Theories of personality development. - KSU Faculty
.Theories of personality development Psychoanalytical Theories: 1 Psychosexual psychosocial JEAN PIAGET AND COGNITIVE: 2 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Interpersonal Theories: 3 Harry Sullivan HILDEGARD PEPLAU Humanistic Theories: 4 Abraham Maslow .Carl Rogers Behavioral Theories: 5 Ivan Pavlov Skinner
Existential Theories: 6 Theories of personality development ,Many theories attempt to explain human behavior health, and mental illness. Each theory suggests how normal development occurs based on the theorists beliefs, assumptions, and view of the world. These theories suggest strategies that the clinician can use to work with clients. Many of the theories discussed in this chapter were not based on empirical or research evidence; rather, they evolved from individual experiences and might more appropriately be called .conceptual models or frameworks Psychoanalytical Theories: 1
Psychosexual Theories of :SIGMUND FREUD THE FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Sigmund Freud (18561939) developed psychoanalytic theory in the late 19th and early 20th .centuries in Vienna, where he spent most of his life Several other noted psychoanalysts and theorists have contributed to this body of knowledge, but Freud is its undisputed founder. Many clinicians and theorists did not agree with much of Freuds psychoanalytic theory and later developed their own theories .and styles of treatment : Personality Components .Id, Ego, and Superego Freud conceptualized personality structure as having
three components: id, ego, and superego. The id is the part of ones nature that reflects basic or innate desires ,such as pleasure-seeking behavior, aggression ;and sexual impulses. The id seeks instant gratification causes impulsive, unthinking behavior; and has no regard for rules or social convention. The superego is the part of a persons nature that reflects moral and ethical concepts, values, and parental and social expectations; therefore, it is in direct opposition to the id. The third component, the ego, is the balancing or mediating force between the id and the superego. The ego represents mature and adaptive behavior that allows .a person to function successfully in the world Freud believed that anxiety resulted from the egos attempts to balance the impulsive instincts of the id with the stringent rules of the superego. The accompanying
drawing demonstrates the relationship of .these personality structures Five Stages of Psychosexual Development Freuds based his theory of childhood development on the belief that sexual energy, termed libido, was the driving force of human behavior. He proposed that children :progress through five stages of psychosexual development oral (birth to 18 months), 2): anal (18 to 36 months)3): phallic /oedipal (3 ):1 to5 years), 4): latency (5 to 11 or3) . years), 5): and genital (12-18 years) 13 Psychopathology results when a person has difficulty making the transition from one stage to the next, or when a person remains stalled at a particular stage or regresses to an earlier stage. Freuds open ,discussion of sexual impulses, particularly in children
was considered shocking for his time ERIKSONS STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Erik Erikson (19021994) was a German-born psychoanalyst who extended Freuds work on personality development across the life span while focusing on social development as well as psychological development in the life stages Trust vs. mistrust (infant) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (toddler) Initiative vs. guilt )preschool( Industry vs. inferiority )school age( Identity vs. role confusion )adolescence(
Intimacy vs. isolation )young adult( Generativity vs. stagnation )middle adult( Ego integrity vs. despair )maturity( Viewing the world as safe and reliable; relationships as : 1 nurturing, stable, and dependable Achieving a sense of control and free will: 2 Beginning development of a conscience; learning to manage : 3 conflict and anxiety Emerging confidence in own abilities; taking pleasure in : 4 Accomplishments Formulating a sense of self and belonging: 5 Forming adult, loving relationships and meaningful attachments to others : 6
Being creative and productive; establishing the next generation : 7 Accepting responsibility for ones self and life : 8 JEAN PIAGET AND COGNITIVE: 2 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Jean Piaget (18961980) explored how intelligence and cognitive functioning developed in children. He believed that human intelligence progresses through a series of stages based on age with the child at each successive stage demonstrating a higher level of functioning than at previous stages. In his schema, Piaget strongly believed that biologic changes and maturation .were responsible for cognitive development
Piagets four stages of cognitive development are :as follows Sensorimotorbirth to 2 years: The child. 1 develops a sense of self as separate from the ;environment and the concept of object permanence that is, tangible objects dont cease to exist just because they are out of sight. He .or she begins to form mental images Preoperational2 to 6 years: The child develops. 2 ,the ability to express self with language ,understands the meaning of symbolic gestures .and begins to classify objects Concrete operations6 to 12 years: The. 3 child begins to apply logic to thinking, understands
spatiality and reversibility, and is ;increasingly social and able to apply rules .however, thinking is still concrete :Formal operations12 to 15 years and beyond. 4 The child learns to think and reason in abstract terms, further develops logical thinking and reasoning, and achieves cognitive .maturity Interpersonal Theories: 3 HARRY STACK SULLIVAN: INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND MILIEU THERAPY Harry Stack Sullivan (18921949) was an American psychiatrist who extended the theory of personality development to include the significance of interpersonal relationships. Sullivan believed that
,ones personality involved more than individual characteristics particularly how one interacted with others. He thought that inadequate or nonsatisfying relationships produced anxiety, which he saw as the .basis for all emotional problems (Sullivan, 1953) . Five Life Stages Sullivan established five life stages of development (infancy, childhood, juvenile, ,preadolescence and adolescence), each focusing on various interpersonal relationships HILDEGARD PEPLAU: THERAPEUTIC NURSEPATIENT RELATIONSHIP Hildegard Peplau (19091999) was a nursing theorist and clinician who built on Sullivans
