The Word Class Book

The Word Class Book

Punctuation marks help make meaning clear in The written texts. punctuation book Sue Palmer Punctuation marks help make meaning clear in written texts. They show the reader: * * where one chunk of meaning ends and another begins where to pause or change tone when reading aloud. full stop shows the end

of a statement A sentence * starts with a capital letter * ends with a . * makes complete sense. question mark shows the end of a question ? See also The Sentence Book The Complex Sentence Book Previous slide Three punctuation marks can show the end of a sentence. ! exclamation mark shows

* raised voice * strong feelings * an exclamation The comma , separating off an introductory chunk separating the items in a list Within a Anyway, I decided sentence a comma I bought eggs, a pint of not to go. shows where one milk, tea and sugar. Three weeks later, chunk of meaning James was born. Although she was only ends and three, Gemma knew separating the another begins

her tables. direct speech from The introductory chunk could be a reporting clause a word, a phrase or a subordinate clause. If you remove it, the main clause would still make sense. See explanation on direct speech page. separating off tag phrases and names This is great, isnt it? How old are you, John? marking off extra information embedded in the sentence See also comma splice. Jill, my boss, is 28 years old.

Dash A dash gives a break halfway between , and . showing a sharp break between two chunks of meaning Both these chunks are main clauses. A comma cannot separate two main clauses. e.g. It was great to see you _ we must meet again. marking off extra information embedded in the sentence The dash is a feature of informal writing, which echoes speech patterns. For the formal equivalent, see semicolon. Previous slide e.g. On Monday the first day of our holidays we explored the beach. Parentheses ( )

Parentheses show information which is extra to the main text marking off extra information embedded in the sentence e.g. On Monday (the first day of our holidays) we explored the beach. marking off extra facts like dates or dimensions e.g. Elizabeth I (1553 1603) Mount Everest (8850 m) Commas and dashes can also enclose parenthetic information. Semicolon ; A semi-colon gives a break halfway between , and . to separate two main clauses e.g. It was a great pleasure to meet you yesterday; I hope we meet again soon. The semicolon here is like a formal version of the dash.

Previous slide to separate lengthy items in a list e.g. I surveyed John Street: small, redbrick houses; an ancient church; three brand new Bungalows; and a Victorian town house, gone to seed. Colon : A colon marks a break where there is a feeling of balance between the elements on either side: to introduce a list, an example or a quotation e.g. I surveyed John Street: small, redbrick houses; an ancient church; three brand new bungalows, and a Victorian town house, gone to seed. e.g. I love the first lines of Jabberwocky: Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe Previous slide

Direct Speech comma before the speech marks *Each new speaker on a new line. *Speech marks ( ) round the direct speech. *Comma between direct speech and reporting clause *unless theres a ? or ! *Direct speech begins with a capital letter *unless a sentence is interrupted by the reporting clause. See also The Sentence Book, pages 8 9. Previous slide I , said

Its late, Cinderella. , Ysmiled and The prince answered, Yes, but we have all the time in the W ? world. I What time is it? asked Cinders. I must leave I , before midnight. , y go, said the I you must If prince, youd better ! Its 5 to 12.

O hurry. Oh no! cried Cinders. Speech marks to mark the words in direct speech Hello, said the cat. to show that a word is being used ironically or oddly Speech marks are also called quotation marks and may be used There were many experts in the audience. to show

a quotation Wordsworth wrote about an inward eye. to show when you are talking about a word or phrase The word exit is the Latin for he goes out. Hyphen A hyphen links words or parts of words e.g. when a word is split between two lines of print when they are put together to make a new word e.g. mother-in-law Irish-American co-operation The hyphen differs from the dash in that you do not leave a space between the words and

the hyphen it is half as long. Ellipsis an ellipsis is three dots to show that a sentence is unfinished e.g. to show that a sentence is to show that words have been left out of a quotation e.g. The hyphen differs from the dash in that it is half as long. he t of e s ma u s m Mi Co

The comma splice a comma Rule of thumb: Gemma was worn out, she curled up on the ground and went to sleep. splice Rule: A comma cannot be used to separate two use main clauses. If you could substitute a full stop, a comma is probably wrong. You could alternative punctuation: Gemma was Gemma was Gemma was worn out. She worn out-she worn out; she curled up on thecurled up on thecurled up on the ground and

ground and ground and went to sleep. went to sleep. went to sleep. (see Sentence) (see Dash) (see Semicolon) you could add a comma and a conjunction, e.g. Gemma was worn out, so she curled up on the ground and went to sleep. Previous slide omission The Apostrophe possession s shows ownership In shortened forms the girls coat the childrens of words, the home apostrophe shows the coat belonging the home belonging

to the girl where letters have to the children been left out. If the owner-noun is a plural ending in s, just add cannotshould haveyou are cant shouldve youre it is its I will Ill does not doesnt the girls coats the princesses hats the coats the hats belonging to belonging to the girls the princesses

Other devices for helping make written language easy to read and understand: the use of space * e.g. paragraphing * organizational devices e.g. bullet points * presentational devices e.g. italic print, bold print, underlining, enlarged print, CAPITAL LETTERS. Skeleton Poster Books for GRAMMAR The End End Show

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