but protective, oxide film. Solutions containing chlorides, like those found in Pulp & Paper producing processes, cause severe corrosion to many materials.

Titanium offers unique advantages. ClO2 & Titanium - Benefits Fantastic corrosion resistance. Markedly lower maintenance and operation costs. Can offer further protection for corrosive

external environments. ClO2 & Titanium - Considerations Higher start-up costs Lower maximum operating temperature Titanium Design Criteria

Maximum allowable design temperature for Titanium is 600 F At 500 F allowable stress value is 7,600 psi Recent code case Increase allowable stress value to 8,800 psi at 500 F This is for Gr.2 Titanium only

Fabricating with Titanium Material Availability Ease of Fabrication Maintenance Titanium Availability

Gr. 2 Gr. 7 Gr. 12 Cost attractive Generally available from stock

Because this metal is palladium stabilized, cost & availability can be a problem. However in some cases it is definitely the answer Excellent crevice corrosion resistance More costly than grade 2

Choice of material is always an important decision. Grades of Titanium Choose wisely Even Titanium is not invincible

Titanium Fabrication For the experienced fabricator, forming, machining and welding are not a

problem. Titanium Forming Care must be taken at all times to protect the material surface

from contamination. Titanium Machining Titanium Tubesheet being drilled.

Titanium Welding Welding Titanium is relatively easy. Titanium Welding Processs

PAW - Plasma Arc Welding GTAW - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding

Tube to Tubesheet Welding Titanium Tube Bundle This tube bundle uses Rod Baffles

Dak Bundle 3.jpg Titanium ClO2 Heaters Designers and Material Engineers can be confident

choosing Titanium Titanium Heating Coil Titanium Pipe Spools Inspection & Testing

Shipment & Installation Field Repair / Maintenance Pulp Mill environments are not clean. This creates a

problem for field welding of Titanium and should be avoided if possible. Titanium Uses for Titanium Continues to grow

Medical implants Aerospace Buildings Watches Jewelry Musical Instruments Sports Equipment

I think its time we go and test some out! THANKYOU

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