Theories of Revolution

Theories of Revolution

Theories of Revolution PSCI 3062 Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto Hegelian Dialectic for the economic and social development 1.Primitive Communism 2.Slave Society 3.Feudal Society 4.Capitalism

5.Socialism 6.Communism (The state will wither away) Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto All conflict arises from the class-based struggle to own the means of production. The Bourgeosie would never give up their privileged place as owners of the means of production. Therefore, a revolution followed by a dictatorship of the proletariat will

inevitably occur in the most industrialized societies. Barrington Moore The Classical Historical Model 1. Population Explosion and Technological Revolution c. 1700 2. Increase Commercial and Modern Industrial Activity c. 1760 3. Urbanization c. 1775 4. Emergence of a Middle Class c. 1789: With Accompanying

Ideas of: Liberalism, Nationalism and Democracy 5. Emergence of a Working Class (Proletariat) c. 1825: With Accompanying Ideas of Socialism 6. A restoration of the elites will create a revolution from the top down and will lead to Fascism. "Anatomy of Revolution" by Crane Brinton Crane Brinton's famous work entitled "Anatomy of Revolution" published in 1965, is comparative history of the English, American, French and Russian revolutions. Crane looks at the

similarities and differences between these revolutions in order to come up with what he titles "The Anatomy of Revolution." The following is a summary of Crane's Anatomy. Crane Brinton Anatomy of Revolution Uniformities of Revolution Condition 1 Economy: Societies become prosperous economically before revolution. Condition 2 Social Class: People of all social classes feel restless and held down by restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government. People are hopeful about

the future, but they are forced to accept less than they believe they are due. There is a growing bitterness between social classes and the classes closest to one another are the most hostile. Condition 3 Intellectuals: Scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates and transfer their allegiance to a revolutionary group. Condition 4 - The government does not respond to the needs of its society. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly. Condition 5 Ruling Class The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.

Crane Brinton Anatomy of Revolution Stages of Revolution 1. Moderates Come to Power 2. Radicalization of the Revolution Radicals to Power 3. Crisis Period/Reign of Terror 4. Thermidor Moderates back in power 5. Subversion of Revolution to Right Wing Authoritarian Figure (Meisel Addendum)

Chalmers Johnson Revolutionary Change Categories of Revolutionary Theories 1. Actor-oriented Theories 2. Structural Theories 3. Conjunction Theories 4. Process Theories Chalmers Johnson Revolutionary Change

Multiple Dysfunction + Intransigent Elite + X Factor = Revolution Mitigating Factor: Structural Conduciveness Chalmers Johnson Revolutionary Change Types of Revolutions 1. Jacquerie spontaneous uprising of the Masses 2. Millenarian Elite leading the masses (Unusual of

inspirational leader) 3. Jacobin Elite leading masses (ideological elite) 4. Anarchist Elites leading masses without direction, ideology or replacement of the social system 5. Coup detat One Elite minority replacing another 6. Militarized mass insurrection - Elites arming the masses but dont provide direction James DeFronzo Revolutionary Movements Sufficient Conditions for Revolution

1. Mass Frustration in Society 2. Dissident Elite 3. Unifying Motivation 4. Severe Political Crisis 5. Permissive or Tolerant World Context Ted Gurr Why Men Rebel RD Relative Deprivation 1.Turmoil Mass RD 2.Conspiracy Mass RD + Elite RD

3.Revolutionary War Charles Tilly Europe in Revolutions: 1492-1992 1. Revolutionary Situations Environment/Structure Weak states are more likely to enter these situation Two or more groups compete for control of the state State is unwilling or unable to suppress alternative coalitions 2. Revolutionary Outcomes

Elites defect Neutralization of the armed forces Theda Skocpol States and Social Revolutions Social Revolutions vs. political rebellions

Social Revolutions have both national and international impact. Structural forces create revolutionary situations. Social revolutions (a change in both state institutions and social structures) are carried out by purposive action by class-based revolts from below. Two variables are sufficient to create a Revolutionary Situation (Part I): 1. A Crisis of State which creates a challenge the state cannot meet leading to elites (and/or the army) becoming divided 2. Patterns of class dominance determine which group will rise up to exploit the revolutionary situation and lead it.

Theda Skocpol States and Social Revolutions Revolutionary Outcomes (Part II) are shaped by: 1. The obstacles and opportunities from Part I 2. The socioeconomic and international constraints affect how the revolutionary regime will establish itself. France liberal capitalism Russia socialist dictatorship China mass mobilizing party-state

Che Guevara & Gabriel Bonet Guerrilla Foco Theory Partisan Warfare (war against your enemy) + Psychological Warfare (War against your friends) = Equals Revolutionary Warfare Che believes the corruption of capitalism causes the conditions (ie Multiple Dysfunction) for revolution exist everywhere. Therefore in a guerrilla foco, a revolution can be created anywhere.

The Hard Lessons of Insurgency Guerrilla Small War The War of the Flea Clausewitz - War is just a continuation of politics Jomini Destruction of the enemys forces which will decide the outcome of the war

The Hard Lessons of Insurgency Maos Peoples War Maos 3 Stages Gain the support of the people Guerrilla campaign Defeat the Govt. forces in a conventional battle We are the fish and the People are the sea

The Hard Lessons of Insurgency Direct Coin Jominian A War is a war is a war Indirect Coin Clauswitzian Separate the fish from the Sea WHAM Where is the center of gravity?

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