Theories and Concepts of Motivation

Theories and Concepts of Motivation

Theories and Concepts of Motivation John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation) Biological Theories:

1. Instinct--inborn, unlearned behaviors universal to species explain motivation Drive-Reduction--internal tensions push toward satisfying basic needs Arousal--motivated toward optimal level of arousal

2. 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Drive-Reduction Theory John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Hunger and the Brain Hypothalamus lateral hypothalamus initiation of hunger and eating ventromedial hypothalamus cessation of hunger and eating Neurotransmitters Obesity and Eating Behavior

Psychological Factors In the past, the focus was on emotional state external food cues Current research is focusing on time and place cues sugar and fat content Disordered Eating Anorexia Nervosa relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation

more common among females main characteristics less than 85% of normal weight unsupported fear of gaining weight distorted body image amenorrhea medical dangers and mortality Disordered Eating Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia

sociocultural media images family interactions biological genetics serotonin regulation neurological effects of dieting, binging, purging Arousal Theory

People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major

Theories of Motivation Cont.) Psychosocial Theories: 1. Incentive--motivation results from the pull of external environmental stimuli 2. Cognitive--motivation affected by attributions

and expectations John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation organismic needs + enjoyability key to achievement Extrinsic Motivation incentives (rewards, punishments)

Does extrinsic motivation undermine intrinsic motivation? Self-Determination Theory Three Basic Organismic Needs 1. competence self-efficacy, mastery, expectations for success

2. relatedness warm relations with others, need to belong 3. autonomy independence and self-reliance Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major

Theories of Motivation Cont.) Biopsychosocial Theory: 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: interaction of biological, psychological, and social needs; lower motives (physiological and safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, selfesteem)

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social Motivation: Why make friends? Evolutionary Psychology: Using Darwinian principles to explain human nature.

Being nice, making friends must have offered some fitness advantage for our ancestors Evolution of niceness: Kin selection: being nice to those with similar genetics John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Kin selection

There are a number of examples of what appear to be altruistic behaviors among animals. Most are explainable as examples of kin selection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Reciprocity: You scratch my back Ill scratch yours Non related individuals

sometimes engage in reciprocal arrangements, vampire bats share blood, chimps groom for food John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Indirect reciprocity: being nice to the nice

Some animals are sensitive to reputation and restrict reciprocal interactions to only those who have a history of playing fair John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) So why are humans friendly to each other? Kin bias Reciprocal arrangements Reputational rewards

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Human Mate Attraction Using an evolutionary approach to explain why we are attracted to certain traits in members of the opposite sex. Operates at level of gut attractions, not conscious evaluation Identifies what types of attractions in members of

opposite sex would have enhanced reproductive success in our ancestral past. Argues that problems of optimizing reproductive success would have been different for males and females, and thus would have lead to somewhat different reproductive strategies and attractions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Thomas Aquinas on Marriage We observe that in those animals, dogs for

instance, in which the female herself suffices for the rearing of the offspring, the male and female stay no time together after the sexual act. But in animals in which the female herself does not suffice for the rearing of the offspring, male and female dwell together after the sexual act so long as is necessary for the rearing and training of the offspring. This appears in birds whose young are incapable of their own food after they are hatchedHence, whereas it is necessary in all animals for the male to stand by the female for such a time as the fathers

concurrence is requisite for bringing up the progeny, it is natural for man to be tied toone woman for a long period(SCG B3 Q122). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Challenges to reproductive success: Males vs. Females Advantages of being male: Cheap sperm: relatively low parental investment cost Disadvantage:

low paternity certainty Advantage of being female: High maternity certainty Disadvantage: costly eggs: relatively high parental investment John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Buss: Global study on mate attraction Over 10,000 subjects from over 30 countries across the globe.

Female attractions: decrease parental investment by getting good genes and copious resources Male long-term mate attractions: increase paternity certainty, while maximizing reproductive output John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Long-term mates desire for youth

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Beauty John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Chastity

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Long-term mates Summary 1. Youth/Beauty: increase reproductive value in single mate 2. Chastity/youth: increasing paternity certainty in offspring to be resourced

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved female attractions: Long-term mates Age John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved female attractions: long-term mates Financial Prospects

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Female attractions: Long-term mates Good genes John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Female attractions: Long-term mates

Good genes John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Female evolved attractions: summary 1. Older mate/good financial prospects: status, stability, resources 2. Cues of masculinity: good genes

3. interaction with ovulatory cycle: evidence for cuckoldry strategy? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Human mate attraction: Long term mates Males: young, beautiful, sexually modest Reproductive value; paternity certainty

Females: older, high-status (or potential), robust Good genetics, stable secure source of resources. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cross-cultural signally John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Risks of step-parenting. Note: Violent step parents represent less than 1% of step families John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Darwinian strategy to happy marriage For females: Men want paternity certainty, so avoid all jealousy-arousing behavior (dont even look at other men).

Also, take good care of his genes (offspring). For males: Women want resources. All the money is hers. Avoid spending money in any way she dislikes. For both: Both want health (good genes, fertility, etc.) Take care of yourselves. Have some kids lower divorce rate among couples with kids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Catholic Health Care: Maintaining Identity & Integrity in ...

    Catholic Health Care: Maintaining Identity & Integrity in ...

    Help you gain awareness of how you tend to think about ethical issues and why you tend to think that way.. Improve your capacity to understand the perspectives of others and articulate strong and relevant support for your views.. Deepen...
  • The CompTIA Solution

    The CompTIA Solution

    The Voice of the World's IT Industry and over 2 million IT Professionals. Higher Salaries. Growing Demand. Verified Strengths. Universal Skills "Three of the 'Top 10 Certifications That Help IT Workers Get Jobs' are CompTIA certifications."* CERTIFICATIONS. Largest Provider of...
  • Mechanics of Materials(ME-294)

    Mechanics of Materials(ME-294)

    A 3 mm thick aluminum sheet is cut with a 4 cm diameter round punch. If the punch exerts a force of 6 kN, what is the shear stress in the sheet? Solution: The punch will create a round slug,...
  • Evaporation

    Evaporation

    Eelc supplied = Q absorbed. VIt = mLv +Hlost. Challenge: One student puts his hand in a pot of boiling water at 100oC, a second places her hand into a container containing steam at 100oC. Who gets the worse burn?...
  • Simple Tenses - Moore Public Schools

    Simple Tenses - Moore Public Schools

    Simple Tenses Progressive Tenses Tense a verb form that shows the time of an action or condition 3 Simple Tenses present tense past tense future tense Present action or condition that occurs now Beth laughs loudly. She is loud. Past...
  • Présentation PowerPoint

    Présentation PowerPoint

    En 1676, Louis XIV fait abattre l'enceinte de Paris que son père avait fait édifier et demande que le cours entre la Porte St-Honoré et celle de Richelieu soit agrémenté d'une double allée de peupliers. Ce cours devient un lieu...
  •  Friday, 10/19/18 AIM: To what extent was the

    Friday, 10/19/18 AIM: To what extent was the

    Monday, October 22, 2018. AIM: To what extent was the Haitian Revolution an effect of the French Revolution?. DO NOW:. Please take today's classwork from . Mrs.Newman's. desk. Please take out your agenda/planner, pen/pencil, binder, and Friday's worksheet about Haiti.
  • Changing world of work and impact on skills

    Changing world of work and impact on skills

    Servicificationof GSCs. Exporting firms tend to be larger, more productive and employ higher skilled labour. Skills are key for both quantity and quality of export growth and to economic diversification. Skills play a role of a buffer helping to reduce...