TITANIUM in PULP Mills today Bob Gill ELLETT Industries Ltd. Brief History of Paper
The history of paper begins in the Nile valley of Egypt. AD 105 The Real
birth place of Paper, as we know it, was in China. AD 610
This new Technology spread throughout Asia, then westward to Arabia, North Africa and on to Europe. 14th CENTURY In the course of the rapid
expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages, more and more merchants dealt in the commodity called paper. Gods Hand
However the greatest change in the demand for paper came when Johann Gutenburg perfected movable type and printed his famous Bible in 1456.
19th & 20th CENTURIES The history of the paper production in the 19th and 20th centuries can be broken down into
five partly overlapping periods, each marked by definite trends. First Stage (approx. 1800 to 1860)
all work sequences previously performed by hand were mechanized Second Stage (approx.1840 to 1880) efforts were made to obtain rag substitutes on an industrial scale
Third Stage (approx.1860 to 1950) Marked by the enlargement of the web width, an increase in working speeds, the introduction of electric drive and further improvements to various machine parts.
Fourth Stage (approx.1950 to 1980) Still dependent on the old methods as far as the mechanics were concerned, however this era brought unprecedented changes in papermaking.
Today & the Future The fifth stage leads us into the future. The evolution of new sheet-forming principles and chemical pulp processes are continually being improved.
Paper Making As we know it Today Paper Making - A 3 Step process Identify source of cellulose fibre Produce usable cellulose fibres
Make paper Making Paper The majority of material used in the pulp mill process is Stainless Steel HOWEVER in the PULP BLEACHING process more corrosive resistant
material choices are required Paper Bleaching WHY BLEACH Very simply we like white paper Methods of Bleaching
Chlorine bleaching has given way to three new, often combined, methods: Ozone (O3) Peroxide Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Ozone (O3) and Peroxide
Both are more costly methods than ClO2 and are thus best used in combination with ClO2. Chlorine Dioxide To produce ClO2, Sodium Chlorate must
first be produced This process requires Titanium Reactors and Titanium Piping Integrated ClO2 plants Much of the integrated technology requires Titanium
Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) The closed system of Chlorine Dioxide bleaching, while improving environmental impact, leads to more Chlorides in the system and therefore more potential for corrosion.
ClO2 & Titanium The corrosion resistance of Titanium comes from its thin, but protective, oxide film. Solutions containing chlorides, like those found in Pulp & Paper producing processes, cause severe corrosion to many materials.
Titanium offers unique advantages. ClO2 & Titanium - Benefits Fantastic corrosion resistance. Markedly lower maintenance and operation costs. Can offer further protection for corrosive
external environments. ClO2 & Titanium - Considerations Higher start-up costs Lower maximum operating temperature Titanium Design Criteria
Maximum allowable design temperature for Titanium is 600 F At 500 F allowable stress value is 7,600 psi Recent code case Increase allowable stress value to 8,800 psi at 500 F This is for Gr.2 Titanium only
Fabricating with Titanium Material Availability Ease of Fabrication Maintenance Titanium Availability
Gr. 2 Gr. 7 Gr. 12 Cost attractive Generally available from stock
Because this metal is palladium stabilized, cost & availability can be a problem. However in some cases it is definitely the answer Excellent crevice corrosion resistance More costly than grade 2
Choice of material is always an important decision. Grades of Titanium Choose wisely Even Titanium is not invincible
Titanium Fabrication For the experienced fabricator, forming, machining and welding are not a
problem. Titanium Forming Care must be taken at all times to protect the material surface
from contamination. Titanium Machining Titanium Tubesheet being drilled.
Titanium Welding Welding Titanium is relatively easy. Titanium Welding Processs
PAW - Plasma Arc Welding GTAW - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding
Tube to Tubesheet Welding Titanium Tube Bundle This tube bundle uses Rod Baffles
Dak Bundle 3.jpg Titanium ClO2 Heaters Designers and Material Engineers can be confident
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