1830-1900 The Victorian Period The Victorian Period Certain times in history have names to represent the era 1830-1900
is know as the Victorian Period in Britain Queen Victoria reigned during this time 1832-1901 a very long reign Queen Victoria
Changes During the Victorian Period many great changes occurred England became the wealthiest nation The British Empire expanded rapidly Industrial revolution Political and social reform Intellectual progress BUT, not all changes were considered progress.
A time of contrasts Words that characterize the time Progress Reform Decorum and Etiquette Doubt Empire
and Colonialism Progress The middle class saw history as a progress Progress that was material improvement could be seen, touched, counted and measured
The history of England is emphatically the history of progress Thomas Macaulay Progress Industrial Revolution Created new towns, goods, wealth, jobs for
people climbing through middle class all tactile examples of progress Social & economic changes expressed in gradual political reforms Ie. Voting laws were changed to identify who could vote Ie. Education laws were changed to identify who could go to school Ie. Work laws were changed to identify who could/could not work; appropriate wages and hours, etc.
The Industrial Revolution Progress Much intellectual progress occurred at this time as well. Many great thinkers made
developments. Charles Darwin Adam Smith Matthew Arnold Etc. Reform Voting Reform First Reform Bill in 1832 extended vote to all men
who owned property worth 10 pounds Second Reform Act in 1867 gave the right to vote to working-class men (except agricultural workers) Women for suffrage did not succeed until 1918 (30 & over) Universal adult suffrage 1928 extended vote to
women at age 21 Reform Factory labor State Acts limited child & women
supported schools est. in 1870 Literacy rate increased from 40% to 90% from 1840-1900. Decorum and Etiquette In addition to progressing materially, many Victorians saw themselves as
progressing morally and intellectually. Decorum: appropriateness of behaviour or conduct Etiquette: conventional requirements as to social behavior
Decorum and Etiquette Decorum and Etiquette Victorian Decorum The belief that life would be improved if it became more refined, rationally organized, better policed and safer.
Victorian Etiquette: A set of rules for society that were to be strictly followed. Ex. Women were expected to marry and take care of the home. Decorum and Etiquette Paradox
of progress Victorian synonym for prude; extreme repression Examples of Victorian repression Furniture legs had to be concealed under heavy cloth not to be suggestive
Words were altered in books and magazines so as not to offend Information about sexually transmitted diseases was eliminated Censorship of writers: no mention of sex, birth, or death Decorum and Etiquette A womans role Victorian private lives autocratic father figure Women subject to male authority Middle-class women expected to marry & make home a
refuge for husband Women had few occupations open to them Unmarried women often portrayed in comedy by male writers Doubt Writers began to wonder if progress was really occurring.
Influenced by materialism, secularism, vulgarity, and sheer waste that accompanied Victorian progress. Trust in transcendental power (God) gave way to uncertainty and spiritual doubt. Empire and Colonialism
Empire: imperial or imperialistic sovereignty, domination, or control Colonialism: the control of one nation by transplanted people of another nation often a geographically distant nation that has a different culture and dominant
racial or ethnic group. Empire and Colonialism Great Britain continued to expand its empire by acquiring colonies around the world. By the end of the nineteenth century,
nearly one-quarter of the earth's land surface was part of the British Empire, and more than 400 million people were governed from Great Britain, however nominally. Norton Anthology Empire and Colonialism The sun never sets Empire and Colonialism
Cartoon of John Bull as an imperial octopus, 1888 In summary The Victorian age was one of great changes, but also one of severe repression. As a result, many writers turned to
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