interpersonal theories and also saw the role of the nurse as a participant observer. Peplau developed the concept of the therapeutic nursepatient -relationship :It includes four phases ,orientation, identification .exploitation, and resolution During these phases, the client accomplishes certain tasks and the relationship changes that help the healing .process (Peplau, 1952) The orientation phase is directed by the. 1 nurse and involves engaging the client in ,treatment, providing explanations and information .and answering questions
The identification phase begins when the. 2 ,client works interdependently with the nurse .expresses feelings, and begins to feel stronger In the exploitation phase, the client makes. 3 .full use of the services offered In the resolution phase, the client no longer. 4 needs professional services and gives up .dependent behavior. The relationship ends ,Peplaus concept of the nurseclient relationship with tasks and behaviors characteristic of each stage, has been modified but remains in use today Humanistic Theories: 4 Humanism represents a significant shift away from ,the psychoanalytic view of the individual as a neurotic impulse-driven person with repressed psychic
problems and away from the focus on and examination of the clients past experiences. Humanism focuses on a persons positive qualities, his or her capacity to change (human potential), and the promotion of self-esteem. Humanists do consider the persons past experiences, but they direct more attention .toward the present and future Abraham Maslow (19211970) was an American psychologist who studied the needs or motivations of the individual CARL ROGERS: CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY Carl Rogers (19021987) was a humanistic American psychologist who focused on the therapeutic relationship and developed a new method of client centered
therapy. Rogers was one of the first to use the term client rather than patient. Client-centered therapy focused on the role of the client, rather than . the therapist, as the key to the healing process Rogers viewed the client as the expert on his or her life. The therapist must promote the clients self esteem as much as possible through three central :concepts Unconditional positive regarda nonjudgmental caring for the client that is not dependent on the clients behavior Genuinenessrealness or congruence between what the therapist feels and what he or she says to the client Empathetic understandingin which the
therapist senses the feelings and personal meaning from the client and communicates this understanding to the client Behavioral Theories: 5 Behaviorism as a school of psychology grew out of A reaction to introspection models that focused on the contents and operations of the mind. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors and what one can do externally to bring about behavior changes. It does not attempt to explain how .the mind works IVAN PAVLOV: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Laboratory experiments with dogs provided the basis for the development of Ivan Pavlovs theory of classical conditioning: behavior can be changed through conditioning with external or environmental conditions or stimuli. His experiment with dogs involved his observation that dogs naturally began to salivate .when they saw or smelled food (stimulus)) response( Pavlov (18491936) set out to change this salivating response or behavior through conditioning. He would ring a bell (new stimulus) then produce the food, and the dogs would salivate (the desired response). Pavlov repeated this ringing of the bell along with the presentation of food many times. Eventually he could ring the bell and the dogs would salivate without seeing or smelling food. The dogs had been conditioned or had learned a new responseto salivate when
they heard the bell. Their behavior had been modified through classical conditioning or a conditioned .response SKINNER: OPERANT CONDITIONING .One of the most influential behaviorists was B. F Skinner (19041990), an American psychologist. He ,developed the theory of operant conditioning which says people learn their behavior from their history or past experiences, particularly those experiences .that were repeatedly reinforced The following principles of operant conditioning described by Skinner (1974) form the basis for behavior :techniques in use today .All behavior is learned. 1
Consequences result from behavior. 2 broadly speaking, reward and punishment Behavior that is rewarded with reinforcers. 3 .tends to recur Positive reinforcers that follow a behavior. 4 increase the likelihood that the behavior .will recur Negative reinforcers that are removed after. 5 a behavior increase the likelihood that the .behavior will recur Continuous reinforcement (a reward every. 6 time the behavior occurs) is the fastest way to increase that behavior, but the behavior .will not last long after the reward ceases Random, intermittent reinforcement (an occasional. 7
reward for the desired behavior) is ,slower to produce an increase in behavior but the behavior continues after the reward .ceases These behavioral principles of rewarding or reinforcing behaviors are used to help people change .their behavior in a therapy known as behavior modification Behavior modification is a method of attempting to strengthen a desired behavior or response .by reinforcement, either positive or negative ,For example, if the desired behavior is assertiveness whenever the client uses assertiveness skills in a communication group, the group leader provides positive reinforcement by giving the client attention and positive feedback. Negative reinforcement
involves removing a stimulus immediately after a behavior occurs so that the behavior is more likely to occur again. For example, if a client becomes anxious when waiting to talk in a group, he or she may volunteer .to speak first to avoid the anxiety Existential Theories: 6 Existential theorists believe that behavioral deviations result when a person is out of touch with himself or herself or the environment. The person who is self alienated is lonely and sad and feels helpless. Lack of self-awareness, coupled with harsh self-criticism, prevents .the person from participating in satisfying relationships The person is not free to choose from all .possible alternatives because of self-imposed restrictions Existential theorists believe that the person is
avoiding personal responsibility and giving in to the .wishes or demands of others Albert EllisCarl RogerWilliam Glasser
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