# Thermal Methods - Pace University

Thermal Methods Its Hot in Here Lets talk Thermal By: Naaimat Muhammed Introduction

A general accepted definition of thermal analysis is a group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance and/or its reaction products is measured as a function of temperature while the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature program. We will confine to three of the methods, which provide primarily chemical rather than

physical information about samples of matter. Three Methods 1. Thermogravimetry (TG) 2. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) 3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

Thermogravimetric Methods In thermo gravimetric analysis, the mass of a sample in a controlled atmosphere is recorded continuously as a function of temperature or time as the temperature of the sample is increased (usually linear with time). Thermogravimetry is the measurement of the

mass of a sample as the temperature increases. This method is useful for determining sample purity and water, carbonate, and organic content; and for studying decomposition reactions. Differential Thermal

Analysis (DTA) Differential thermal analysis is the measurement of the difference in temperature between a sample and a reference as heat is applied to the system.

This method is sensitive to endothermic and exothermic processes including: 1. phase transitions 2. Dehydration 3. decomposition 4. Redox 5. solid-state reactions

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Differential scanning calorimetry independently measures the rate of heat flow to a sample and a standard that are at the same temperature. Data is taken by monitoring the differential

heat flow as a function of temperature. DSC is useful to make the same measurements as DTA and has the added capability to measure heat capacities. Instrumentation Sensitive analytical balance

Furnace Purge gas system (for providing an inert atmosphere) Microcomputer/microprocessor (for instrument control and data acquisition and display). Thermal gravimetric

Furnace Example of TGA using Weightloss vs. Time Power vs. Temperature Heat content vs.

Temperature References 1. http://www.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/ crossref/ac-thermal.html 2. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Skoog, Holler, Nieman; Saunders College Pub. 5th Edition

(1998) 3. http://www.ptli.com/testlopedia/s ubs/TGA-result.htm

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